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Copyright 1900, 1905, 1919, 1940, 1958 



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The present edition is virtually a new book, with most of the entries re- 
written, radically edited, and greatly expanded. Some 2,300 biographies have 
been added, including not only contemporary figures but also many neglected 
musicians of the past. 

A maximum emphasis has been laid on the abundance of factual data. In 
entries on composers, the titles of major compositions — operas, ballets, symphonic 
works — are given as completely as is practical, with exact dates of first perform- 
ances. In entries on musicologists, most of their published books in various 
languages, and some of their significant articles in the musical press, are listed. 
As to performers, their most signal accomplishments are brought out, with dates 
of their European and American debuts. A similar service is done for outstand- 
ing music teachers, with a list of their educational positions. 

The design of the present edition is a self-contained biographical dictionary 
of musicians. Bibliography is given in ample measure, but the reader is not 
directed to other reference works for essential information. 

I have received invaluable assistance from scholars and librarians in America 
and in Europe during the preparation of this edition, but the actual writing has 
been done by myself, and I must therefore accept full responsibility for the re- 
sulting product. 

A biographical dictionary ought to be a democratic assembly of factual in- 
formation. Great men of music are naturally given preponderance, but the "little 
masters" are also treated with consideration. Bibl, Kittl, Lickl, and Titl, and their 
ilk, are tendered lexicographical hospitality, if not lavish accommodations. 

Authorities have been consulted, but not trusted. In fact, many persistent 
errors find their origin in authoritative works of reference, compiled by illustrious 
lexicographers whose great reputations have for years discouraged independent 

Unfortunately, prime sources of musical biography, the memoirs of the 
subjects themselves, are rarely reliable. Berlioz embellished his life by romantic 
exaggeration, and often abused credulity. Wagner gave a fairly accurate account 
of his life, but he deliberately omitted episodes that are of legitimate interest, 
for instance the fact that he was incarcerated for debt in the Clichy jail in 
Paris from October 28 to November 17, 1840. These dates I have secured from 
the Palais de Justice, Paris. 

Reminiscences by members of the family and intimate friends of famous 
musicians must also be treated with circumspection. In some cases, the censoring 
of certain aspects of a musician's life is unavoidable. The standard biography 


of Tchaikovsky by his brother Modest understandably leaves out the true 
reasons for the failure of his unfortunate marriage. 

Some biographical materials that have been widely circulated are plain 
forgeries. Such are the notorious Chopin-Potocka correspondence (in which 
Chopin appears as a gay Lothario) and the unspeakable edition of Memoir es 
d'une chanteuse allemande, ascribed — most foully — to the famous singer Wil- 
helmine Schroder-Devrient; it still figures in most bibliographies as a source book 
instead of the pornographic fabrication that it is. 

Many cherished legends of musical biography have been removed by recent 
investigations, and I have tried to keep up with the corrective discoveries. 
Sweelinck never went to Venice. Corelli never went to Paris as Lully's rival. 
Stravinsky's Pulcinella contains virtually no themes by Pergolesi (though they 
are attributed to Pergolesi in Stravinsky's sources). Friedrich Witt wrote the 
"Jena" symphony, not Beethoven. PurcelPs trumpet voluntary was composed by 
Jeremiah Clarke. Wagner did not invent the term "Leitmotif;" neither did Hans 
von Wolzogen; it was originated by Friedrich Wilhelm Jahns, in the preface to 
his book on Weber, published in 1871. And, of course, Bizet never composed 
the famous Habanera from Carmen; he transplanted it from a collection of 
Spanish songs by Sebastian Yradier. 

The commonly accepted story of Haydn's Farewell Symphony tells us that 
Haydn staged his musical act in order to induce Prince Esterhazy to grant his 
orchestra a vacation. But a much more plausible explanation is contained in 
a little-known book by an Italian friend of Haydn, Giacomo Gotifredo Ferrari, 
published at London in 1830. According to Ferrari's version, Esterhazy in- 
tended to disband the orchestra and Haydn's Farewell Symphony was a strata- 
gem to move the patron's heart, and to save the orchestra. Obviously, it 

It is usually stated that 20,000 persons attended Beethoven's funeral, and 
the figure is supported by contemporary accounts. But the population of Vienna 
at the time of Beethoven's death was about 320,000, and it is hardly likely 
that one person out of every sixteen, including children, gathered to pay tribute 
to the dead master. I have therefore replaced 20,000 by the non-committal 
"hundreds." On the other hand, the famous account of Beethoven's dying during 
a violent storm has been triumphantly confirmed. I have obtained from the 
Vienna Bureau of Meteorology an official extract from the weather report for 
March 26, 1827, stating that a thunderstorm, accompanied by strong winds, 
raged over the city at 4:00 in the afternoon. 

A certain element of informed guesswork is inevitable in any biography, 
and is justified as long as it is clearly presented as conjecture. Jean Marie 
Leclair, the 18th-century French violinist, was murdered in his own house 


(by stabbing) ; his estranged wife was a professional engraver who owned sharp 
tools; there was no sign of a struggle at the scene of the assassination; ergo . . . 

The pursuit of accurate information has been long and arduous. To begin 
at the beginning, i.e., at birth: musicians, through the centuries, have altered 
their birth dates, invariably in the direction of rejuvenation. The chronicle 
of falsification begins with Johann Jakob Froberger, who gave his date of birth 
to his physician, Nicolaus Binninger, as May 18, 1620. When his baptism certifi- 
cate was discovered, it revealed that he was baptized on May 19, 1616. A 
plausible surmise is that he gave the correct day and month, falsifying only 
the year; it is therefore fairly certain that the day of his birth was May 18, 
and that he was baptized on the following day. 

In his handwritten autobiographical notice for Mattheson's Grundlage einer 
Ehrenpforte, Telemann stated that he was born in 1682, whereas he was actually 
born a year earlier; again, the day and the month of his birth, March 14, were 
given correctly. 

I have obtained hundreds of birth certificates from all over the world to 
establish correct dates. The differences between the professed and actual ages 
have ranged from one to nineteen years. A few exceptions should be noted. 
Mozart's librettist, Emanuel Schikaneder, gave his birth year as 1748, but he 
was actually born in 1751. It is said that he married a woman some years his 
senior and wished to bring their ages closer together. 

Ethel Leginska, pianist and conductor, wrote me to correct her date of 
birth from 1883 to 1886. Her birth certificate confirmed the latter date. 

The famous Brazilian composer Villa-Lobos apparently did not know 
when he was born, for when I told him during a meeting in Paris that he was 
born in 1887, and not in 1881, 1890, or some other year, as variously given in 
reference works, he seemed genuinely surprised. I obtained the 1887 date from 
the registries of the school he attended as a child in Rio de Janeiro. Since then, 
his birth certificate has been discovered, confirming this date. 

In some cases it is possible to arrive at a complete birth date synthetically. 
It is known, for instance, that Jacob Obrecht was born on Saint Cecilia's day, 
November 22, and that he entered the University of Lou vain on August 17, 
1470. The normal age of entrants being between 17 and 18, the year of 
Obrecht's birth can be deduced as 1452, thus providing the full date of birth, 
November 22, 1452. But a similar attempt to establish the birth date of the 
famous Belgian theorist Johannes Tinctoris from the presence of a person of 
that name among the entrants at the University of Louvain in 1471, fails be- 
cause of false identification: Tinctoris was definitely known to be a native of 


Brabant, whereas his Louvain namesake was from Flanders; also, the real 
Tinctoris was already a figure in scholarly circles at the time his namesake 
entered the University. 

Vivaldi's year of birth seems to be hidden forever from the inquiring eye; 
only an approximate date between 1675 and 1678 is offered in his biographies. 
But in an article published in 'Nueva Antologia' of August 1, 1942, Fausto 
Torrefranca makes this tantalizingly cryptic statement: "Se e vera la data che 
ho ripescato in un vecchio repertorio del quale nessuno si e servito, Vivaldi 
sarebbe nato nel 1669, I'll giugno." Nessuno? I have decided to accept this 
date, even without palpable certification, in the hope that further findings will 
confirm it, for exact dates are rarely fabricated whole, and the year 1669 is 
quite compatible with the precisely known dates of Vivaldi's tonsure and ordi- 
nation to the priesthood. 

Cases of mistaken identity complicate the search for birth certificates. The 
bicentennial of Giovanni Battista Viotti was widely celebrated in 1953, but as 
it turned out, the celebration honored Viotti' s infant brother. A Giovanni Battista 
Viotti was indeed born in Fontanetto, Italy, on May 23, 1753, but he died on 
July 10, 1754. On May 12, 1755, another child was born to the Viottis, and 
in memory of their first-born, he was given the same Christian names (a common 
practice in Catholic families) plus two additional names, Guglielmo Domenico. 
This was Giovanni Battista Viotti, the composer. 

Biographical notices for Giacomo Insanguine list his year of birth variously 
between 1712 and 1742. I applied for a copy of his birth certificate at the 
registries in his native town of Monopoli, and received a document stating that 
Giacomo Insanguine was born there in 1712. However, this date did not fit 
into the known chronology of his education and career. I pressed further; the 
registries were searched again, and a death certificate was found showing that 
a Giacomo Insanguine died in 1726 at the age of 14. On March 22, 1728, a boy 
was born to the bereaved parents, and was named Giacomo Antonio Francesco 
Paolo Michele. This was the composer Insanguine. 

The Italian composer and conductor Angelo Mariani, who was born on 
October 11, 1821, insisted in his communications to Francesco Regli, editor of a 
biographical dictionary, that he was born on October 11, 1824, and that he had 
an elder brother of the same name born exactly three years earlier, which led to 
mistaken identification. Mariani's birth certificate proves, however, that he 
was born in 1821. 

A famous case of claimed mistaken identity is that of Beethoven, who was 
eager to prove that he was born in 1772 rather than 1770, and that it was 
another Ludwig van Beethoven who was born at an earlier date. True, a Ludwig 


Maria van Beethoven was born on April 1, 1769, but he died a few days later. 
Beethoven was born in the following year. 

The true date of birth of Caruso will never be known with certainty; upon 
inquiry, I have received from the Demographic Office in Naples 13 birth cer- 
tificates for 13 Enrico Carusos, all born about the time that Caruso was born, 
but none matching the known names of his parents. The chances are that the 
birth of Caruso, who was one of 18 children, was never registered. 

Discrepancies of a few days in dates of birth are very common, owing to 
the substitution of the date of baptism for that of birth. Oddly enough, such 
errors occur even when the actual date of birth is included specifically in the 
baptism certificate. For over three centuries the date of birth of Lully was 
readily ascertainable, since his registry of baptism, indicating his birth on the day 
before, was preserved in the state archives in Florence. Yet it is the date of Lully' s 
baptism, and not that of his birth, that is given in most reference works. Unless 
a prior claim is made, I was the first to obtain the text of the baptism certificate 
of Lully, and to establish his correct birth date, November 28, 1632. 

It has been repeatedly stated in various writings on Mahler that he was 
not sure of his exact date of birth, and that his birth certificate was lost. Yet 
a simple request addressed to the archivist of the municipality of Kalischt, where 
Mahler was born, brought me a copy of his birth certificate confirming the 
generally accepted date, July 7, 1860. His centennial will thus be celebrated 
with the perfect assurance that the date is right. 

Several reference works state that the birth of Sigismond Thalberg was 
never registered, and that a search in the archives of Geneva, where he was 
born, proved unavailing. Yet I have obtained the supposedly lost birth certificate 
without any difficulty, establishing his birth date as January 8, 1812. Inquiring 
still further, I learned to my disappointment that I was not the first to discover 
the supposedly lost document; its text was published in a musical magazine 
early in the 20th century, with the purpose of refuting the claim of loss. But 
there was more to the Thalberg case than the mere matter of his birth date. 
He openly asserted that he was the natural son of Count Moritz Dietrichstein 
and Baroness von Wetzlar. Yet the birth certificate states unambiguously that his 
parents were Joseph Thalberg and Fortunee Stein, both of Frankfurt. The 
certificate also indicates that both parents were married, but it does not state 
clearly whether they were married to each other. At this point, my investiga- 
tion had to stop. 

There is a fair percentage of illegitimate births among musicians. One 
famous Italian singer, Lucrezia Agujari, was known as La Bastardella; unless 
the name under which she was registered at birth is ascertained, there is no 
hope of obtaining her birth certificate. Delicacy compels me not to mark the 


established illegitimacy of musicians of more recent date. 

When birth certificates cannot be secured, the next best sources of informa- 
tion are registries of birth in family Bibles, marriage certificates, school reports, 
and the like. The date of birth of Kaspar Othmayr, March 12, 1515, is verified 
by his astrological chart, and one may be sure that he gave the right date to 
his astrologer. 

Death dates are often listed a day late, owing to the delay in announcement, 
or to a difference in time zones. Arnold Schoenberg's death is given as July 
14, 1951 in most European sources, whereas he died on July 13, in Los Angeles. 
The date is particularly significant since Schoenberg (who was born on the 13th 
of the month) held a superstitious belief that 13 was his unlucky number. He 
was genuinely perturbed when he was told by a friend that the sum of the 
digits of his age (76) during the last year of his life was 13. According to an 
intimate account, he died 13 minutes before midnight, Los Angeles time, which 
of course was early morning July 14, in the Eastern states and in Europe. 

Conversely, European deaths are occasionally reported in America as having 
occurred on the preceding date according to local American time. For some 
reason, the date of Prokofiev's death was generally reported in the West as 
having taken place on March 4, 1953, although he died on March 5, 1953, at 
6:00 in the afternoon, Moscow time, which was also March 5 in Western 
Europe and America. 

Melba died in Sydney in the early morning, on February 23, 1931, Australian 
time, but her death was announced in New York papers that were on the streets 
on February 22. This was, of course, due to the day's advance of Australian time 
over American time. 

A number of musicians, including celebrities, have disappeared without 
leaving a trace. It was only in the 20th century that Vivaldi's place of death 
was finally traced to Vienna. Bononcini, the rival of Handel, also went to Vienna 
to die, but this was not discovered until very recently. I believe that the 
present edition is the first musical dictionary to contain this information and the 
exact date of Bononcini's death. 

In order to ascertain the fate of musicians who were lost during the 
cataclysm of World War II and the European revolutions preceding and 
following it, I resorted to advertising in the German press and in the Russian 
emigre newspapers. I received a number of replies from relatives and friends 
of the subjects, and was able to establish the death dates of several former 
luminaries on the musical scene, among them Count Sheremetiev, a musical 
Maecenas in old St. Petersburg, who died in a poorhouse near Paris, and the 


once famous German tenor Paul Kalisch, husband of Lilli Lehmann, who died 
at the age of 90 in an Austrian castle. Then there were the deaths in German 
concentration camps, and in air raids. Several well-known musicians could not 
be accounted for, and probably never will be. 

One of the most fantastic episodes in my hunt for missing persons was the 
search for Heinrich Hammer, conductor and composer, born in Germany in 
1862, and active in Washington, D. C., about the turn of the century. He was 
last reported in Pasadena in the 1920's, but inquiries there failed to provide 
any information. I appealed for help to my favorite librarian at the Music 
Division of the Library of Congress, and he, always a man of instantaneous 
action, placed transcontinental telephone calls (at his own expense!) to various 
contacts in Pasadena, until he reached Hammer's son. This gentleman, an em- 
ployee of the telephone company, happened to be working atop a telephone 
pole at the time, but a connection was established on the road line. The climax 
of the story was spectacular: a clipping from the Los Angeles 'Times' of October 
25, 1953, was produced, carrying on its society page a picture of Heinrich 
Hammer, 91, and his young bride Arlene, 22, whom he had married the year 
before. Their address was given in the story, but when I wrote to him for further 
information on his musical activities, the letter came back marked: "Deceased: 
address unknown." It was relatively easy to find out that he had moved to 
Phoenix, Arizona, where he died on October 28, 1954. 

Some technical aspects of the present edition are enumerated hereunder : 
Inclusion and Exclusion. Although this is technically a dictionary of 
musicians, many other individuals connected with music are included, so that 
the proper title of the book ought to be Baker's Biographical Dictionary of 
Musicians, Librettists, Publishers, Impresarios, and Sundry Other Men, Women, 
and Children Who Have to Do with Music. Diaghilev was not a professional 
musician, but his influence on the course of 20th-century composition was so 
powerful that his name cannot be left out. The same consideration applies to 
patrons of music, some of whom could not read notes, but who have promoted 
music by generous donations. Whenever there was a question about inclusion or 
exclusion, the benefit of the doubt was given to the candidate. 

Proportionate Representation. Theoretically, in a book of reference, the 
amount of space should be proportionate to the importance of the subject. But 
this is not practical. Biographical information is very scant on important musi- 
cians of the Middle Ages and Renaissance, and it would be pointless to try to 
fill the space by unwarranted speculation in lieu of factual material. A prolific 
composer of ephemeral works may command more space than his less prolific 


reorchestrated it, and had it performed under the title La bonne chanson. As 
a result, the work twinned in several dictionaries. 

First and Last Names. Variants of spellings of celebrated musical names 
(Des Prez, Despres, etc.) are indicated in parentheses, and the selection of the 
main entry is made according to the weight of scholarly opinion, frequency 
of usage, etc. In this edition Piccinni is preferred to Piccini, Janequin to 
Jannequin. Alternative spellings are indicated by cross reference. One of the most 
vexing problems has been the decision to modernize the German name Carl to 
Karl. The tendency towards modernization has been strong in the last decades, 
and has found its reflection in the successive editions of the present dictionary. 
A special problem is presented by the changes of spelling effected by emigrant 
musicians themselves. Arnold Schonberg changed his name legally to Schoenberg 
when he became an American citizen. Carlos Salzedo dropped the acute accent 
that originally marked the antepenultimate letter of his last name. Carlos Sur- 
inach dropped the tilde over the n. Other composers changed the form of their 
names in order to insure correct pronunciation in the adoptive country. Pre- 
ferred listing must be decided according to the number and relative importance 
of works published under the old name or the new. Thus, the original name of 
Aladar Szendrei has been retained, even though he changed it in America to 
Alfred Sendrey. Edgar Varese began using the form Edgard about 1942, but 
all his works are published without the terminal d in the first name. 

The French music scholar Lionel de La Laurencie used the capital letter 
in La in the bibliographical sections of his books, but small 1 in the footnotes 
in the same books. The listing under La Laurencie is preferred here to conform 
to library catalogues. Another scholarly Frenchman, Gedalge, did not use the 
acute accent in most of his signed prefaces, but the accent is present in many 
title pages of his publications. The accentless form appears to be more authentic. 

Nobiliary Particles. When a nobiliary particle (de, van, von) is intimately 
associated with the customary form of a name, then the corresponding entry is 
given under such a particle. Alternatives are given for reference. Victoria De 
Los Angeles is listed under De Los Angeles, with references under Angeles and 
Los. Although Beethoven took pride in the supposed nobility represented by the 
particle van, it would be preposterous to have such a listing under the letter V, 
even for reference purposes. The numerous other vans are distributed either 
under V or under the main body of the name. Usage, rather than consistency, 
is accepted as a guide. 

The English composer Gustav Hoist was of remote Swedish ancestry, and 
his original name was Von Hoist. At the outbreak of World War I, he followed 
the suggestion of Percy A. Scholes and dropped the Germanic-sounding particle. 
There seems to be no point in giving a cross reference under Von Hoist. 


Pseudonyms. Real names of composers or writers on music better known 
by their pseudonyms are given in parentheses. In some cases the choice has 
been difficult. In the last edition of this dictionary, the main entry on Edmund 
Rubbra was under Duncan-Rubbra, the name under which he published some 
of his early works. Duncan was the name of his first wife, which he adopted, 
but his subsequent works were all performed and published under his real name 
and there seems to be no reason for perpetuating the Duncan-Rubbra form. 
The primary entry for the Russian composer and musicologist Boris Asafiev is 
placed under that name, with a cross reference under his pseudonym Igor Glebov. 
Philip Heseltine published most of his music under the name Peter Warlock, 
but Heseltine is preferred for the main entry. 

Transliteration from the Russian. Adequate transliteration of Russian 
names into the Latin alphabet is as impossible as squaring a circle. Russians 
who have made their careers abroad have adopted their own transliterations, 
which have become familiar, and which resist the logic of phonetics. There is 
no reason for the compulsion to do violence to such well-established forms as 
Rachmaninoff or Koussevitzky. On the other hand, there is no reason to follow 
the German spellings Strawinsky and Tschaikowsky. Since Stravinsky has be- 
come an American citizen, the spelling of his name in the Latin alphabet has 
become established. As to Tchaikovsky, his name can be rendered with phonetic 
fidelity in English as Chikovsky (chi as in China), but so drastic a departure 
from the familiar appearance of a famous name can only lead to confusion. The 
Encyclopedia Britannica compromises on the half-German, half-English form 

The s in Russian names is often doubled to avoid being vocalized into z. 
There is only one s in the Russian spelling of Mussorgsky, but the deletion of 
the supernumerary s would run counter to established usage. On the other hand, 
Russian names that have not established themselves in a unique form have 
been transliterated letter by letter, as Asafiev and Stasov. 

The first name and patronymic are given in the entries on most Russian 
musicians who have made their careers in Russia, but not for emigrants. Russian 
forms of the first name are used in conjunction with the patronymic — Sergey 
Sergeyevitch Prokofiev, Nikolai Yakovlevitch Miaskovsky. For Russian-born 
musicians active abroad, first names usually are assimilated with the correspond- 
ing names in the language of the country of residence. But there are inevitable 
exceptions. My own name Nicolas is an anomaly in this respect, being the 
French form of the Russian Nikolai; there should be every reason for me to 
anglicize it into Nicholas, but since I began publishing my compositions and 
my books under an aitchless first name, I might as well keep it so. 

Geographical Names. Changes of place names are annoying to lexicogra- 


phers and mapmakers alike. If the metamorphosis of St. Petersburg to Petrograd 
and then to Leningrad leaves no doubt in the minds of informed readers that all 
three represent the same city on the banks of the Neva, elsewhere on the European 
map the befuddlement is considerable. One can travel from Pressburg to Bratis- 
lava to Pozsony without budging an inch. A person born in Klausenburg finds 
himself nominally transported to Kolozsvar and then to Cluj, while living in the 
same house all his life. 

Sometimes a town resumes its former name. Perm was renamed Molotov 
after the Soviet Revolution, but when Molotov fell into disgrace in 1957, the 
name Perm was restored. In Poland, Katowice was renamed Stalinogorod in 
1953, but resumed its old name in 1956. 

Then there is the case of Liege. For over a century, it bore an unnatural 
acute accent on the middle letter. In 1946 the Municipal Council resolved that 
the accent be changed. Should we cling pedantically to the chronology of Liege's 
orthography, we would find a Belgian musician born in a place with an acute 
accent, and dying there with a grave. 

Abbreviations. All abbreviations have been removed from this edition, 
except those in common usage, e.g., vol., ed., prof., Jan., Feb., Aug., etc.; and 
also the obvious ones, such as symph., orch., publ., etc. No more the impene- 
trable consonant jungle of Ztschr., Vschr., vcs., Kchm., mvt., or Kgl. 

Apparent Errors. Among tens of thousands of names, titles, and dates 
errors seem inevitable. Yet some apparent errors are not errors at all. The 
words of Die Forelle of Schubert are by Schubart; Roselius edited works by 
Raselius; H. Reimann is not a misprint for H. Riemann. Two Czech-born 
conductors, both named Adler but unrelated, are stated in the present edition 
to have been respectively in charge of the Kiev State Opera and of the Kiev 
State Orchestra during the same period in the 1930's. This looks like flagrant 
confusion of identities, but it is not. How many real errors, typographical or 
otherwise, have escaped notice? I can only hope that the percentage is low. 

My heart overflows with gratitude to many wonderful people who have 
helped me in putting together this edition, and have saved me from blunders 
that I might otherwise have committed, to my everlasting horror and shame. 
There are first of all the anonymous (for their names are illegible on various 
documents received by me) registrars, clerks, and keepers of archives, thanks 
to whom I have been able to establish correct dates of birth and death, first 
performances of important works, and other details. Among music scholars who 
have been of assistance, I should mention Karl H. Worner in Germany, Victor 
De Rubertis in Argentina, Vasco Mariz in Brazil, Klaus Pringsheim in Japan, 


Josip Andreis in Yugoslavia, the Society of Polish Composers in Warsaw, Pierre 
Debievre in Paris, and Ulisse Prota-Giurleo in Naples. I owe especial gratitude 
to Mme. W.-L. Landowski of Paris, who provided accurate and important in- 
formation on French music, not accessible by ordinary means. Theodore d'Er- 
langer, of Paris, secured for me some valuable documentation. 

Nathan Broder, Associate Editor of The Musical Quarterly, has assumed 
the overwhelming task of going over the entire manuscript, questioning every 
suspicious item, scrutinizing factual discrepancies, providing missing information, 
and also rewriting some entries. He has kept his vigil faithfully, from Aaron to 

I have reserved for the end my testimonial for William Lichtenwanger, 
Assistant Reference Librarian in the Music Division of the Library of Congress, 
a man of fierce determination, who gets his historical, biographical, or biblio- 
graphical quarry in the face of the most disheartening failures by others. Because 
he treats no subject as trivial, and no musician as unworthy of the most tender 
bibliographical attention, he has been able to furnish unique and precious data 
(working on his own time, too!). His familiarity with a dozen or so languages 
(including Turkish and Japanese) has increased enormously the scope of his 

As for myself, I should like to quote from a letter that Alfred Einstein 
wrote me shortly before his death, wondering ". . . ob wir — und natiirlich vor 
allem Sie — im Himmel einmal dafiir belohnt werden, dass wir einige Unge- 
nauigkeiten aus der Welt geschafft haben . . ." To which I would add my 
favorite Latin phrase, so conveniently self-exonerating: Feci quod potui — 
faciant meliora potentes. 

Nicolas Slonimsky 


Pronunciation of names is indicated in phonetic values of sounds in the 
English language. Names of European musicians of nations using the Latin 
alphabet are left without alteration, including diacritical marks over and under 
vowels and consonants in Czech, Polish, and Croatian. Russian names (originally 
written in the Cyrillic alphabet) are transliterated according to sound, accepted 
usage, or both. When a Russian-born musician has spelled his name consistently 
in a French form (as Oulibisheff, Koussevitzky, Cui), or a German (Rach- 
maninoff), such forms are given preference. The stress is indicated by an apos- 
trophe placed after the accented syllable: rah-mah'-ne-nohf. Pronunciation is 
not given for names familiar to every cultured person: Beethoven, Schubert, 
Schumann. However, when mispronunciation frequently occurs (e.g., Paderoosky 
for Paderefsky in the Polish name of Paderewski), correct sounds are indicated. 

The following table lists phonetic symbols used as a guide for pronunciation 
and their equivalents in English sounds: 


as a in 'father.' 


as u in French 'rue.' 


as ah in 'Shah.' 


as u in 'use.' 


as a in 'bat.' 


represents the Russian vowel bl, which 


as a in 'hare.' 

sounds midway between e and ii. 


as a in 'fate.' 


hard, as in 'go.' 


as ch in the German 'ach' or in Scotch 


as e in 'pet.' 



as ee in 'meet.' 


represents the French nasal vowels, an 


as i in 'sit.' 

(main, fin),ahn (enfant), ohn (mon), 


as i in 'side.' 

on (un). 


as o in 'old.' 


(with a tilde) represents the Spanish 


as o in 'obey.' 

consonant sound as in 'canon' (can- 


as aw in 'law.' 



as oe in 'Goethe' (or eu in 

i French s 

as in 'sound.' 



as in 'church.' 


as oi in 'oil.' 


as in 'shall.' 


as oo in 'food.' 


as in 'thin' (z in Castilian Spanish) . 


as oo in 'foot.' 


as in 'yes.' 


as ow in 'owl.' 


as in 'zero.' 


as u in 'but.' 


as z in 'azure.' 




Aaron, abbot of the monasteries of St. 
Martin and St. Pantaleon at Cologne, where 
he died on Dec. 14, 1052. He was the author 
of two historically important treatises: De 
tit Hit ate cantus vocalis et de modo cantandi 
atque psallendi and De regulis tonorum et 
symphoniarum. He is believed to be the 
first cleric to introduce the Gregorian eve- 
ning service (nocturns) into Germany. 

Aaron, Pietro, Italian theorist; b. Florence 
1480; d. Venice 1545. He was cantor at 
the cathedral of Imola in 1521; at the 
Rimini cathedral in 1523. In 1525 he was 
'maestro di casa' in a Venetian house; in 
1536 entered the Order of Jerusalem. He 
published Libri tres de institutione harmon- 
ica (Bologna, 1516) ; II Toscanello in musica 
(Venice, 1523; 4 reprints, 1525-62); Trat- 
tato della natura et cognitione di tutti gli 
tuoni di canto figurato (Venice, 1525; re- 
produced in part, in an English translation, 
in O. Strunk's Source Readings in Music 
History, N.Y., 1950) ; Lucidario in musica 
di alcune opinione antiche e moderne 
(Venice, 1545); Compendiolo di molti 
dubbi, segreti, et sentenze intorno al canto 
fermo et figurato . . . (Milan, posthumous; 
title page bears the inscription: 'In memoria 
eterna erit Aron'). 

Aavik, Juhan, composer; born Reval (Es- 
tonia), Jan. 29, 1884. He studied at the 
St. Petersburg Cons.; was a conductor in 
Dorpat (1911-25); settled again in Reval 
(1928-44) as prof, and dir. of the Con- 
servatory; in 1944 he went to Sweden. 

Abaco, Evaristo Felice dalT, Italian 
composer, b. Verona, July 12, 1675; d. Mu- 
nich, July 12, 1742. He was in Modena from 
1696-1701. In 1704, he was at the Bavarian 
Court in Munich; then he followed the 

Duke of Bavaria to Belgium and France, 
where he became acquainted with French 
music, which left some influence on his later 
works. In 1715 he returned to Munich, and 
was active as leader of the Court orchestra. 
He wrote 12 violin sonatas, with cello or 
cembalo, op. 1 (1706); Concerti da chiesa 
for 4 string instruments, op. 2 (1714); 6 
Sonate da chiesa and 6 Sonate da camera 
for 3 string instruments, op. 3 (1715); 12 
Sonate da camera for violin and cello, op. 
4 (1716; arranged by Chedeville for musette, 
flute, oboe and continuo) ; 6 Concerti for 7 
instruments (4 violins, viola, bassoon or 
cello and bass), op. 5 (1717); concerto for 
violin solo with instruments, op. 6 (1730), 
his most important work. Sandberger pub- 
lished a biographical sketch and a selection 
from op. 1-4 in vol. I of 'Denkmaler der 
Tonkust in Bayern,' and a second selection 
in vol. IX, 1 ; Riemann edited 3 trio-sona- 
tas. Bibl.: R. Brenzon, Un grande musicista 
Veronese, Ev. Fel. DalV Abaco ('Note d' 
Archivio' XII, 1935). See also K. G. Feller- 
er's article in 'Die Musik in Geschichte und 

Abaco, Joseph Marie Clement, Belgian 
violoncellist; son of Evariste Felice dall' 
Abaco; b. Brussels, March 1710 (baptized 
March 27) ; d. at Arbizzano di Volpolicella, 
near Verona, Aug. 31, 1805. He studied 
with his father; as a small boy played in the 
orchestra of the Prince Elector at Bonn; in 
1738 he was appointed music director there. 
He was in England in 1740; in 1753 he 
went to Verona; was given the title of 
baron by Prince Maximilian of Bavaria 
(1766). His works comprise 29 cello sonatas 
and other compositions. 

Abbadia, Natale, Italian composer; b. 
Genoa, March 11, 1792; d. Milan, Dec. 25, 
1861. He composed the opera Giannina di 
Pontieu (1812), the musical farce L'imbrog- 



Hone ed il castigamatti; masses, motets and 
other religious music. 

Abbado, Marcello, pianist and composer; 
b. Milan, Oct. 7, 1926. He studied at the 
Cons, in Milan with Gavazzeni (piano) and 
Ghedini (composition), graduating in 1947. 
In 1951 he was appointed instructor at the 
Cons, of Venice. He has written a cantata 
Ciapo (1945); Lento e Rondo for violin 
and piano (1949) and piano pieces. 

Abbatini, Antonio Maria, Italian 
composer; b. Tiferno (Citta. di Castello) c. 
1595; d. there, Jan., 1680. He was maestro 
di cappella at the Lateran (1626-28), and 
other Roman churches; was at the church 
of Loreto from March, 1667. He wrote 3 
operas, Dal male al bene (Rome, 1654 j one 
of the earliest comic operas, and historically 
important as introducing the final ensem- 
ble); lone (Vienna, 1666); La comica del 
cielo or La Baltasara (Rome, 1668); and 
a dramatic cantata II Pianto di Rodomonte 
(Orvieto, 1633). He published 3 books of 
masses, 4 books of psalms, various anti- 
phons (1630, 1638, 1677) and 5 books of 
motets (1635). Bibl.: H. Goldschmidt, Stu- 
dien zur Geschichte der italianischen Oper 
im 17. Jahrhundert (Leipzig, 1901-04) ; F. 
Coradini, A. M. Abbatini (Arezzo, 1922). 

Abbey, John, noted English organ- 
builder; b. Whilton, Northamptonshire, Dec. 
22, 1785; d. Versailles, Feb. 19, 1859. He 
went to Paris in 1826 at the invitation of 
Sebastien Erard to construct an organ for 
the Paris Exposition. He remained in 
France and built organs for the cathedrals 
of many French cities. In 1831 he installed 
an organ at the Paris Opera. His innova- 
tions in the English type of bellows were 
adopted by many French organ builders. 
His sons, E. and J. Abbey, inherited the 
business, situated at Versailles. 

Abbott, Emma, American soprano; b. 
Chicago, Dec. 9, 1850; d. Salt Lake City, 
Jan. 5, 1891. She was taken to Peoria as a 
child; studied music with her father who 
was a singer, and played the guitar with 
him and her brother, a violinist, at hotels 
and clubs. Her first regular employment was 
with Chapin's choir in New York (1870-72) 
at a salary of $1500 a year. In March, 
1872 she went to Europe where she studied 
with Sangiovanni in Milan and with Delle 
Scdie in Paris. From then on, she rapidly 
advanced as an opera singer. Her London 
debut was on May 2, 1876. Returning to 
America, she made her first appearance in 
New York on Feb. 8, 1877, and sang there- 
after with great acclaim in the U.S. and 

in Europe. In 1875 she married E. Wetherell 
of New York (d. 1889). Bibl.: Sadie E. 
Martin, The Life and Professional Career 
of Emma Abbott (Minneapolis, 1891). 

Abe, Komei, Japanese conductor and 
composer; b. Hiroshima, Sept. 1, 1911. He 
studied composition with Klaus Pringsheim 
at the Tokyo Academy of Music; conducting 
with Joseph Rosenstock; then became prof, 
at the Elizabeth Music College at Kyoto. 
Among his works are a cello concerto 
(Tokyo, March 31, 1940); piano concerto 
(Tokyo, March 27, 1947); 8 string quartets 
(1935-52); clarinet quintet (1943); diver- 
timento for 9 instruments (1955), songs and 
piano pieces. 

Abeille, Johann Christian Ludwig, Ger- 
man organist and composer; b. Bayreuth, 
Feb. 20, 1761; d. Stuttgart, March 2, 1838. 
He was educated in Stuttgart, and was 
leader of the private orchestra of the Duke 
of Wiirttemberg ; in 1802 became court mu- 
sic director, retiring in 1832. He published 
several albums of songs which found their 
way into vocal anthologies and wrote 2 
light operas Amor und Psyche (1801) and 
Peter und Annchen (1809); also composed 
concerted music for small groups, and 
harpsichord pieces. 

Abel, Karl Friedrich, German viola da 
gamba player and composer; b. Cothen, 
Dec. 22, 1723; d. London, June 20, 1787. 
He studied with his father; then with J. S. 
Bach at the Thomasschule in Leipzig. He 
was a member of the Royal Polish Band at 
Dresden (1748-58). Settling in London in 
1759, he became a friend of John Christian 
Bach. With the Duke of York's assistance, 
he was appointed chamber-musician to 
Queen Charlotte (1765). He composed two 
operas: Love in a Village (London, 1760) 
and Berenice (London, 1764) ; several sym- 
phonies, many overtures, quartets and harp- 
sichord sonatas. Abel is generally regarded 
as the last great virtuoso on the viola da 

Abel, Ludwig, German violinist; b. 
Eckartsberg, Thuringia, Jan. 14, 1834; d, 
Neu-Pasing, Bavaria, Aug. 13, 1895. He 
studied with Ferdinand David; played in 
the Gewandhaus orch. in Leipzig, and was 
later violinist in Weimar and Munich. He 
published a method of violin playing. 

Abell, Arthur M., American music critic; 
b. Norwich, Conn., April 6, 1868. He 
studied in Weimar with Carl Halir (violin), 
Wilhelm Saal (piano), and Fritz Hartmann 
(theory) ; remained in Europe for 28 years 


(1890-1918) as a correspondent for 'The 
Musical Courier' and other publications. 
He knew Brahms, and was a friend of Rich- 
ard Strauss, Max Bruch, Joseph Joachim 
and other celebrated musicians. Upon his 
return to the U.S., he lived in retirement 
in Hastings-on-Hudson. In 1955 he pub- 
lished a book of memoirs, Talks With Great 

Abell, John, celebrated Scottish lute 
player; b. Aberdeenshire, 1652; d. Gam- 
bridge, 1724. He was a chorister in the 
Chapel Royal in London; in 1679 received 
a stipend from Charles II which enabled 
him to study in Italy. He returned to Lon- 
don in 1681; suspected of Roman Catholic 
adherence, he was compelled to seek employ- 
ment on the continent; served as intendant 
of music at Kassel (1698-99); was back 
in London shortly afterwards, able to re- 
sume his career (he was described in a 
contemporary report as "a harmonious 
vagabond"). He gave his last London con- 
cert in 1716. Abell published 'A Collection 
of Songs in Several Languages' and 'A Col- 
lection of Songs in English'; also 'A Choice 
Collection of Italian Ayres.' — Cf. H. G. 
Farmer, John Abell in 'Hinrichsen's Music 
Book' (vol. VII, 1952). 

Abendroth, Hermann, conductor and 
pedagogue; b. Frankfurt, Jan. 19, 1883; d. 
Jena, May 29, 1956. He studied in Munich 
(1900-1905); was active in Liibeck (1905- 
11); Essen (1911-15); Cologne (1915-34); 
also conducted at the Berlin State Opera 
(1923-34) ; From 1934-42 he was director of 
the Leipzig Cons, and conductor of the 
Gewandhaus Concerts. In 1947 he was ap- 
pointed director of the Musikhochschule in 
Weimar; in 1949, music director of the Leip- 
zig Radio. 

Aber, Adolf, musicologist; b. Apolda, 
Germany, Jan. 28, 1893. He studied with 
Kretzschmar, Stumpf and Wolf in Berlin; 
was music critic in Leipzig (1918-33). In 
1936 he settled in London and became con- 
nected with the Novello publishing firm. 
Publications: Handbuch der Musikliteratur 
(1922); Die Musikinstrumente und ihre 
Sprache (1924); Die Musik im Schauspiel, 
Geschichtliches und Asthetisches (1926); 
Verzeichnis der Werke von Brahms (1928); 
also articles in various journals. 

Abert, Anna Amalie, musicologist; b. 
Halle, Sept. 19, 1906. She studied at Berlin 
Univ. (Ph. D., 1934). In 1943 was ap- 
pointed instructor at the Univ. of Kiel; 
1950, prof, there; became assistant editor 
of the musical encyclopedia 'Die Musik in 

Geschichte und Gegenwart.' She et 
several collections of German choral music; 
published an important book on Monteverdi, 
Claudio Monteverdi und das musikalische 
Drama (1953). 

Abert, Hermann, German music scholar; 
b. Stuttgart, March 25, 1871; d. there, 
Aug. 13, 1927. He studied with his father, 
Johann Joseph Abert; then at Tubingen 
Univ. {Dr. phil., 1897). He was Dozent of 
musical science at Halle Univ. (1902); 
prof, there (1909). In 1919 he was ap- 
pointed prof, at Heidelberg Univ; 1920, at 
Leipzig Univ. (succeeding Hugo Riemann) ; 
1923, at Berlin Univ. (succeeding Kretz- 
schmar). — Publications: Die Lehre vom 
Ethos in der griechischen Musik (1899); 
Die Musikanschauung des Mittelalters und 
ihre Grundlagen (Halle, 1905) ; Nic. Jom- 
melli als Opern-Komponist (Halle, 1908); 
Nic. Piccinni als Buffo-Komponist (1913); 
biography of his father, Johann Jos. Abert 
(1916); revision of Otto Jahn's biography 
of Mozart (1919-21) ; Goethe und die Musik 
(1922); Luther und die Musik (1924); 
Illustriertes Musiklexikon (1927). His col- 
lected writings were posthumously edited by 
F. Blume (Gesammelte Schriften, 1929). 

Abert, Johann Joseph, German composer; 
b. Kochowitz, Sept. 20, 1832; d. Stuttgart, 
April 1, 1915. He was a choir-boy until 15 
at Gastdorf and Leipa monasteries; then 
studied double-bass and composition at the 
Prague Cons. (1846-53). In 1853 he was 
engaged as double-bass player in the court 
orchestra at Stuttgart; in 1867 he became 
its conductor and also led the Stuttgart 
Opera. He produced several of his operas 
in Stuttgart: Anna von Landskron (1859); 
Konig Enzio (1862) and the 'romantic 
opera' Astorga, on the life of the composer 
Astorga (May 27, 1866; very successful at 
the time). His 5-act opera Ekkehard (Berlin, 
Oct. 11, 1878) also attracted considerable 
attention, as did his 'musical sea picture' 
Columbus, in the form of a symphony 
(1864). He also wrote 6 symphonies, several 
overtures and chamber music, and pieces 
for double-bass. Abert's style, influenced by 
Mendelssohn, Schumann, and to some ex- 
tent Liszt, follows the romantic tradition. 
His son, Hermann Abert, wrote a detailed 
biography: Johann Joseph Abert, sein Leben 
und seine Werke (Leipzig, 1916). 

Abos, Girolamo (baptismal name Geroni- 
mo), Maltese composer; b. Valetta, Nov. 
16, 1715; d. Naples, May, 1760. He studied 
with Leonardo Leo and Francesco Durante 
in Naples. In 1756 he went to London as 


'maestro al cembalo' at the Italian Theater. 
Returning to Naples in 1758 he taught at 
the Cons, della Pieta de' Turchini. Among 
his pupils was Paisiello. Abos _ wrote 14 
operas which were produced in Naples, 
Rome and London; of these, Tito Manlio 
(Naples, May 30, 1751) was successful; 
also composed 7 masses and other church 
music. He is often confused with his con- 
temporary, the Neapolitan opera composer, 
Giuseppe Avossa (1716-96). 

Abraham, Gerald, eminent English music- 
ologist; b. Newport, Isle of Wight, March 
% 1904. He studied piano; became inter- 
ested in philology; has mastered the Russian 
language and made a profound study of 
Russian music which has become his spe- 
cialty. From 1935-47 he was connected with 
the B.B.G. in London; then was appointed 
prof, of music at Liverpool Univ. He has 
publ. the following books: Borodin (1927); 
This Modern Stuff (1933; revised edition 
under the title This Modern Music, 1952); 
Masters of Russian Music (in collaboration 
with M. D. Galvocoressi, 1936) ; A Hundred 
Years of Music (1938); On Russian Music 
(1939); Chopin's Musical Style (1939); 
Beethoven's Second-Period Quartets (1942) ; 
8 Soviet Composers (1943); Rimsky-Kor- 
sakov: A Short Biography (1945); also 
edited collections of articles on Tchaikovsky 
(1945), Schubert (1946), Sibelius (1947), 
Schumann (1952), Handel (1954). Abraham 
has contributed important biographical ar- 
ticles to the 5th edition of Grove's Dictionary 

Abraham, Max, German publisher; b. 
Danzig, June 3, 1831; d. Leipzig, Dec. 8, 
1900. He became a partner in G. F. Peters' 
'Bureau de Musique' in 1863, and sole pro- 
prietor in 1880. On Jan. 1, 1894, his ne- 
phew, Heinrich Hinrichsen, of Hamburg, 
entered the firm and, upon Abraham's 
death, became its head. The famous 'Edi- 
tion Peters' was inaugurated by Abraham. 

Abraham, Otto, German specialist in tone 
psychology; b. Berlin, May 31, 1872; d. 
there, Jan. 24, 1926. He studied medicine; 
became an associate of Stumpf at the Berlin 
Psychological Institute from 1894; then col- 
laborated with Hornbostel in building up 
the Archive of Phonographic Recordings in 
Berlin. He published several valuable trea- 
tises on acoustics and primitive music, 
among them W ahrnehmung kiirzester Tone 
und Gerausche (1898); Studien ilber das 
Tonsystem und die Musik der Japaner 
(1904); Phono graphierte Indianermelodien 
aus Britisch-Columbia (1905; with Horn- 
bostel). He also wrote studies on recorded 

Turkish, Siamese and Hindu melodies; a 
paper on Chinese musical notation, etc. 

Abranyi, Cornelius, Hungarian pianist, 
composer and writer on music; grandfather 
of Emil Abranyi; b. Szentgyorgy- Abranyi, 
Oct. 15, 1822; d. Budapest, Dec. 20, 1903. 
He came of an ancient Magyar family 
whose name was originally Eordogh. He 
was first destined to a legal profession, but 
in 1834 a meeting with the Hungarian na- 
tional composer, Erkel, made him decide 
to study music. In 1843 Abranyi went 
abroad; in Munich he met Liszt, and be- 
came his lifelong friend. He went to Paris 
and took lessons with Chopin and Kalk- 
brenner for a short time, returning to Hun- 
gary in 1845. He took a leading part in the 
formation and encouragement of the Hun- 
garian national school of composition during 
the second half of the nineteenth century. 
His compositions (130 opus numbers) emph- 
asize the Hungarian national elements; the 
most ambitious of these works being his 
Hungarian Millennial Sonata, op. 103. His 
books (all in Hungarian) include: Art and 
Revolution (1867); Biography of Franz 
Liszt and Survey of his Oratorio Christus 
(1873); General History of Music (1886); 
History of Hungarian Music in the Nine- 
teenth Century (1900). He also wrote an 
autobiography, From My Life and Mem- 
ories (1897). 

Abranyi, Emil, composer and conductor; 
b. Budapest, Sept. 22, 1882. His father was 
Emil Abranyi, the poet, and his grandfather, 
Cornelius Abranyi. In 1902 he went to 
Germany and studied under Nikisch in 
Leipzig. He was engaged as conductor to 
the Municipal Theater at Cologne (1904) 
and at Hanover (1907). Returning to Buda- 
pest (1911) he became conductor at the 
Royal Opera House; he was also active as 
music critic. He was director of the Buda- 
pest Municipal Theater (1921-26); con- 
ducted various orchestras in the provinces. 
As a composer, Abranyi follows the tradition 
of Wagner. The following stage works were 
performed at the Royal Hungarian Opera 
House, Budapest: The King of the Mist, 
ballet (Oct. 17, 1903) ; the operas Monna 
Vanna (March 2, 1907) ; Paolo e Francesca 
(Jan. 13, 1912); Don Quixote (Nov. 30, 
1917); Ave Maria (1922). Other operas 
are Singing Dervishes (1935); The Prince 
with the Lilies (1938); Byzantium (1942); 
Sorceress Eve (1944) ; The Tale of Balaton 
(1945) and The Cantor of St. Thomas 
Church (1947; the first opera written on 
the life of J. S. Bach). 

Abravanel, Maurice, conductor; b. Sal- 


oniki (Greece), Jan. 6, 1903. He studied 
at Lausanne Univ., and later in Berlin. 
Leaving Germany in 1933 he conducted 
ballet in Paris and London; toured Australia 
with the British National Opera Co. (1934- 
35). Conducted at Metropolitan Opera 
(1936-38) and the Chicago Opera Co. 
(1940-41). In 1947 he became conductor 
of the Utah State Symph. Orch. at Salt 
Lake City. 

Absil, Jean, Belgian composer; b. Peru- 
welz, Oct. 23, 1893. He studied organ and 
composition at the Brussels Cons.; later with 
Gilson. He won the Prix Agniez for his 1st 
symphony (1921); in 1922 won a second 
Prix de Rome for the cantata La Guerre; 
also received Prix Rubens and Prix Ysaye. 
Appointed music dir. of the Academy of 
Eterbeek (1923); from 1931, teaching at 
the Brussels Cons.; is also one of the foun- 
ders of the 'Revue Internationale de Mu- 
sique.' Absil has evolved an individual style, 
characterized by rhythmic variety, free to- 
nality and compact counterpoint. Works: 
Fans on, musical comedy (1945); 2 ballets, 
Le Miracle de Pan (1949) and Epouvantail 
(1951); 4 cantatas: La Guerre (1922); 
Philatelie for 4 voices and 15 instruments 
(1940); Les Benedictions (1941) and Le 
Zodiaque (1949). For orch.: 3 symphonies 
(1921, 1936, 1943); La mort de Tintagiles, 
symph. poem (1926); Rapsodie sur des 
thirties populaires flamands (1928); violin 
concerto (1933); piano concerto (1937); 
Chants des Morts for chorus and orch. 
(1941); concertino for cello and orch. 
(1942); viola concerto (1942); Rapsodie 
roumaine for violin and orch. (1943); 
Jeanne d'Arc, symph. poem (1945). Cham- 
ber music: 4 string quartets (1929, 1934, 
1935, 1941) ; wind quintet (1934) ; 2 string 
trios (1935, 1939); Fantaisie for string 
quartet and piano (1939); Phantasmes for 
contralto, saxophone, piano, viola and per- 
cussion (1950). Bibl.: J. Dopp, Jean Absil 
in *La Revue Musicale' (Oct.-Dec, 1937). 

Abt, Franz, German song writer and 
conductor; b. Eilenburg, Dec. 22, 1819; 
d. Wiesbaden, March 31, 1885. His father 
being a clergyman, he was sent to Leipzig 
Thomasschule to study theology; later ob- 
tained an excellent musical education both 
there and at the Univ. He became a choral 
conductor in Zurich (1841). In 1852 he 
was appointed second conductor at the 
Brunswick Court; in 1855 became first con- 
ductor. In 1869 he traveled, as a choral 
conductor, to Paris, London and Russia; 
in 1872 he made a highly successful tour 
in America. He retired on a pension from 

Brunswick in 1882. Abt wrote over 600 
works, comprising more than 3,000 num- 
bers; the largest are the 7 secular cantatas. 
His popularity as a song writer is due 
chiefly to the flowing, easy and elegant 
style of his vocal melodies, some of which 
(Wenn die Schwalben heimwarts zieh'n, 
Gute Nacht, du mein herziges Kind, So 
viele Tausend Blumen, etc.) have become 
so well known as to be mistaken for genuine 
folksongs. See B. Rost, Vom Meister des 
volkstiimlichen deutschen Liedes, Franz Abt 
(Chemnitz, 1924). 

Achron, Isidor, pianist and composer; b. 
Warsaw, Nov. 24, 1892; d. New York, May 
12, 1948. He studied at the St. Petersburg 
Cons, with Liadov (composition) and Mme. 
Essipov (piano). After the Russian Revolu- 
tion he came to the U.S. and was active 
in New York as teacher. He was the soloist 
in his Piano Concerto with the N. Y. Philh. 
Orch. (Dec. 9, 1937); he also wrote Suite 
Grotesque for orch. (St. Louis, Jan. 30, 
1942) and solo pieces for piano. 

Achron, Joseph, violinist and composer; 
b. Lozdzieje, Lithuania, May 13, 1886; d. 
Hollywood, Calif., April 29, 1943. He 
studied at the St. Petersburg Cons, with 
Auer (violin) and Liadov (theory), grad- 
uating in 1904. From 1913-16 he taught at 
Kharkov Cons., then was drafted into the 
Russian Army. Between 1918-22 he gave 
popular concerts in the Petrograd area; left 
Russia and toured in Europe and the Near 
East, coming to the U.S. in 1925. He lived 
in New York until 1939, when he settled 
in Hollywood. He wrote 3 violin concertos 
which he played with the Boston Symph. 
Orch. (Jan. 24, 1927) and the Los Angeles 
Philharm. (Dec. 19, 1936; March 31, 1939). 
His other works are: Hebrew Melody for 
violin and orch. (1911; his most famous 
composition, also published for violin and 
piano); Hazan for cello and orch. (1912); 
2 Hebrew Pieces (1913); Shar for clarinet 
and orch. (1917); and Golem Suite for 
orch. (1932) the last section of which is 
the exact retrograde movement of the first 
section to symbolize the undoing of the 
monster Golem. His chamber music includes 
Chromatic String Quartet; Elegy for string 
quartet; 3 suites and Suite bizarre for violin 
and piano; 2 violin sonatas. During his 
American period Achron adopted a highly 
advanced idiom of composition using atonal 
and polytonal devices. 

Ackte (real name, Achte), Aino, Finnish 
dramatic soprano; b. Helsinki, April 23, 1876; 
d. there, Aug. 8, 1944. She studied at the 
Paris Cons, and made her debut at the 


Paris Opera as Marguerite (Oct. 8, 1897). 
She sang the same role at her first appear- 
ance in America at the Metropolitan Opera 
(Feb. 22, 1904). Her performance of 
Salome in Strauss's opera at Covent Garden 
(1913) led to an invitation from Richard 
Strauss to sing the part in Dresden and 
Paris. Her other roles were Juliette, Ophelie, 
Gilda, Nedda, Elsa, Elisabeth and Sieglinde. 
Her memoirs are published in Finnish, 
Swedish and German. 

Adam (ah-dahn), Adolphe-Charles, cele- 
brated French opera composer; b. Paris, 
July 24, 1803; d. there, May 3, 1856. He 
entered the Paris Cons, in 1817 and studied 
with Boieldieu, whose influence was a de- 
termining factor in his career. His first opera 
was Pierre et Catherine (Opera-Comique, 
Feb. 9, 1829). The one-act comic opera, 
Le Chalet (Opera-Comique, Sept. 25, 1834), 
marked his first success (1400 performances 
of this opera were given before 1899). With 
the production of Le Postilion de Long- 
jumeau (Opera-Comique, Oct. 13, 1836) 
Adam achieved international fame. Of his 
other operas (he wrote 53 in all), the fol- 
lowing, all produced at the Opera-Comique, 
are the most important: Le Fidele Berger 
(Jan. 6, 1838); Le Brasseur de Preston 
(Oct. 31, 1838) ; Regine, ou Les Deux Nuits 
(Jan. 17, 1839) ; La Reine d'un jour (Sept. 
19, 1839); Le Roi d'Yvetot (Oct. 13, 
1842); Cagliostro (Feb. 10, 1844); Le 
Toreador, ou U Accord parfait (May 18, 
1849); Giralda, ou La Nouvelle Psyche 
(July 20, 1850); Le Farfadet (March 19, 
1852) ; Le Sourd, ou L'Auberge pleine (Feb. 
2, 1853). His comic opera Si j'etais roi 
(Theatre-Lyrique, Sept. 4, 1852) was also 
very popular; his tragic opera Richard en 
Palestine was produced at the Paris Opera 
(Oct. 7, 1854) with considerable success, 
but was not retained in the repertoire. Adam 
was also a very successful ballet composer; 
his Giselle, produced at the Paris Opera 
(June 28, 1841) became one of the most 
celebrated and enduring choreographic 
scores. His song Cantique de Noel, in numer- 
ous arrangements, enjoyed great popularity. 
In 1847 Adam ventured into the field of 
management with an operatic enterprise, 
the Theatre National; the revolutionary 
outbreak of 1848, however, brought financial 
ruin to his undertaking. In 1849 he was 
appointed prof, of composition at the Paris 
Cons. He traveled widely in Europe, visiting 
London, Berlin and St. Petersburg. As one 
of the creators of French comic opera, Adam 
ranks with Boieldieu and Auber in the ex- 
pressiveness of his melodic material if not in 
originality or inventive power. Adam's mem- 

oirs were published posthumously in 2 
volumes under the titles Souvenirs d'un 
musicien (1857), and Dernier s souvenirs 
d'un musicien (1859). A. Pougin wrote his 
biography (Paris, 1877). 

Adam, Claus, American cellist and com- 
poser; born of Austrian parents in Sumatra, 
Nov. 5, 1917. He was taken to Europe as 
a child (1923); studied in Germany and 
Austria. In 1931 he came to the U.S.; has 
appeared in concerts as a cellist. His piano 
sonata was performed at the Salzburg 
Festival in 1952. 

Adam, Jeno, Hungarian conductor, com- 
poser and writer on music; b. Szigetszent- 
miklos, Dec. 13, 1896. He studied with 
Kodaly, and was later associated with him 
in a program reorganizing the system of 
musical education; conducted several choirs 
in Budapest, and in 1938 was appointed 
prof, of choral singing at the Academy of 
Music there. He has written 2 operas, 
Hungarian Christmas (Budapest, Dec. 22, 
1931) and Maria Veronika (Budapest, 
1938); a symph. cantata Man on the Road 
(1946); 2 string quartets; a cello sonata 
and unaccompanied choral works. He has 
also published a number of musical text 
books for schools. 

Adam, Louis; Alsatian pianist, teacher 
and composer; father of Adolphe-Charles 
Adam; b. Muttersholz, Dec. 3, 1758; d. 
Paris, April 8, 1848. He went to Paris in 
1775; was later prof, of piano at the Paris 
Cons. (1797-1842). He was the teacher of 
Kalkbrenner and Herold; was also known 
as composer of virtuoso piano pieces, some 
of which (especially variations on Le Roi 
Dagobert) were very popular. He was the 
author of two standard manuals for piano: 
Methode generate du doigte (Paris, 1798) 
and Methode nouvelle pour le Piano (5 
editions, 1802-32), which he wrote for his 
pupils at the Paris Conservatory. 

Adam de la Hale (or Halle), called 
'Le Bossu d' Arras' (Hunchback of Arras) ; b. 
Arras, c. 1240; d. Naples, 1287. A famous 
trouvere, many of whose works have been 
preserved (publ. 1872 by Coussemaker as 
Oeuvres completes du Trouvere Adam de la 
Hale); the most interesting is a dramatic 
pastoral Le jeu de Robin et de Marion 
(1285), written for the Aragonese court at 
Naples resembling an opera comique in its 
plan. He was gifted in the dual capacity of 
poet and composer. Both monodic and poly- 
phonic works of his survive. His rondeaux, 
etc., are reprinted by Fr. Gennrich, in Ron- 
deaux, Virelais und Balladen (I, 1921). — 


Cf. E. Langlois, Le jeu de Robin et de 
Marion (Paris, 1896); H. Guy, Essai sur la 
vie et les ceuvres litter aires d'Adam de la 
Hale (Paris, 1898) ; J. Tiersot, Sur le Jeu de 
Robin et Marion (1897); A. Guesnon, Une 
Edition allemande des chansons d'Adam de 
la Hale (1900); E. Langlois, Le jeu de la 
feuillSe (1911); practical edition of Le Jeu 
de Robin et Marion by J. Beck (Phila- 
delphia, 1928; 1939). 

Adam von Fulda, German theorist and 
composer; b. Fulda, c. 1440; d. (of the 
plague) Wittenberg, 1505. His tract on music 
theory is published in Gerbert's 'Scriptores 
ecclesiastici' ; his works were highly prized 
in their day. — Bibl. : H. Riemann in 
'Kirchenmusikalisches Jahrbuch' (Regens- 
burg, 1879); W. Niemann (ibid., 1902); 
W. Gurlitt in 'Luther Jahrbuch' (1932); 
W. Ehmann, Adam von Fulda (1936). 

Adamowski (ah-dah-mov'-ske), Joseph, 
cellist; b. Warsaw, July 4, 1862; d. Cam- 
bridge, Mass., May 8, 1930. He studied at 
the Warsaw Cons. (1873-77) with Goebelt; 
and at the Moscow Cons, with Fitzenhagen; 
also attended Tchaikovsky's classes there. He 
gave concerts from 1883-89 in Warsaw. In 
1889 joined the Boston Symph. Orch. In 
1896 he married the pianist, Antoinette 
Szumowska. With his wife and brother, Tim- 
othee, he formed the Adamowski Trio. From 
1903 he taught at the New England Cons. 

Adamowski, Timothee, violinist; b. War- 
saw, March 24, 1857; d. Boston, April 18, 
1943. He studied in Warsaw and at the 
Paris Cons.; in 1879 gave concerts in the 
U.S. with Maurice Strakosch and Clara 
Louise Kellogg, and settled in Boston, where 
he taught at the New England Cons, (until 
1933). In 1888 he organized the Adamowski 
String Quartet which gave about 30 con- 
certs annually; he also conducted several 
summer seasons of popular concerts given 
by the Boston Symph. Orch. (1890-94 and 
1900-07). He published songs and violin 
pieces (Barcarolle, Polish Dance, etc.) 

Adams, Charles, American dramatic tenor; 
b. Charlestown, Mass., Feb. 9, 1834; d. 
West Harwich, Mass., July 4, 1900. He 
studied in Vienna with Barbieri; was en- 
gaged for three years by the Royal Opera, 
Berlin, and for nine years by the Imperial 
Opera, Vienna; sang at La Scala, at Covent 
Garden, and in the U.S. He settled in 
Boston as a teacher in 1879. 

Adams, Suzanne, American soprano; b. 
Cambridge, Mass., Nov. 28, 1872; d. Lon- 
don, Feb. 5, 1953. She studied with J. 

Bouhy in New York; went to Paris in 1889; 
made her debut at the Paris Opera as Juliette 
(Jan. 9, 1895), and subsequently was en- 
gaged to sing there for 3 more seasons; 
appeared at the Metropolitan Opera House 
as Juliette on Jan. 4, 1899. 

Adams, Thomas, eminent English or- 
ganist; b. London, Sept. 5, 1785; d. there, 
Sept. 15, 1858. He studied with Dr. Busby; 
was organist at various London churches. 
His publ. organ works include fugues, 
voluntaries, 90 interludes, and variations on 
popular airs; he also wrote anthems, hymns, 
and sacred songs. 

Adaskin, Harry, Canadian violinist; b. 
Riga, Latvia, Sept. 17, 1901. He was 
brought to Toronto at the age of two, and 
studied at the Toronto Cons. (1912-18). He 
then entered the Chicago Musical College 
and later studied in Paris. From 1923-38 
he was second violinist of the Hart House 
String Quartet, which toured in Europe 
and America. In 1946 he was appointed 
violin teacher at the Univ. of British Co- 
lumbia, Vancouver. His brother, Murray 
Adaskin (b. Toronto, March 28, 1906) is 
also a violinist; another brother, John 
Adaskin (b. Toronto, June 4, 1908) is a 

Addinsell, Richard, English composer of 
theater music; b. Oxford, Jan. 13, 1904. He 
studied law at Oxford Univ.; later entered 
the Royal College of Music; then studied 
music in Berlin and Vienna. He was com- 
missioned in 1933 by Eva Le Gallienne to 
write the music for her production of Alice 
in Wonderland; later wrote for the films in 
Hollywood. Among his cinema scores are 
Fire over England, Dark Journey, Goodbye, 
Mr. Chips and Dangerous Moonlight. The 
score for the latter includes the Warsaw 
Concerto, which became enormously popular 
as a concert piece for piano and orch. Dur- 
ing World War II Addinsell wrote music 
for a number of documentary films (Siege 
of Tobruk, We Sail at Midnight, etc.). 

Adelburg, August Ritter von, Hungarian 
violinist and composer; b. Constantinople, 
Nov. 1, 1830; d. Vienna, Oct. 20, 1873. 
He studied the violin with Mayseder in 
Vienna (1850-54), and composition with 
Hoffmann; then toured Europe as violinist. 
He wrote 3 operas: Zrinyi (Budapest, 
June 23, 1868; his most successful work); 
Martinuzzi (1870) and Wallenstein (on 
Schiller's drama) ; an oratorio War and 
Peace; 5 string quartets and School of 
Velocity for violin. 


Adgate, Andrew, American church or- 
ganist and choral conductor; b. Philadelphia 
c. 1750; d. there of yellow fever, Sept. 30, 
1793. In 1784 he organized, in Philadelphia, 
an Institution for the Encouragement of 
Church Music; in 1785 he founded there a 
Tree School for Spreading the Knowledge 
of Vocal Music,' reorganized in 1787 as 
'The Uranian Academy,' the purpose of 
which was to urge the incorporation of 
musical study with general education. On 
May 4, 1786, he presented in Philadelphia 
'A Grand Concert of Sacred Music,' with 
a chorus of 230 voices and an orchestra of 
50, featuring works by Handel, Billings and 
others. Adgate compiled several publica- 
tions: Lessons for the Uranian Society 
(1785); Select Psalms and Hymns (1787); 
Rudiments of Music (1788); Selection of 
Sacred Harmony (1788). 

Adler, Clarence, American pianist; b. 
Cincinnati, March 10, 1886. He studied at 
the Cincinnati College of Music (1898- 
1904); then in Berlin with Godowsky 
(1905-09). He toured in Europe as pianist 
in the Hekking Trio. Returning to America 
in 1913, he settled in New York; made his 
American debut with the N.Y. Symph. 
Orch. (Feb. 8, 1914). In 1941 he broadcast 
all of Mozart's 28 piano concertos. He has 
published an album of piano pieces; also 
arrangements of works by Dvorak and 

Adler, F. Charles, conductor; b. London, 
July 2, 1889. He studied piano with August 
Halm in Munich, theory with Beer- 
Walbrunn, ^ and conducting with Mahler. 
He was assistant to Felix Mottl at the Royal 
Opera in Munich (1908-11); in 1913 he 
became first conductor of the Municipal 
Opera, Dusseldorf. Conducted symphonic 
concerts in Europe (1919-33). He was 
owner of 'Edition Adler' in Berlin until 
1933 when he came to America. In 1937 
he founded the Saratoga Springs Music 
Festivals, N. Y. 

Adler, Guido, musicologist; b. Eiben- 
schiitz, Moravia, Nov. 1, 1855; d. Vienna, 
Feb. 15, 1941. He studied at the Vienna 
Cons, under Bruckner and Dessoff; entered 
Vienna Univ. in 1874 and founded, in co- 
operation with Felix Mottl and K. Wolf, 
the academical Wagner Society; took the 
degree of Dr. jur. in 1878, and in 1880 that 
of Dr. phil, (dissertation on Die historischen 
Grundklassen der christlich-abendldndischen 
Musik bis 1600), and in 1881 qualified as 
instructor, lecturing on musical science 
(thesis, Studie zur Geschichte der Har- 

monie). With Chrysander and Spitta he 
founded, in 1884, the 'Vierteljahrsschrift 
fiir Musikwissenschaft.' In 1885 he was ap- 
pointed prof, of musical science at the Ger- 
man Univ. at Prague. In 1892 he was elected 
President of the Central Committee of the 
'Internationale Ausstellung fiir Musik und 
Theater.' In 1895 he succeeded Hanslick as 
prof, of music history at the Univ. of 
Vienna, retiring in 1927. Important books 
by Adler are Methode der Musikgeschichte 
(1919); Der Stil in der Musik (1911; 2nd 
ed., 1929); Gustav Mahler (1914); Hand- 
buch der Musikgeschichte (1 vol., 1924; 
2nd ed. in 2 vols., 1930); Wollen und 
Wirken (memoirs; Vienna, 1935). He was 
also editor of the monumental collection 
'Denkmaler der Tonkunst in Osterreich' from 
its inception (the first volume appeared in 
1894) to its completion (in 1938; 83 vols, 
in all). He contributed many articles to 
periodic music publications. Bibl.: C. Engel, 
Guido Adler in Retrospect in the 'Mus. 
Quarterly* (July, 1941). 

Adler, Kurt, pianist and conductor; b. 
Neuhaus, Czechoslovakia, March 1, 1907. 
He was educated in Vienna; studied mu- 
sicology with Guido Adler and Robert Lach 
at the Vienna Univ. ; was assistant conductor 
of the Berlin State Opera (1927-29) and 
of the German Opera in Prague (1929-32). 
In 1933, with the advent of the Nazis to 
power, he went to Russia, where he was 
chief conductor at the Kiev State Opera 
(1933-35); organized and conducted the 
Philh. Orch. of Stalingrad (1935-37). In 
1938 he came to the U.S.; first appeared 
as concert pianist; then conducted in Can- 
ada and Mexico. In 1943 he joined the staff 
of the Metropolitan Opera as choirmaster 
and assistant conductor; edited the collec- 
tions Operatic Anthology, The Prima 
Donna Album, Arias from Light Operas, 
Famous Operatic Choruses, etc. '•He is no 
relation to Kurt Herbert Adler (q.v.). 

Adler, Kurt Herbert, opera conductor; 
b. Vienna, April 2, 1905. He studied at the 
Vienna Cons.; was a theater conductor in 
Vienna (1925-28), in Prague and in Ger- 
many. He served as assistant to Toscanini 
at the Salzburg Festival in 1936; then 
settled in the U.S.; was with the Chicago 
Opera Company (1938-43); in 1943 joined 
the staff of the San Francisco Opera; in 
1953 he became its artistic director. He is 
no relation to Kurt Adler (q.v.). 

Adler, Larry (Lawrence), harmonica 
player; b. Baltimore, Feb. 10, 1914. He won 
a harmonica contest at 13 for the best 


rendition of Beethoven's Minuet in G. He 
has appeared in numerous revues; also gave 
concerts as soloist with piano and with 
orchestra, as well as command performances 
for King George VI, King Gustav of 
Sweden and Presidents Roosevelt and Tru- 
man. In 1940, determined to learn to read 
music, he took lessons with Ernst Toch. 
Darius Milhaud wrote a Suite for harmonica 
and orch. for Adler, which he played on 
Nov. 16, 1945 with the Philadelphia Orch. 

Adler, Peter Herman, conductor; b. 
Jablonec, Czechoslovakia, Dec. 2, 1899. He 
studied in Prague with Fidelio Finke, 
Vitezlav Novak, and Alexander von Zem- 
linsky; conducted opera in Brno (1923); 
later was first conductor of the Bremen 
State Theater (1928-31). In 1932 he went 
to Russia; was chief conductor of the 
Ukrainian State Orch. in Kiev (1932-37) 
and taught conducting at the Kiev Cons.; 
also conducted symph. concerts in Moscow 
and Leningrad. He was in Prague in 1938; 
then settled in the U.S.; made his American 
debut as conductor at a concert for Czech 
relief in N. Y., Jan. 24, 1940; appeared as 
guest conductor with the Cleveland Orch., 
Detroit Symph., and other organizations. 
He then became active in the opera; in 1949 
he became musical director of the N.B.C. 
Opera Theater. 

Adler, Samuel, composer; b. Mannheim, 
Germany, March 4, 1928. He studied at 
Boston Univ. with Karl Geiringer, and at 
Harvard Univ. with Walter Piston, Randall 
Thompson and Paul Hindemith ; also worked 
with Aaron Copland and Koussevitzky at 
Tanglewood. In 1950 he joined the U.S. 
Army; was sent to Germany, and there or- 
ganized the Seventh Army Symph. Orch.; 
this group toured Germany and Austria. 
Was awarded the Medal of Honor for this 
work. While in Germany he appeared as 
guest conductor with numerous orchestras 
and opera companies. In 1953 he was ap- 
pointed music director at the Temple 
Emanu-El in Dallas, Texas. Works: Amer- 
ican Comedy Overture (1946); Kinnereth, 
symph. poem (1947); symphony (1953); 
concertino for flute, bassoon and string 
orch. (1949-50); Two Poems for viola and 
string orch. (1953); sonata for horn and 
piano ( 1 948 ) ; 3 string quartets ( 1 945- 
1955); a cantata The Vision of Isaiah 
( 1 949 ) ; several pieces for brass ensemble, 
choruses, etc. 

Adlgasser, Anton Cajetan, organist and 
composer; b. Inzell, Bavaria, Oct. 1, 1729; 
d. Salzburg, Dec. 23, 1777. He studied 

with Johann Eberlin in Salzburg; on Dec. 
11, 1750, was appointed organist at Salz- 
burg Cathedral, and held this post until his 
death (he died of a stroke while playing 
the organ). Adlgasser enjoyed a great repu- 
tation as a musical scholar, and was admired 
by the young Mozart. He wrote an opera 
Nitteti (Salzburg, 1767); several oratorios 
and sacred dramas; 7 symphonies; piano 
sonatas and church works. Bibl. : C. 
Schneider, Die Oratorien und Schuldramen 
A. C. Adlgasser s (Vienna, 1923); C. 
Schneider, Musikgeschichte von Salzburg 

Adlung, Jakob, German music scholar; b. 
Bindersleben, near Erfurt, Jan. 14, 1699; 
d. Erfurt, July 5, 1762. He studied with 
Christian Reichardt; in 1727 became or- 
ganist at the Erfurt Lutheran Church; in 
1741 was named prof, at the town school. 
A man of wide erudition, Adlung gave 
language lessons as well as musical instruc- 
tion. He built 16 clavichords with his own 
hands. Among his writings, three have his- 
torical value: Anleitung zu der musikal- 
ischen Gelahrtheit (Erfurt, 1758; 2nd ed., 
revised by J. A. Hiller, 1783; facsimile ed. 
by H. J. Moser, Kassel, 1953); Musica 
mechanica organoedi (1768; facsimile ed. 
by Chr. Mahrenholz, Kassel, 1931); M u- 
sikalisches Siebengestirn (1768). His auto- 
biographical sketch was publ. by Marpurg 
(Kritische Brief e, II). See E. Valentin's 
article in 'Die Musik in Geschichte und 

Adorno, Theodor (real name Wiesen- 
grund), music theorist; b. Frankfurt, Sept. 
11, 1903. He studied with Sekles in Frank- 
furt and Alban Berg in Vienna. Was music 
critic in Frankfurt; then instructor at the 
Univ. there. He emigrated to the U.S. in 
1934; was connected with radio research at 
Princeton (1938-41); then lived in Cal- 
ifornia. In 1950 he returned to Frankfurt 
and resumed his professorship there. Adorno 
published Philosophie der neuen Musik 
(Tubingen, 1949) and numerous articles on 
music in relation to society (radio, jazz, 
etc. ) ; in his early writings he used the name 

Adriaensen, Emanuel (called Hadrianus), 
Flemish lutenist, born in Antwerp ; flourished 
in the 16th century. In 1584 he published 
Pratum musicum, a collection of songs and 
dances for 2, 3, and 4 lutes; in 1592 he 
brought out another collection entitled 
Novum pratum musicum, containing can- 
zonets, dances, fantasias, madrigals, motets 
and preludes by Cipriano de Rore, Orlando 


di Lasso, J. de Berchem, H. Waelrant and 
others, freely arranged by him for lute in 

Adriano di Bologna. See Banchieri. 

Adrio, Adam, German musicologist; b. 
Essen, April 4, 1901. He studied at Berlin 
Univ. (1927-34) and took his Ph. D. there. 
In 1951, appointed prof, at the Univ. of 
Berlin-West. Contributor to 'Die Musik in 
Geschichte und Gegenwart.' Author of Die 
Anfange des geistlichen Konzerts (Berlin, 
1935), and editor of collections of old 
German music. 

Aerde, Raymond Van. See Van Aerde, 

Aerts (ahrts), Egide, Belgian flutist; b. 
Boom, near Antwerp, March 1, 1822; d. 
Brussels, June 9, 1853. A precocious mu- 
sician, he studied as a child at the Brussels 
Cons.; gave a concert in Paris at the age 
of 15. In 1847 he was appointed teacher 
of flute at the Brussels Cons. He wrote 
numerous works for flute, most of which 
remain in manuscript. 

Aeschbacher, Adrian, Swiss pianist; b. 
Langenthal, May 10, 1912. He studied at 
the Zurich Cons, with Emil Frey and 
Andreae; later took lessons with Schnabel 
in Berlin. He toured in Europe from 1934 
to 1939; then taught and gave concerts in 

Aeschbacher, Niklaus, Swiss conductor; b. 
Trogen, April 30, 1917. He studied in 
Zurich and Berlin. Was active as theater 
conductor in Germany; appointed conductor 
of the Municipal Theater in Bern in 1949. 
He wrote a radio opera Die roten Schuhe 
(1943) and chamber music. 

Aeschbacher, Walther, Swiss conductor 
and composer; b. Bern, Oct. 2, 1901; 
studied music theory with Ernst Kurth, and 
conducting in Munich and then settled in 
Basel. He has written much choral music 
and several orchestral pieces in old forms. 

Afanassiev (ah-fah-nah'-syev), Nikolay Ya- 
kovlevitch, Russian composer; b. Tobolsk, 
1821; d. St. Petersburg, June 3, 1898. He 
studied violin with his father, an amateur 
musician, and joined the orchestra of the 
Moscow Opera at the age of 17. Later he 
conducted Italian opera in Moscow and 
St. Petersburg. He traveled in Europe in 
1857. Afanassiev was regarded as the first 
Russian composer to write a string quartet 
(1860), but this is refuted by the discovery 
of 3 string quartets by Aliabiev. He further 

wrote a cantata, The Feast of Peter the 
Great, and an opera Ammalat-Bek, which 
was produced at the Imperial Opera in St. 
Petersburg on Dec. 5, 1870, and three more 
operas, Stenka Razin, Vakula the Smith, 
and Taras Bulba, which were never per- 
formed; also wrote some children's songs. 

Afranio de Pavia (family name Albonese), 
Italian theologian, reputed inventor of the 
bassoon; b. Pavia, 1480; d. Ferrara, c. 1560 
as canon of Ferrara. His claim to the inven- 
tion of the bassoon is based on the attribu- 
tion to him of the instrument Phagotus, in 
the book by his nephew Teseo Albonese, 
Introductio in chaldaicam linguam (Pavia, 

Agazzari (ah-gaht-sah'-re), Agostino, 
Italian composer; b. Siena, Dec. 2, 1578; 
d. there April 10, 1640. He entered the 
service of Emperor Matthias as a profes- 
sional musician; proceeding to Rome, he 
was in turn maestro di cappella at the 
German College there (1602-06), the church 
of St. Apollinaris, and the 'seminario ro- 
mano'; intimacy with Viadana led to his 
adoption of the latter's innovations in sacred 
vocal music (writing church concerti for one 
or two voices with instrumental harmonic 
support). From 1630 he was maestro di 
cappella at Siena Cathedral. His works, 
variously reprinted in Germany and Holland, 
were in great favor and very numerous 
(madrigals, psalms, motets and other church 
music). His treatise La musica ecclesiastica 
(Siena, 1638) is a theoretical endeavor to 
bring the practice of church music into 
accord with the Resolution of the Council 
of Trent; he was also among the first to 
give written instructions for performing the 
basso continuo, presented in the tract Del 
sonare sopra il basso con tutti gli strumenti 
e del loro uso nel concerto (Siena, 1607; 
in English, O. Strunk, Source Readings in 
Music History, N. Y., 1950). His pastoral 
drama, Eumelio (1606) is one of the earliest 
operas. See A. Adrio's article in 'Die Musik 
Geschichte und Gegenwart.' 

Agnew, Roy, Australian composer and 
pianist; b. Sydney, Aug. 23, 1893; d. there, 
Nov. 12, 1944. He went to London and 
studied with Gerrard Williams (1923-28); 
gave concerts in England (1931-34). He 
then returned to Australia; was appointed 
dir. of the Australian radio (1938-43) and 
taught at the Sydney Cons. Compositions: 
Breaking of the Drought for mezzo-soprano 
and orch. (1928); many piano works, in- 
cluding Dance of the Wild Men (1920); 
Fantasia Sonata (1927); Sonata Poem 



(1935); Sonata Ballade (1936) and Sonata 
Legend "Capricornia" (1940). 

Agostini, Lodovico, Italian composer and 
poet; b. Ferrara, 1534; d. there Sept. 20, 
1590. He served as maestro di cappella to 
Alphonso II of Este, Duke of Ferrara. A 
number of his sacred and secular vocal 
works (madrigals, motets, masses, vespers, 
etc.) were published in Milan, Ferrara and 
Venice (1567-86). 

Agostini, Mezio, Italian composer and 
theorist; b. Fano, Aug. 12, 1875; d. there, 
April 22, 1944. He studied with his father 
and with Carlo Pedrotti at the Liceo Rossini 
in Pesaro (1885-92); later became a har- 
mony teacher there. He succeeded Wolf- 
Ferrari as director of the Liceo Benedetto 
Marcello in Venice (1909-40). Agostini 
wrote the following operas: Iovo e Maria 
(1896); II Cavalier e del Sogno (1897); 
La penna d'Airone (1898); Alcibiade 
(1902); America (1904); Ombra (1907); 
L'Anello del sogno (1928). He also wrote 
a symphony, 4 orchestral suites, a string 
quartet, 2 piano trios, a cantata A Rossini, 
piano pieces and songs. 

Agostini, Paolo, Italian organist and com- 
poser; b. Vallerano, 1593; d. Rome, Oct. 
3, 1629. He studied with Giovanni Bernar- 
dino Nanino in Rome; was organist at S. 
Maria in Trastevere, in Rome, and at S. 
Lorenzo in Damaso. He succeeded Vincenzo 
Ugolini as maestro di cappella at the Vati- 
can in 1626. Agostini's published works, 7 
books of psalms (1619), 2 books of magnifi- 
cats and antiphons (1620) and 5 books of 
masses (1624-28) are only a small portion 
of his total output. Most of his manuscripts 
are preserved in various Roman libraries. 
His music displays great ingenuity of con- 
trapuntal structure; some of his choral 
works are written in 48 independent parts. 

Agostini, Pietro Simone, Italian composer; 
b. Rome, c. 1650. He was in the service of 
the Duke of Parma as maestro di cappella. 
He wrote 6 operas: Tolemeo (Venice, 
1668) ; Ippolita (Milan, 1670) ; La costanza 
di Rosmonda (Genoa, 1670) ; Adelinda 
(Aricia, 1673); 7/ Ratto delle Sabine (Ven- 
ice, 1680); and Floridea (Venice, 1687). 
Some of his operas were written in collabor- 
ation with Busca, Ziani and others. He also 
wrote oratorios, motets and secular cantatas. 

Agrell, Johan Joachim, Swedish com- 
poser; b. Loth, Feb. 1, 1701; d. Nuremberg, 
Jan. 19, 1765. He studied at Uppsala Univ.; 
later he was active in Kassel (1723-46) and 
in Nuremberg (from 1746). Among his 

published works are 5 concertos for cembalo 
and strings, 2 sonatas for violin and cembalo, 
6 sonatas for cembalo solo, and pieces for 
cembalo in dance forms. His symphonies 
and cantatas are preserved in various Euro- 
pean libraries (Stockholm, Uppsala, Brussels, 
Berlin, Konigsberg, Munich and Darmstadt). 

Agricola, Alexander, composer of the 
Netherland school; sometimes said to have 
been of German extraction, but referred to as 
a Belgian in his epitaph; b. Flanders, c. 
1446; d. 1506 at Valladolid, Spain. He was 
in the service of the Duke of Milan from 
1472-74; then went to Gambrai; in 1476 
he is mentioned as "petit vicaire" at Cam- 
brai Cathedral. He later traveled in Italy; 
entered the service of Philip I of Burgundy 
in 1500 and followed him to Spain in 1502, 
returning to Belgium in 1505. He went to 
Spain again in January, 1506 and died 
shortly afterward. Thirty-one of Agricola's 
songs and motets were printed by Petrucci 
(Venice, 1501-03) who also published a 
volume of 5 masses based on chanson ma- 
terial: Le Serviteur, Je ne demande, Mal- 
heur me bat, Primi toni, Secundi toni (Ven- 
ice 1503). Modern reprints of examples of 
his works are found in O. Gombosi, Jacob 
Obrecht, eine stilkritische Studie (1925; 
includes discussion of Agricola's style). See 
also A. Schering, Geschichte der Musik in 
Beispielen (1931) and G. Reese, Music in 
the Renaissance (N.Y., 1954). 

Agricola, Johann Friedrich, German or- 
ganist and composer; b. Dobitzschen, near 
Altenburg, Jan. 4, 1720; d. Berlin, Dec. 2, 
1774. He entered the Univ. of Leipzig as a 
law student in 1738, studying music mean- 
while with J. S. Bach, and later (1741) 
with Johann Quantz in Berlin. In 1751 
Agricola was appointed court composer to 
Frederick the Great, and in 1759 he suc- 
ceeded Karl Graun as director of the Royal 
Chapel. Agricola wrote 8 operas (produced 
between 1750-1772 at Berlin and Potsdam) 
and church music; he also made arrange- 
ments of the King's compositions. He taught 
singing and translated (1757) Pier Tosi's 
Opinioni de' cantori. Under the pseudonym 
'Olibrio' Agricola printed some polemical 
pamphlets directed against the theorist Fried- 
rich Marpurg; he was also a collaborator 
with Jakob Adlung in the latter's Musica 
mechanica organoedi (1768). 

Agricola, Martin, a very important Ger- 
man music theorist and writer; b. Schwiebus 
(Brandenburg), Jan. 6, 1486; d. Magde- 
burg, June 10, 1556. His real name was 
Sore, but he adopted the Latin name Agri- 



cola to indicate his peasant origin. Matthe- 
son says that he was the first to abandon 
the old tablature for modern notation, but 
this is not quite accurate; Agricola merely 
proposed an improved system for lute tabla- 
ture. From 1510 he was a private music 
teacher in Magdeburg. In 1527 was cantor 
at the first Lutheran church there. His 
friend and patron, Rhaw of Wittenberg, 
published most of Agricola's works, the mag- 
num opus being Musica instrumentalis 
deudsch (i.e., 'set in German'; 1st ed., Wit- 
tenberg, 1529; 4th ed., considerably revised, 
1545; modern reprint, Leipzig, 1896). This 
work, although derived from Virdung's Musi- 
ca getutscht, contains much new material and 
is set in couplet verse in the German vernac- 
ular. Further works are: Ein kurtz deudsche 
Musica (1529; 3d ed. as Musica choralis 
deudsch, 1533); Musica figuralis, with a 
supplement Von den proportionibus (1532); 
Scholia in musicam planam Venceslai Philo- 
matis (1538); Rudimenta musices (1539); 
Quaestiones vulgatiores in musicam (1543); 
Duo libri musices (posthumous; Wittenberg, 
1561; includes reprints of Musica choralis 
and Musica figuralis; and 54 Instrumentische 
Gesdnge as a supplement). Compositions: 
Ein Sangbuchlein aller Sonntags-Evangelien 
(1541); Neue deutsche geistliche Gesdnge 
(1544) ; Hymni aliquot sacri (1552) ; Melo- 
diae scholasticae (1557). — Cf. Heinz Funck, 
Martin Agricola (Wolfenbiittel, 1933). 

Aguado, Dionisio, Spanish guitar vir- 
tuoso and composer; b. Madrid, April 8, 
1784; d. there, Dec. 29, 1849. He studied 
with Manuel Garcia; went to Paris in 1825; 
gave numerous concerts there, attracting the 
attention of Rossini and Paganini. Return- 
ing to Madrid in 1838, he became a teacher 
of guitar. He wrote Estudio para la guitarra 
(Madrid, 1820) ; Escuela o metodo de gui- 
tarra (Madrid, 1825); also 45 waltzes; 6 
minuets, etc. 

Aguilar (ah-ghe-lahr'), Emanuel Abra- 
ham, English pianist and composer of 
Spanish descent; b. London, Aug. 23, 1824; 
d. there Feb. 18, 1904. He wrote a collection 
of canons and fugues as preparatory exer- 
cises for the playing of Bach; also composed 
3 symphonies, 2 overtures, much chamber 
music and the operas, Wave King (1855) 
and The Bridal Wreath (1863). 

Aguilera de Heredia, Sebastian, b. in 

Aragon, c. 1565; d. in Saragossa after 1620. 
He was organist at Huesca (1585-1603) 
and then 'maestro de musica' at Saragossa 
cathedral. He published there his collection 
Canticum Beatissimae Virginis Deiparae 

Mariae octo modis seu tonis compositum, 
quaternisque vocibus, quinis, senis et octonis 
concionandum (1618). It contains sacred 
choruses in 4, 5, 6 & 8 parts, derived from 
8 church models. A 'magnificat' by him can 
be found in Eslava's 'Lira Sacro-Hispana' ; 
an 'ensalada' is in J. Bonnet's Historical 
Organ Recitals, vol. VI (N. Y., 1940). His 
music is notable for skillful use of disson- 
ances ('falsas'). — Bibl.: H. Angles, Orgel- 
musik der Schola Hispanica von XV '.-XVII. 
Jahrhunderte in 'Peter Wagner-Festschrift' 
(Leipzig, 1926). 

Aguirre (ah-ger'-re), Julian, Argentine 
composer; b. Buenos Aires, Jan. 28, 1868; 
d. there, Aug. 13, 1924. He was taken to 
Spain as a child; studied at the Madrid 
Cons., returning to Buenos Aires in 1887. 
His works are mostly miniatures for piano 
in the form of stylized Argentine dances 
and songs. He wrote 61 opus numbers; Gato 
and Huella (op. 49), his most popular 
pieces, were orchestrated by Ansermet, who 
performed them in Buenos Aires (April 
6, 1930) ; the Huella was also arranged for 
violin and piano by Jascha Heifetz. Other 
notable works are Aires nacionales argen- 
tinos (op. 17) and Zamba (op. 40). Bibl.: 
J. F. Giacobbe, Julian Aguirre (Buenos 
Aires, 1945). 

Agujari (ah-goo-yah'-re), Lucrezia (known 
as La Bastardina, or Bastardella, being the 
natural daughter of a nobleman), a brilliant 
Italian singer; b. Ferrara, 1743; d. Parma, 
May 18, 1783. Her father entrusted her in- 
struction to P. Lambertini; in 1764 she made 
a triumphant debut at Florence, followed 
by a succession of brilliant appearances in 
Milan and other Italian cities; also in Lon- 
don. Mozart wrote of her, that she had "a 
lovely voice, a flexible throat, and an in- 
credibly high range." In 1780 she married 
the Italian composer, Giuseppe Colla, whose 
songs she constantly performed at her con- 
certs. Her compass was phenomenal, em- 
bracing 3 octaves (CMU 4 ). 

Ahle, Johann Georg, German organist 
and composer (son of Johann Rudolf Ahle) ; 
b. Muhlhausen, June, 1651 (baptized June 
12); d. there, Dec. 1, 1706. He succeeded 
his father as organist in Muhlhausen, and 
was made poet laureate by Emperor Leopold 
I. Among Ahle's works published during 
his. lifetime are Musikalische Friihlings-, 
Sommer-, Herbst-, und Winter gesprdche 
(1695-1701; written to illustrate his method 
of composition) ; Instrumentalische Friih- 
lingsmusik (1676); Anmuthige zehn vier- 
stimmige Viol-di-gamba Spiele (1681) and 



many volumes of dances, sacred and secular 

Ahle, Johann Rudolf, German composer; 
b. Muhlhausen, Dec. 24, 1625; d. there 
July 9, 1673. From 1646 he was cantor in 
Erfurt. He was organist of St. Blasius, Muhl- 
hausen, in 1654, and in 1661 was elected 
burgomaster of the town. Ahle was a diligent 
composer of church music and writer of 
theoretical works. His Compendium pro 
tonellis (1648) ran through 4 editions; 2nd 
(1673) as Brevis et perspicua introductio in 
artem musicum; 3rd and 4th (1690 and 
1704) as Kurze und deutliche Anleitung. 
His principal compositions include: Geist- 
liche Dialoge, songs in several parts (1648) ; 
Thiiringischer Lustgarten (1657); Geistliche 
Fest- und Communionandachten (posthu- 
mous). Many of his songs are still popular in 
Thuringia. A selection from his works 
was published by J. Wolf in 'Denkmaler 
deutscher Tonkunst' (vol. V). — Bibl.: J. 
Wolf, Johann Rudolf Ahle in 'Sammelbande 
der Internationalen Musik-Gesellschaft' 
(Leipzig, 1920, II, 3); A. Adrio in 'Die 
Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart.' 

Ahna. See De Ahna. 

Ahrens, Joseph, German composer; b. 
Sommersell, Westphalia, April 17, 1904. He 
studied with his father; in 1925 became a 
church organist in Berlin; since 1950 prof, 
of church music at the Berlin Musikhoch- 
schule. He has written a great number of 
organ works in a modern baroque style 
(toccatas, partitas, fugues, etc.) which are 
highly esteemed by organists; also motets 
and solo cantatas and 5 masses with organ: 
Missa gregoriana, Missa dorica, Missa chor- 
alis, Missa gotica and Missa hymnica. He 
published a handbook on improvisation as a 
basic science in music pedagogy. 

Aibl (ibl), Joseph, founder of a music 
publishing firm, established at Munich in 
1824; his successors were Eduard Spitzweg 
(from 1836), and his sons, Eugen and Otto. 
In 1904 'Universal Edition' bought the Aibl 

Aiblinger, Johann Kaspar, German con- 
ductor and composer; b. Wasserburg, Ba- 
varia, Feb. 23, 1779; d. Munich, May 6, 
1867. He studied music in Munich, then at 
Bergamo under Simon Mayr (1802); lived 
at Vicenza (1803-11), then became second 
maestro di cappella to the viceroy at Milan; 
founded the 'Odeon' (a society for the culti- 
vation of classical vocal music) at Venice, 
in collaboration with Abbe Trentino; was 
engaged (1819) for the Italian opera in 

Munich as maestro al cembalo; returned in 
1833 to Bergamo, and made the fine collec- 
tion of ancient classical music, now in the 
Staatsbibliothek at Munich. He wrote many 
sacred compositions (masses, requiems, li- 
turgies, psalms, etc.), which were very 
popular. He also wrote an opera, Rodrigo 
e Ximene (Munich, 1821), and 3 ballets. 

Aichinger, Gregor, important German 
church composer; b. Regensburg, 1564; d. 
Augsburg, Jan. 21, 1628. At the age of 13 
he went to Munich where he was under 
the tutelage of Orlando Lasso; then entered 
the Univ. of Ingolstadt. He made two jour- 
neys to Rome; visited Venice where he 
mastered the art of Venetian polyphony. He 
eventually settled in Augsburg as choir 
master and vicar of the Cathedral. He wrote 
almost exclusively for voices, to Latin texts; 
his sacred works are remarkable for their 
practical value and for the excellence of 
their musical content. Among his many 
published works are 3 books of Sacrae con- 
dones (Venice, 1590; Augsburg, 1595; Nur- 
emberg, 1597); Tricinia Mariana (Inns- 
bruck, 1598) ; Divinae laudes (Augsburg, 
1602) etc. His Cantiones ecclesiasticae cum 
basso generali et continuo (Dillingen, 1607) 
are noteworthy as one of the earliest works 
in which the term 'basso continuo' appears 
in the title. A selection of Aichinger's works 
is included in vol. X of 'Denkmaler der 
Tonkunst in Bayern,' prefaced with a bio- 
graphical article by the editor, Th. Kroyer. 
See also E. Fr. Schmid's article in 'Die 
Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart.' 

Aitken, Webster, American pianist; b. 
Los Angeles, June 17, 1908. He studied in 
Europe with Sauer and Schnabel; made his 
professional debut in Vienna (1929). Re- 
turning to America, he played a concert in 
New York (Nov. 17, 1935); in 1938 gave 
a series of recitals in New York in programs 
comprising all of Schubert's piano works. 
He has also appeared with chamber music 

Akeroyde, Samuel, English composer of 
songs; b. Yorkshire, about 1650; d. London, 
after 1706. He was in the service of James 
II in 1687 as 'Musician in Ordinary,' and 
wrote songs for at least eight plays produced 
in London between 1685 and 1706. His 
songs were printed in several contemporary 
collections: Durfey's 'Third Collection of 
Songs' (1685); 'The Theatre of Musick' 
(1685-87); 'Vinculum Societatis' (1687); 
'Comes Amoris' (1687-94); 'The Banquet 
of Musick' (1688); 'Thesaurus Musicus' 



Akimenko (ah-ke-men'-koh) Fyodor Step- 
anovitch, Russian composer; b. Kharkov, 
Feb. 20, 1876; d. Paris, Jan 8, 1945. He 
studied with Rimsky-Korsakov at the St. 
Petersburg Cons. (1886-90); then lived in 
Moscow and Kharkov. After the Russian 
revolution he settled in Paris. He wrote an 
opera The Queen of the Alps (unper- 
formed) ; Poeme lyrique for orch.; Pastorale 
for oboe and piano; Petite ballade for clar- 
inet and piano, 2 Sonata-fantasias and num- 
erous character pieces for piano, many of 
which were published by Belaiev. 

Akses, Necil Kazim, Turkish composer; 
b. Istanbul, May 6, 1908. He studied cello 
and theory at the Istanbul Cons. In 1926 
he studied in Vienna with Joseph Marx; 
in Prague, with Alois Haba and Josef Suk 
(1931). Returning to Turkey in 1935, he 
became instructor at the Teachers' College 
in Ankara; he also took lessons with Hinde- 
mith, who was teaching there at the time. 
In 1936 Akses was appointed prof, of com- 
position at the Ankara State Cons., and was 
its director in 1948-49. His music, derived 
from Turkish folk rhythms, is in the modern 
idiom. Works: Mete, one-act opera (1933); 
Bayonder, opera (Ankara, Dec. 27, 1934) ; 
incidental music to Antigone and King 
Oedipus (Sophocles) ; Ciftetelli, dance for 
orch. (1933); Ankara Castle, tone-poem 
(Ankara, Oct. 22, 1942); Poem for cello 
and orch. (Ankara, June 29, 1946) ; Ballade 
for orch. (Ankara, April 14, 1948); string 
quartet (1946); Allegro feroce for saxo- 
phone and piano (1931); flute sonata 
(1939) and piano pieces. 

Akutagawa, Yasushi, Japanese composer; 
b. Tokyo, July 10, 1925. He studied at the 
Tokyo Academy of Music; has been partic- 
ularly successful in writing for the ballet. 
The following ballets were produced in 
Tokyo: The Dream of the Lake (Nov. 6, 
1950); Paradise Lost (March 17, 1951); 
Kappa (July 21, 1951). He has also written 
a symphonic triptych, which he conducted 
in Tokyo (Sept. 26, 1948). 

Alain, Jehan, French composer, b. Paris, 
Feb. 3, 1911; killed in action at Petits-Puis, 
near Saumur, June 20, 1940. He composed 
his first piece Etude sur un the~me de quatre 
notes at the age of 8; studied with his 
father, an organist ; later with Marcel Dupre, 
Paul Dukas and Roger-Ducasse. Alain wrote 
127 opus numbers, mostly for organ or 
piano. Bibl. : B. Gavoty, Jehan Alain, 
Musicien Francais (Paris, 1945). 

Alaleona, Domenico, Italian theorist and 
composer; b. Montegiorgio, Nov. 16, 1881; 

d. there, Dec. 28, 1928. He studied organ 
and clarinet in his native town; in 1901 
went to Rome where he studied piano with 
Sgambati, organ with Renzi and theory with 
De Sanctis at Santa Cecilia; was then active 
as choral conductor in Leghorn and Rome; 
in 1911 obtained the post of prof, of musical 
esthetics at Santa Cecilia. He wrote an opera 
Mirra (1912; produced in Rome, March 
31, 1920, with critical acclaim, but not re- 
vived) ; a Requiem; Sinfonia italiana; 12 
Canzoni italiane and 4 Laudi italiane for 
various instrumental groups; a cycle of 18 
songs Melodie Pascoliane and other works. 
However, his importance lies in his theoret- 
ical writings. His valuable book Studii sulla 
storia dell' oratorio musicale in Italia 
(Turin, 1908) was reprinted in Milan 
(1945) as Storia dell' oratorio musicale in 
Italia, and is now a standard work. A be- 
liever in musical progress, he contributed 
several original ideas to the theory of modern 
music, notably in his article L'armonia 
modernissima ('Rivista Musicale,' 1911), and 
originated the term 'dodecafonia.' He also 
contributed articles on Italian composers to 
Eaglefield-HulFs Dictionary of Modern 
Music and Musicians (London, 1924). The 
entry on Alaleona in that dictionary contains 
a complete list of his works and bibliography. 

Alard (ah-lar'), Jean-Delphin, a distin- 
guished violinist of the French school; b. 
Bayonne, March 8, 1815; d. Paris, Feb. 22, 
1888. A pupil of Habeneck at Paris Cons. 
(1827), his celebrity dates from 1831; he 
succeeded Baillot as prof, in 1843, and as 
leader of the royal orchestra, teaching in the 
Cons, till 1875. A fine instructor (Sarasate 
was his pupil), he publ. a Violin School of 
high merit, a selection from 18th-century 
classics (Les maitres classiques du violon), 
and numerous brilliant and popular pieces 
for violin (concertos, etudes, fantasias, etc.). 

Alary, Jules (Giulio) Eugene Abraham, 

Italian-French composer; b. Mantua, March 
16, 1814; d. Paris, April 17, 1891. He 
studied at the Cons, of Milan; then played 
the flute at La Scala. In 1838 he settled in 
Paris as a successful voice teacher and com- 
poser. He wrote numerous operas, among 
them Rosamunda (Florence, June 10, 
1840) ; Le tre nozze (Paris, March 29, 1851; 
a polka-duet from it, sung by Henrietta 
Sontag and Lablache, was highly popular), 
and Sardanapalo (St. Petersburg, Feb. 16, 
1852). His opera La voix humaine had the 
curious distinction of being staged at the 
Paris Opera (Dec. 30, 1861) with the sole 
purpose of making use of the scenery left 
over after the fiasco of Tannhauser (the ac- 



tion of Alary's opera takes place in Wart- 
burg, as in Tannhauser). It held the stage 
for 13 performances (Tannhauser had 
three). Alary also wrote a mystery play 
Redemption (Paris, April 14, 1850), much 
sacred music and some chamber works. 

Alayrac, d.' See Dalayrac. 

Albanese, Licia, Italian-American soprano; 
b. Bari, July 22, 1913. She studied with 
Giuseppina Baldassare-Tedeschi; made her 
opera debut at Parma in Madama Butterfly 
(Dec. 10, 1935) ; sang the same role in her 
first appearance with the Metropolitan 
Opera (Feb. 9, 1940). She lived in Italy 
during World War II; returning to America 
in 1945, she sang with Toscanini and the 
NBC Symphony; also continued to appear 
with the Metropolitan Opera. 

Albani (ahl-bah'-ne), Emma, (stage name 
of Marie Louise Cecilia Emma Lajeunesse) 
Canadian dramatic soprano; b. Chambly, 
near Montreal, Nov. 1, 1847; d. London, 
April 3, 1930. She sang in a Catholic church 
in Albany, N. Y. in 1864; was then sent to 
Europe for study, first with Duprez in Paris, 
and then with Lamperti in Milan (Lamperti 
dedicated to her his treatise on the trill). 
She made her debut as Amina in La Son- 
nambula in Messina in 1870, under the 
name of Albani, in honor of the American 
city that gave her the first start. After 
further appearances in Italy, she made her 
London debut, again as Amina (Covent 
Garden, April 2, 1872). In 1873 she sang 
in Moscow and St. Petersburg. Her Amer- 
ican operatic debut was in the same role 
at the New York Academy of Music, in 
Max Strakosch's company (Oct. 21, 1874). 
It paved the way for later successes with 
the Metropolitan Opera, where she made 
her first appearance as Gilda (Dec. 23, 
1891). Her last important operatic engage- 
ment was as Isolde at Covent Garden (June 
26, 1896). She sang in concerts, however, 
for several years longer. Her repertoire in- 
cluded Marguerite, Mignon, Ophelia, Elsa, 
Elisabeth, Lucia and Desdemona. Albani 
married Ernest Gye, the lessee of Covent 
Garden, in 1878. In her singing, she com- 
bined high technical skill with profound 
feeling. She was equally successful on the 
operatic stage and in oratorio. In apprecia- 
tion of her services to British art, she was 
made a Dame of the British Empire (1925). 
She published her memoirs, Emma Albani: 
Forty Years of Song (London, 1911). 

Albani, Mattia (real name Mathias Al- 
ban), violin maker; b. S. Niccolo di Kaltern 
(Alto Adige) March, 1621 (baptized March 

28); d. Bolzano, Feb. 7, 1712. Pupil of 
Jakob Stainer. Violins of his are extant dat- 
ing from as early as the end of 1644. His 
best examples date from 1680 onward. Ow- 
ing to the great vogue his violins enjoyed, 
many Albani forgeries are in existence. A 
son, Giuseppe, his pupil, worked from 1680 
to 1722 at Bolzano, and another son, 
Michele (1677-1730) at Graz. Other violin 
makers named Albani, or at least using the 
name on their instruments (perhaps for its 
commercial value) are the following, none 
appearing to have been connected with the 
family of the original Mattia: Mattia 
(Rome, c. 1650-1715); Nicola (worked at 
Mantua, c. 1763); Filippo (active c. 1773); 
Francesco (active at Graz, c. 1724); Michele 
(at Palermo, 18th cent.); and Paolo (at 
Palermo and Cremona, 1630-70). 

Albeniz, Isaac, eminent Spanish com- 
poser; b. Camprodon, May 29, 1860; d. 
Cambo-Bains (Pyrenees), May 18, 1909. He 
exhibited precocious musical ability. When 
he was six, his mother took him to Paris, 
where he had a few private lessons with 
Marmontel. Upon his return to Spain, he 
gave concerts with his sister Clementine, 
also a child prodigy. In 1868 the family 
moved to Madrid, and Albeniz entered the 
Conservatory there. Possessed by a spirit of 
adventure, he ran away from home at the 
age of 13, and traveled in Spain, giving 
concerts. He then stowed away on a ship 
for Puerto Rico; from there he went to 
Cuba and to the U.S., supporting himself 
by playing concerts in private and in public. 
He returned to Spain in June, 1875, and 
was befriended in Madrid by Count Guil- 
lermo Morphy, who enabled him to under- 
take serious study, first at the Brussels Cons, 
with Brassin (piano) and Dupont and 
Gevaert (composition) ; and then at the 
Leipzig Cons, with Jadassohn and Reinecke. 
He went to Budapest in 1878 to meet Liszt, 
but it is doubtful that he actually became 
Liszt's pupil. Albeniz married Rosita Jor- 
dana in 1883; their daughter, Laura Albeniz, 
became a well known painter. In 1893 he 
settled in Paris; he also gave frequent piano 
recitals in Spain, and visited London. His 
early works were for the theater; he wrote 
several operas: The Magic Opal (London, 
Jan 19, 1893); Enrico Clifford (Barcelona, 
May 8, 1895); San Antonio de la Florida 
(Madrid, Oct. 26, 1894; also staged in 
Brussels, Jan. 3, 1905 under the title Er- 
mitage fleuri): Pepita JimSnez (Barcelona, 
Jan. 5, 1896). He undertook the composi- 
tion of an operatic trilogy King Arthur, of 
which only the first part, Merlin, was com- 
pleted. In the meantime he met Felipe 



Pedrell, and was greatly influenced by 
Pedrell's passionate championship of national 
Spanish music. Albeniz's first nationalistically 
inspired composition was the rhapsody Catal- 
onia for piano and orch. (1899). In 1906-09 
he wrote his most remarkable national work 
Iberia, a set of 12 piano pieces: Evocacidn, 
El Puerto, Fete-Dieu a Seville, Rondena, Al- 
meria, Triana, El Albaicin, El Polo, Lava- 
pies, Malaga, Jerez, Eritana. In this suite, 
which is a brilliant example of virtuoso writ- 
ing for the instrument, Albeniz applied the 
impressionistic technique as developed by De- 
bussy. He left unfinished two other piano 
works, Azulejos (completed by Granados) 
and Navarra (completed by D. de Severac; 
orchestrated by Fernandez Arbos). Arbos 
also made effective orchestral transcriptions 
of Evocacidn, Triana, and Fete-Dieu a 
Seville (also orchestrated by Stokowski). 
Among Albeniz's smaller piano pieces, the 
Seguidillas, Cordova, and the Tango in D 
have attained wide popularity. Bibl. : J. de 
Marliave, Etudes musicales (Paris, 1917); 
G. Jean-Aubry, Isaac Albeniz, in the 
'Musical Times' (Dec. 1917) ; H. Klein, 
Albeniz's Opera, Pepita Jimenez, in the 
'Musical Times' (March, 1918); G. Jean- 
Aubry, La Musique et les Nations (Paris, 
1922; English translation, 1923); Henri 
Collet, Albeniz et Granados (1925); E. 
Istel, Albeniz, in the 'Mus. Quarterly' (Jan., 
1929) ; A. de las Heras, Vida de Albeniz 
(Barcelona, 1940) ; M. Raux Deledicque, 
Albeniz, su vida inquieta y ardorosa (Buenos 
Aires, 1950) ; A. Sagardia, Isaac Albeniz 
(Buenos Aires, 1951). 

Albeniz, Mateo (Antonio Perez de), 
Spanish composer; date of birth unknown; 
d. St. Sebastian, June 23, 1831; was a 
church organist; published Instruccidn me- 
lodica especulativa y practica para ensenar a 
cantar y a taner la musica antigua (S. 
Sebastian, 1802). His sonata for piano was 
published by Joaquin Nin in 16 Sonates an- 
ciennes d'auteurs espagnols (Paris, 1925). 

Albeniz, Pedro, Spanish organist and 
composer; son of Mateo Albeniz; b. Lo- 
grono, April 14, 1795; d. Madrid, April 12, 
1855. He studied with his father; from his 
early youth played the organ in various 
Spanish towns; later studied piano in Paris 
with Kalkbrenner and Henri Herz. In 1830 
he was appointed prof, of piano at the 
Madrid Cons.; in 1834 became court or- 
ganist. He was an energetic promoter of 
modern methods of piano playing in Spain. 
He published a manual (1840) which was 
adopted at the Madrid Cons. ; also wrote 
some 70 piano pieces in a highly developed 

technical style (rondos, variations, medleys, 

Albergati, Pirro Capacelli, Conte d', 

Italian composer; b. Carrati, Sept. 20, 1663; 
d. Bologna, June 22, 1735. He wrote 2 
operas, Gli amici (Bologna, Aug. 16, 1699) 
and // Principe selvaggio (Bologna, 1712), 
and numerous oratorios which were regularly 
performed at various churches in Bologna 
(1686-1732): Nabuccodonosor; Giobbe; S. 
Orsola; II convito di Baldassarre; L'inno- 
cenza di S. Eufemia; S. Catarina; S. 
Eustachio; Maria annunciata dall' angelo; 
La morte di Cristo; etc. Besides these works, 
Albergati published during his lifetime 15 
opus numbers, consisting of vocal and in- 
strumental music, among them Balletti, Cor- 
renti, Cantate morali, Cantate spirituali, 
Messa e salmi, Cantate da camera, Motetti 
et antifone, Capricci, 12 sonatas for 2 
violins and bass, etc. 

Alberghetti, Anna Maria, Italian soprano; 
b. Rodi, May 5, 1936. She first sang in pub- 
lic at the age of 6; gave recitals in Milan 
at 9. She came to America in 1950; made 
her debut in Carnegie Hall; has also 
appeared in films. 

Albert, Heinrich, German composer; b. 
Lobenstein, Saxony, July 8, 1604; d. 
Konigsberg, Oct. 6, 1651. In 1622 he 
went to Dresden to study music with 
his cousin Heinrich Schiitz; then stud- 
ied law at the Univ. of Leipzig; traveled 
to Warsaw with a peace delegation in 1627, 
but was seized as a prisoner of war by the 
Swedes; upon his release in 1628 he settled 
in Konigsberg; was appointed cathedral or- 
ganist in 1631; took courses with Johann 
Stobaus. He publ. in Konigsberg 8 books of 
arias (1638-50); a cantata Musikalische 
Kurbs-Hutte (1645) consisting of a cycle 
of 12 terzets to Albert's own texts (a mod- 
ern reprint was issued by J. M. Miiller- 
Blattau in 1932). A selection of his songs 
is found in the 'Neudrucke deutscher Litte- 
raturwerke' (Halle, 1883); the arias in vol- 
umes XII and XIII of 'Denkmaler deutsch- 
er Tonkunst.' Bibl.: L. H. Fischer, Gedichte 
des Konigsberger Dichterkreises (Halle, 
1883); H. J. Moser, Corydon (1933). 

d' Albert (dahl-bar'), Eugene (Francis 
Charles), British-born German pianist and 
composer; b. Glasgow, April 10, 1864; d. 
Riga, March 3, 1932. His father, Charles 
Louis Napoleon d' Albert (b. Nienstetten, 
near Hamburg, Feb. 25, 1809; d. London, 
May 26, 1886), was a dancing master who 
wrote popular music; it was from him that 
d'Albert received his early instruction in 



music. At the age of 12 he entered the 
National Training School in London, where 
he studied piano with Pauer and theory 
with Stainer, Prout and Sir Arthur Sullivan. 
He made extraordinary progress both as 
pianist and composer, and after several ap- 
pearances at the Popular Concerts, was the 
soloist in Schumann's concerto at the Crystal 
Palace, London (Feb. 5, 1881). On Oct. 24, 
1881, when only 17, he played his own 
piano concerto at one of Hans Richter's 
concerts, arousing great enthusiasm; the 
press compared him to Mozart and Mendels- 
sohn. He received a Mendelssohn fellow- 
ship, and went to Vienna; later he studied 
with Liszt, who was greatly impressed by his 
technique and often referred to him as 'the 
young Tausig.' In 1895, d'Albert was ap- 
pointed conductor at Weimar; in 1907, be- 
came director of the High School for Music 
in Berlin. In the wake of his success, he 
repudiated his English birth, adopting Ger- 
man citizenship, and made repeated state- 
ments derogatory to English culture and 
even to his former English teachers. He was 
vocal in his enmity to England during the 
first World War, which led in turn to an 
understandable repugnance among British 
musicians to accept his music. D'Albert com- 
posed industriously. He published two piano 
concertos (in B minor and E) ; a cello con- 
certo in C; 2 overtures (Hyperion and Es- 
ther); a symphony in F; an orchestral suite 
in 5 movements (1924); a piano sonata, a 
piano suite in 5 movements; 2 string quar- 
tets; Der Mensch und das Leben for 6-part 
chorus and orch. (op. 14) ; 4 piano pieces, 
op. 16 (Waltz, Scherzo, Intermezzo, Bal- 
lade), minor piano pieces and songs. 
However, his main interest was in the field 
of opera. Of his 20 operas, the most success- 
ful were: Tie f land, first staged at the 
German opera in Prague (Nov. 15, 1903), 
and Die toten Augen (Dresden, March 5, 
1916). The list of his other operas includes: 
Der Rubin (Karlsruhe, Oct. 12, 1893); 
Ghismonda (Dresden, Nov. 28, 1895) ; Ger- 
not (Mannheim, April 11, 1897); Die 
Abreise (Frankfurt, Oct. 20, 1898); Kain 
(Berlin, Feb. 17, 1900) ; Der Improvisator 
(Berlin, Feb. 20, 1902) ; Flauto solo (Prague, 
Nov. 12,. 1905); Tragaldabas (or Der ge- 
borgte Ehemann; Hamburg, Dec. 3, 1907); 
Izeyl (Hamburg, Nov. 6, 1909); Die ver- 
schenkte Frau (Vienna, Feb. 6, 1912); 
Liebesketten (Vienna, Nov. 12, 1912); Der 
Stier von Oliver a (Leipzig, March 10, 
1918) ; Revolutionshochzeit (Leipzig, Oct. 
26, 1919); Sirocco (Darmstadt, May 18, 
1921); Mareike von Nymwegen (Hamburg, 
Oct. 31, 1923); Der Golem (Frankfurt, 

Nov. 14 1926); Die schwarze Orchidee 
(Leipzig, Dec. 1, 1928); Mister Wu (un- 
finished; completed by Leo Blcch; Dresden, 
Sept. 29, 1932). Despite a brilliant begin- 
ning, Eugene d'Albert did not justify his 
early promise, and his operas and other 
works are rarely revived. His musical idiom 
oscillates between the Italian melodic style 
and German contrapuntal writing, and fails 
to achieve originality. Eugene d'Albert's per- 
sonal life was a stormy one. He was married 
six times; his first wife was Teresa Carreno 
(1892-95); his second was the singer, 
Hermine Finck. — Cf. W. Raupp, Eugen 
d'Albert: ein Kiinstler- und Menschenschick- 
sal (Leipzig, 1930). 

Albert, Karel, Belgian composer; b. Ant- 
werp, April 16, 1901. He studied at the 
Cons, of Antwerp; conducted a traveling 
theater company (1926-31) ; later was active 
as music critic. He has written a ballet The 
Magic Lantern (1943); a number of scores 
of incidental music; 4 symphonies; several 
symph. poems and smaller works. 

Albert, Prince Consort of Queen Victoria, 
b. Rosenau, Coburg, Aug. 26, 1819; d. 
Windsor, Dec. 14, 1861. He married Queen 
Victoria on Feb. 10, 1840; lent energetic 
support to musical activities in England, 
sponsoring orchestras and choral societies. 
He studied organ and theory, and acquired 
an estimable technique of composition; 
wrote Invocazione alia armonia for chorus 
and orch. His songs were published in 1881 
under the title The Collected Compositions 
of his Royal Highness the Prince Consort. 
They reveal a romantic musical temper, 
influenced by Mendelssohn. 

Albert!, Domenico, Venetian composer; 
b. Venice, 1710; d. Formio, or Rome, c. 
1740. He studied with Lotti, and won con- 
siderable renown as singer and harpsichord 
player; wrote 3 operas, Endimione, Galatea, 
and Olimpiade. In 1737 he was a member 
of the Venetian Embassy in Rome, and 
made several appearances there as singer 
and player. His fame in music history rests 
on his reputed invention of the arpeggio 
style of keyboard accompaniment, which be- 
came known as the 'Alberti Bass'. His set 
of 8 sonatas, published by Walsh in London, 
gives many illustrations of this device. 

Albertsen, Per Hjort, Norwegian com- 
poser; b. Trondheim, July 27, 1919. He 
studied architecture, then turned to music; 
was church organist in Trondheim; later 
studied with Tarp in Copenhagen. He has 
written a concertino for flute and orch.; 
an oratorio Bendik og Arolilja; choruses and 
piano pieces. 



Albini, Srecko, Croatian composer and 
conductor; b. Zupanja, Dec. 10, 1869; d. 
Zagreb, April 18, 1933. He studied music in 
Vienna; then was theater conductor in Graz 
and Zagreb. He composed an opera Maricon; 
a ballet The Lake of Plotvice; the operettas 
Nabob, Madame Troubadour, Baron Trenk 
(1908; achieved considerable popularity); 
piano pieces and songs. 

Albinoni, Tomaso, Italian violinist and 
composer; b. Venice, June 8, 1671 ; d. there, 
Jan. 17, 1750. Between 1694 and 1740 he 
produced 45 operas, most of them in Venice. 
He rarely absented himself from Venice, but 
it is known that he attended the premiere 
of his opera Griselda in Florence (1703); 
in 1722 he was in Munich where he pre- 
sented his festive opera / veri amici. It is, 
however, as a composer of instrumental 
music that he is significant; Bach, his close 
contemporary, admired Albinoni's music; 
made arrangements of two fugues from Al- 
binoni's trio-sonatas (Bach Gesellschaft, Nos. 
437, 438). The following works are avail- 
able in modern editions: violin concerto 
(ed. by Vieweg) ; 2 violin sonatas and a 
trio-sonata (ed. by Nagel) ; organ transcrip- 
tions of 2 violin concertos (ed. by Walther) ; 
flute sonata (ed. by Schaffler) ; 3 oboe con- 
certos (ed. by B. Paumgartner, London, 
1948). A detailed catalogue of Albinoni's 
works and a thematic analysis are given by 
R. Giazotto in his exhaustive monograph, 
Tomaso Albinoni (Milan, 1945). 

Albonese, Afranio. See Afranio. 

Alboni, Marietta (real name, Maria Anna 
Marzia Alboni), famous Italian contralto; 
b. Cesena, March 6, 1823; d. Ville d'Avray, 
France, June 23, 1894. She studied in Bol- 
ogna with Monbelli; in 1841 was introduced 
to Rossini who agreed to give her lessons. 
She made her debut in Bologna, in Pacini's 
opera Saffo (Oct. 3, 1842); shortly after- 
wards, sang at La Scala in Rossini's Assedio 
di Corinto (Dec. 30, 1842). She then sang 
in Russia, and obtained great success during 
the season of 1844-45 in St. Petersburg, 
appearing at the Italian opera with Tam- 
burini, Rubini and Mme. Viardot. After ap- 
pearances in Prague, Berlin and Hamburg, 
she appeared in the spring of 1847 in Rome 
and at Covent Garden where she became 
a rival of Jenny Lind with the public. So 
successful were her London appearances 
that her fees were increased to 2,000 pounds 
a season. She gave four 'concerts-spectacles' 
in Paris in Oct., 1847: made her Paris opera 
debut in Rossini's Semiramide (Dec. 2, 
1847). Auber wrote the opera Zerlinda for 

her, and she sang at its premiere (May 16, 
1851). She made an American tour from 
June, 1852, till May, 1853, in concert and 
opera, appearing in New York, Boston and 
other cities. On July 21, 1853, Alboni mar- 
ried Count Pepoli (d. Oct. 10, 1867); on 
Jan. 22, 1877 she married Charles Zieger, 
a French officer, and settled in France. Suf- 
fering from excessive obesity, she gradually 
retired from the stage, but continued to ap- 
pear occasionally in concert, singing while 
sitting in a large chair. Her vocal range 
was exceptional, from the contralto G to 
high soprano C, enabling her to sing soprano 
parts. She bequeathed a large sum of money 
to the City of Paris. In appreciation, the 
City Council, on Oct. 15, 1895, named a 
street in Passy after her. Arthur Pougin's 
monograph Marietta Alboni (Paris, 1912) 
quotes many of her autobiographical notes 
and presents a documented outline of her 

Albrecht, Evgeny Karlovitch, Russian 
conductor; son of Karl Albrecht and brother 
of Konstantin Albrecht; b. St. Petersburg, 
July 16, 1842; d. there, Feb. 9, 1894. He 
studied violin with Ferdinand David at the 
Leipzig Cons. (1857-60). Upon his return 
to Russia he conducted the Italian opera 
in St. Petersburg (1860-77); was also mu- 
sical director of military schools there (1872- 
77). In 1877 he became inspector of the 
Imperial Orchestras; in 1892 was music 
librarian of the Imperial Theaters. He pub- 
lished 3 albums of Russian folksongs and 
a book of 128 children's songs. 

Albrecht, Hans, German musicologist; b. 
Magdeburg, March 31, 1902. He studied at 
the Univ. of Berlin (1921-25) ; then taught 
music in Essen (1925-37). During World 
War II was prof, at the State Institute in 
Berlin (1939-45); from 1947 prof, at the 
Univ. of Kiel. He has publ. a valuable 
monograph Kaspar Othmayr, Leben und 
Werke (Kassel, 1943) ; several other papers 
of documentary significance remain in 

Albrecht, Johann Lorenz, German music 
scholar; b. Gormar (Thuringia), Jan. 8, 
1732; d. Miihlhausen, 1773. He studied at 
Leipzig; edited Adlung's Musica mechanica 
and Siebengestirn (Berlin, 1768) ; wrote an 
essay Abhandlung uber die Frage: ob die 
Musik beim Gottesdienst zu dulden sei oder 
nicht (1764), a manual Griindliche Ein- 
leitung in die Anfangslehren der Tonkunst 
(1761), and a treatise Vom Hasse der 
Musik (1765); contributed articles to Mar- 
purg's 'Kritische Beitrage,' etc. He also 
composed several cantatas. 



Albrccht, Karl, German-Russian conduc- 
tor; father of Konstantin and Evg. Albrecht; 
b. Posen, Aug. 27, 1807; d. Gatchina, Feb. 
24, 1863. He came to Russia in 1838; for 
12 years (1838-50) was conductor at the 
Imperial Theaters, and gave the first per- 
formance of Glinka's opera Russian and 
Ludmilla (1842). 

Albrecht, Konstantin Karlovitch, Russian 
cellist; son of Karl Albrecht and brother of 
Evgeny Albrecht; b. Elberfeld, Oct. 4, 1836; 
d. Moscow, June 26, 1893. He was brought 
to Moscow by his father at the age of 2 
and received his musical education from 
him. In 1854 he became a member of the 
orch. of the Moscow Opera. In 1860 he 
collaborated with Nicholas Rubinstein in 
organizing the Moscow Cons.; in 1866 he 
was appointed inspector there; also taught 
elementary theory. He was an intimate 
friend of Tchaikovsky and was a notable 
figure in the Moscow musical world. He 
published a manual on solfeggio and com- 
piled several collections of choral works. 

Albrecht, Max, German composer and 
conductor; b. Chemnitz, March 14, 1890. 
He studied in Leipzig with Reger; con- 
ducted opera in Chemnitz (1911-13), and in 
Neisse (1914-15); then lived in Dresden. 
He wrote the operas Neros Ende (1927); 
Rama und Sita (1929) ; Amosa (1930) ; Die 
Briicke (1932); a cantata Marathon; 2 
symph. poems, and a number of songs. 

Albrecht, Otto Edwin, American musi- 
cologist; b. Philadelphia, July 8, 1899. He 
studied at the Univ. of Pennsylvania (A.B., 
1921; M.A., 1925; Ph.D., 1931); then be- 
came lecturer in music and curator of the 
Music Library there and in 1941 vice-pres. 
of the Music Library Association. His writ- 
ings include Four Latin Plays of St. Nicholas 
(Philadelphia and London, 1935); Brahms 
and von Billow; 18th-century Music in the 
Univ. Library; Francis Hopkinson (Univ. 
of Pennsylvania Library 'Chronicle,' 1934, 
1936, 1938); Microfilm Archives and Mu- 
sic ology (American Musicological Soc. Pa- 
pers, 1938); A Census of Autograph Music 
Manuscripts of European Composers in 
American Libraries (Philadelphia, 1953). 

Albrechtsberger, Johann Georg, famous 
Austrian theoretical writer, composer and 
teacher; b. Klosterneuburg, near Vienna, 
Feb. 3, 1736; d. Vienna, March 7, 1809. 
After holding positions as organist and 
music-master in smaller towns (especially 12 
years in Melk, where his fine playing at- 
tracted the Emperor Joseph's notice), in 

1772 he was engaged in Vienna as 'Rcgens 
chori' to the Carmelites; app. court organist 
in the same year, and, in 1792, Kapellm. At 
St. Stephen's cathedral. His important the- 
oretical writings (complete ed. publ. by 
Seyfried) are: Griindliche Anweisung zur 
Composition (1790 and 1818; French cd., 
1814) ; Kurzgefasste Methode, den General- 
bass zu erlernen (1792; also in French); 
Clavierschule fur Anfanger (1808); and 
some lesser essays. Of his 244 compositions, 
only 27 have been printed (fugues; piano 
quartet; a Concerto leger for piano, 2 violins 
and bass; organ preludes; quartets, quintets, 
sextets, octets for strings) ; the MS. scores (in 
the possession of Prince Esterhazy-Galantha) 
comprise 26 masses, 43 graduals, 34 offer- 
tories, 6 oratorios; 28 trios, 42 quartets, and 
38 quintets for strings; besides a great vari- 
ety of church music. A selection from his 
instrumental works was publ. in 'Denkmaler 
der Tonkunst in Osterreich,' vol. XVI, 2. 
He had many celebrated pupils, among 
whom was Beethoven (from Jan., 1794 to 
March, 1795). Scholars regard the quality 
of instruction he gave to Beethoven as of a 
very high order. Cf. A. Weissenback, /. G. 
Albrechtsberger als Kirchenkomponist, in 
'Studien zur Musikwissenschaft' (vol. 14, 
1927) ; R. Oppell, Albrechtsberger als Binde- 
glied zwischen Bach und Beethoven, in 'Neue 
Zeitschrift fur Musik' (May 18, 1911). 

Alcock, John, Sr., English organist; b. 
London, April 11, 1715; d. Lichfield, Feb. 
23, 1806. He was a chorister at St. Paul's 
Cathedral; then studied with the blind 
organist, Stanley. Subsequently he held posi- 
tions as organist at St. Andrew's Church, 
Plymouth (1737), St. Lawrence's Church, 
Reading (1742), Lichfield Cathedral 
(1750), etc. In 1761 he took the degree of 
D. Mus. at Oxford. He published several 
suites for harpsichord, and collections of 
anthems and other sacred choral works. He 
wrote numerous glees, for which he obtained 
prizes from the Catch Club. His son, also 
named John (b. Plymouth, 1740; d. Walsall, 
Staffs., March 30, 1791) was organist at 
various churches and author of anthems. 

Alda, Frances (real name Frances Davies) , 
lyric soprano ; b. Christchurch, New Zealand, 
May 31, 1883; d. Venice, Sept 18, 1952. 
She studied with Marchesi in Paris, and 
made her debut as Manon at the Opera- 
Comique (April 15, 1904). She later sang 
in Brussels, London, Milan, Warsaw and 
Buenos Aires. Her debut at the Metropolitan 
Opera was on Dec. 7, 1908 (opposite 
Caruso in Rigoletto); her farewell appear- 
ance there, on Dec. 28, 1929 in Manon 



Lescaut. She also made numerous recital 
tours in the U.S. Her principal roles in- 
cluded Louise, Mimi, Manon, Marguerite, 
Juliette, Gilda, Violetta and Aida. She mar- 
ried Giulio Gatti-Casazza, manager of the 
Metropolitan Opera, on April 3, 1910; 
divorced, 1928; married Ray Vir Den in 
1941. In 1939 she became an American 
citizen. She wrote an autobiography Men, 
Women and Tenors (Boston, 1937). 

Alden, John Carver, American pianist 
and teacher; b. Boston, Sept. 11, 1852; d. 
Cambridge, Mass., Oct. 20, 1935. He 
studied with Carl Faelten and was later 
associated with him at the New England 
Cons.; also took lessons with Plaidy at the 
Leipzig Cons. He wrote a piano concerto 
and several songs to German texts. 

Alderighi, Dante, Italian composer and 
pianist; b. Taranto, July 7, 1898. He went 
to Rome as a child and studied with Gio- 
vanni Sgambati; from 1911-14 he was in 
Leipzig, studying piano with Teichmuller 
and theory with Krehl. Returning to Italy, 
he took lessons in composition with Mali- 
piero ; gave many recitals and began to write 
music criticism. In 1936 he was appointed 
prof, of piano at Santa Cecilia in Rome. 
He has written two piano concertos; Fan- 
tasia for piano and chamber orch. (1932); 
Rococo Suite for band (1932; revised 
1952); oratorio, Maria a Nazareth (1949); 
Divertimento for piano and strings (1952); 
also many choral works. 

Aldrich, Henry, English music scholar; 
b. Westminster, 1647; d. Oxford, Dec. 14, 
1710. A man of versatile talents, excelling 
in music, but also distinguished as an archi- 
tect, theologian, linguist and logician. He 
was educated at Christ Church, Oxford, re- 
ceiving the degree of M.A. in 1669; in 
1681 he became a canon, and in 1689, Dean 
of Christ Church, and exercised decisive in- 
fluence on the teaching of music and other 
arts. He wrote the learned works: On the 
Commencement of Greek Music; Theory 
of Organ-building; Theory of Modern In- 
struments; composed several services (one 
of which, in G, is still sung) ; and, in a 
lighter vein, glees and catches (among 
them the popular Catches on Tobacco). 
The collections of Boyce, Arnold and Page 
contain numerous pieces by Aldrich. 

Aldrich, Perley Dunn, American vocal 
teacher; b. Blackstone, Mass., Nov. 6, 1863; 
d. Philadelphia, Nov. 20, 1933. He studied 
at the New England Cons. (1883-86); 
then took singing lessons with William 
Shakespeare in London (1892-95) and 

with Sbriglia in Paris (1903); acted as 
Sbriglia's assistant in the summer classes 
in 1904 and 1908. He settled as vocal 
teacher in Philadelphia; was the first head 
of the vocal dept. at the Curtis Inst. He 
published a volume Vocal Economy (1895) ; 
composed several choruses, among them 
The Sleeping Wood Nymph for mixed 
voices (1896). 

Aldrich, Putnam (Calder), American 
harpsichord player and musicologist; b. 
South Swansea, Mass., July 14, 1904. He 
studied at Yale Univ. (B.A., 1926); then 
went to Europe and took piano lessons with 
Tobias Matthay in London (1926-27) and 
harpsichord with Wanda Landowska in 
Paris (1929-33); later took his Ph. D. at 
Harvard Univ. ( 1 942 ) . He has given harpsi- 
chord recitals and played harpsichord solos 
with the Boston Symph. Orch.; in 1950 he 
was appointed associate prof, at Stanford 
Univ., California. He published a brief 
treatise, Ornamentation in J. S. Bach's Or- 
gan Works (New York, 1950) which is part 
of an important and much larger work (his 
Harvard dissertation) on 17th- and 18th-cen- 
tury ornamentation, which has not yet been 

Aldrich, Richard, American music critic; 
b. Providence, July 31, 1863; d. Rome, 
June 2, 1937. He studied with Paine at 
Harvard Univ., graduating in 1885. He then 
was music critic of the 'Providence Jour- 
nal' (1885-89) and 'Evening Star' (1889- 
91). From 1891-1901 he was assistant to H. 
E. Krehbiel on the «N. Y. Tribune,' then 
became music editor of the 'N. Y. Times' 
(1902-23). A selection of his articles from 
the 'N. Y. Times' were published in Musical 
Discourse (1928) and, posthumously, in 
Concert Life in New York, 1902-1923 
(1941). He also wrote Guide to Parsifal 
(1904) and Guide to the Ring of the 
Nibelung (1905). His critical writings were 
urbane and witty; while liberal-minded in 
regard to milder types of modern music, he 
vehemently opposed its extreme trends. 

Aldrovandini, Giuseppe (Antonio Vin- 
cenzo), Italian composer; b. Bologna, 1665; 
d. there, Feb. 9, 1707, when, under the in- 
fluence of alcohol, he fell into a canal and 
was drowned. He studied with Giacomo 
Perti at the Bologna Philharmonic Academy, 
taught there from 1695, and in 1702 became 
its head ( 'principe' ) . Among his 15 operas, 
the following were produced in Bologna: 
Gli inganni amorosi (Jan. 28, 1696) ; Dafni 
(Aug. 10, 1696); Le due Auguste (Aug. 
16, 1700); / tre rivali in soglio (posthu- 



mously, Jan. 2, 1711). He also wrote a 
'sinfonia' and much church music (6 ora- 
torios, motets, etc.), some published in his 

d'Alembert (dah-lahn-bar'), Jean-le Rond, 

French philosopher and encyclopedist; b. 
Paris, Nov. 16, 1717; d. there, Oct. 29, 
1783. He was the illegitimate child of one 
Mme. de Tencin and an artillery officer 
named Destouches; his mother abandoned 
him on the steps of the church of St. Jean- 
le-Rond, which name was subsequently at- 
tached to him. Later, his father acknowl- 
edged him, and enabled him to study. He 
was sent to the Mazarin College, and pro- 
gressed rapidly in mathematics. He also was 
interested in theoretical musical subjects, 
and published several treatises on acoustics 
and on the theory of music: Recherches sur 
la courbe, que forme une corde tendue raise 
en vibration (1749); Recherches sur les vi- 
brations des cordes sonores and Recherches 
sur la vitesse du son (both in 'Opuscules 
mathematiques,' Paris, 1761-80). He con- 
tributed several articles on music to the 
famous 'Encyclopedic,' which he edited with 
Diderot. He publ. further, Reflexions sur la 
musique en general et sur la musique fran- 
qaise en particulier (1754); Reflexions sur 
la theorie de la musique (1777). His best 
known work on music was Elements de 
musique, theorique et pratique, suivant les 
principes de M. Rameau (1752), which 
went into 6 editions. Bibl. : J. Bertrand, 
d'Alembert (Paris, 1889). 

Alessandrescu, Alfred, Rumanian com- 
poser and conductor; b. Bucharest, Aug. 14, 
1893. He studied with Vincent d'Indy at the 
Schola Cantorum in Paris, graduating in 
1914. He was director of the Bucharest 
Philh. Orch. (1926-40); music director of 
the Bucharest Radio (1933-47). He has 
written a symph. poem Acteon (Paris, 1920; 
New York, 1938) ; an overture Didon; 
chamber music and songs. 

Alessandri, Felice, Italian opera com- 
poser; b. Rome, Nov. 24, 1742; d. Casinalbo, 
Aug. 15, 1798. He studied music in Naples; 
then lived in Paris (1765-68) and in Lon- 
don (1768). From 1784-89 he was in 
Russia; then in Berlin as a second conductor 
at the Royal Opera (1789-92), finally re- 
turning to Italy. Alessandri wrote about 30 
operas in all. Two were produced in Lon- 
don: La Moglie fedele (1768) and II re 
alia caccia (1769) ; and two at La Scala in 
Milan: Calliroe (Dec. 26, 1778) and Ezio 
(Feb. 1, 1782). In Potsdam he produced 
II ritorno di Ulisse (Jan. 25, 1790) ; Dario 

(1791), and the comic opera La compagnia 
d'opera a Nanchino (1790), which exhibited 
the colorful effects of pseudo-Chinese music. 
His opera Virginia was given in Venice 
(Dec. 26, 1793). He also wrote an oratorio 
Betulia liber ata (1781); 6 sinfonie in 8 
parts; 6 trio-sonatas for 2 violins and basso 
continuo, etc., all in the then prevalent 
Italian manner. Cf. L. Valdrighi, Felice 
Alessandri (1896). 

d'Alessandro, Rafaele, Swiss composer; 
b. Gallen, March 17, 1911. He studied with 
Victor Schlatter and Willi Schuh in Zurich; 
then with Nadia Boulanger and Marcel 
Dupre in Paris. Gave concerts as organist 
in Switzerland; eventually settled in Lau- 
sanne. He has written a symphony (1948) ; 
Concerto Grosso for string orch. (1950); 3 
piano concertos; 2 string quartets, etc. 

Alessandro, Victor, American conductor; 
b. Waco, Texas, Nov. 27, 1915. He studied 
the French horn with his father; composi- 
tion with Howard Hanson and Bernard 
Rogers at the Eastman School of Music, 
Rochester, N. Y. He went to Italy and took 
courses at the Santa Cecilia in Rome 
(1938). Returning to the U.S. he became 
conductor of the Oklahoma Symph. Orch. 
(1938-51) and of the San Antonio Orch. 

Alexander, Josef, American composer; 
b. Boston, May 15, 1910. He studied at the 
New England Cons, of Music and at Har- 
vard Univ.; was active as a pianist; then 
devoted himself to composition. He has 
written 2 symphonies; a piano concerto; 
Epitaphs for orch.; Dialogue Spirituel for 
soprano, chorus and orch.; Clockwork for 
string orch.; Campus Suite for band; piano 
quintet; string quartet; piano trio, etc. 

Alexandre, Jacob, French organ builder; 
b. Paris, 1804; d. there, June 11, 1876. In 
1829 he established a firm of harmonium 
manufacturers, which introduced the 'Alex- 
andre' organ, a development of the so-called 
'American organ' (1874). 

Alexandrov, Alexander Vasilievitch, Rus- 
sian composer; b. Plakhino (Riazan Govt.), 
April 1, 1883; d. Berlin, during a concert 
tour, July 8, 1946. He studied with Rimsky- 
Korsakov and Glazunov at the St. Petersburg 
Cons. (1899-1901) and later at the Moscow 
Cons, with Vassilenko (1909-1913). In 1928 
he organized the Red Army Ensemble and 
conducted it on numerous tours in Russia 
and abroad. His song Hymn of the Bolshevik 
Party, with a new set of words, was pro- 
claimed as the Soviet national anthem on 
March 15, 1944. 



Alfano, Franco, eminent Italian composer; 
b. Posilippo (Naples), March 8, 1876; d. 
San Remo, Oct. 26, 1954. He studied com- 
position with Paolo Serrao in Naples, and 
with Jadassohn and Hans Sitt in Leipzig. 
From the beginning of his musical career, 
Alfano was interested in opera. His first 
stage work Miranda was produced in Leip- 
zig when he was barely 20; another opera, 
La Fonte di Enscir, followed (Breslau, Nov. 
8, 1898). In 1900 he went to Paris and 
became fascinated by light theater music. 
While in Paris he wrote a folk ballet Napoli 
which was staged at Folies-Bergeres (Jan. 
28, 1901), proving so successful that it ran 
for 160 successive performances. Returning 
to Italy, he began work on an opera after 
Tolstoy's novel Resurrection. It was pro- 
duced as Risurrezione, in Turin (Nov. 4, 
1904) with sensational acclaim; the Amer- 
ican premiere (Chicago, Dec. 31, 1925) 
was equally successful; there were also nu- 
merous performances in Germany and 
France. The opera was widely praised for 
its dramatic power and melodic richness in 
the best tradition of realistic Italian opera. 
Alfano continued to compose industriously 
for another half-century, but his later operas 
failed to equal the success of Risurrezione. 
They are: 77 Principe Zilah (Genoa, Feb. 
3, 1909) ; L'ombra di Don Giovanni (La 
Scala, Milan, April 3, 1914) ; La Leggenda 
di Sakuntala (Bologna, Dec. 10, 1921) 
Madonna Imperia, lyric comedy (Turin 
May 5, 1927; Met. Opera, N. Y., Feb. 8 
1928); L'Ultimo Lord (Naples, April 19 
1930) ; Cyrano de Bergerac (Rome, Jan. 22 
1936) ; II Dottor Antonio (Rome, April 30 
1949). Alfano also wrote 3 symphonies 
(1909; 1932; 1934); 3 string quartets, a 
violin sonata, a cello sonata, and a ballet 
Vesuvius (1938; a symphonic poem was 
drawn from it in 1946). One of Alfano's 
signal achievements was that he completed 
Puccini's last opera, Turandot, adding the 
last scene. His Hymn to Bolivar, for chorus 
and orch., written for the centennial of 
Bolivar's death, was performed in Caracas, 
Venezuela, on Dec. 22, 1930. He was also 
active in the field of musical education; 
was successively director of the 'Liceo mu- 
sicale' in Bologna (1919-23); of the Turin 
Cons. (1923-39); superintendent of the 
Teatro Massimo in Palermo (1940-42), and 
from 1947, director of the Rossini Cons, in 
Pesaro. — Bibl.: G. M. Gatti, Franco Alfano 
in 'Musicisti moderni d'ltalia e di fuori,' 
(Bologna, 1920; also in the 'Musical Times,' 
March, 1921); G. Cesari, La leggenda di 
Sakuntala di Franco Alfano in the 'Rivista 
Musicalc Italiana' (Turin, 1921); Andrea 

della Corte, Rittrato di Franco Alfano 
(Turin, 1935). Ettore Desderi published a 
list of Alfano's works in 'Bolletino biblio- 
grafico musicale' (Milan, 1931). 

Alfarabi, or Alpharabius, properly Al 
Farabi (abbr. Farabi) so named from his 
birthplace Farab (now transoxine Othrax), 
Arabian music theorist; b. c. 870; d. Damas- 
cus, c. 950. Of Turkish descent, he became 
renowned through his writings on philoso- 
phy, political science and the arts. He was 
a Greek scholar and attempted unsuccess- 
fully to introduce the Greek musical system 
into his country. His principal work is Kitab 
al-musiqi al-kabir ('Greater Book about 
Music') dealing with acoustics, intervals, 
scales, instruments and rhythm. The 2nd 
volume of this work was lost. Excepts from 
this book are contained in Kosegarten's Alii 
Ispahanis Liber Cantilenarum Magnus 
(1840) and in J. Land's Recherches sur 
I'histoire de la gamme arabe (Leyden, 1884). 
See also M. Steinschneider, Al-Farabi (St. 
Petersburg, 1869) ; Baron d'Erlanger, La 
Musique arabe, vol. I (Paris, 1930) ; E. A. 
Beichert, Die Wissenschaft der Musik bei 
Al-Farabi (Regensburg, 1931); H. G. 
Farmer, Al-Farabi's Arabic-Latin Writings 
on Music (Glasgow, 1934). 

Alferaky, Achilles Nikolayevitch, Russian 
composer of Greek origin; b. Taganrog, July 
3, 1846; d. Petrograd, 1920. He studied 
in Moscow with V. Suk (1884); wrote an 
opera St. John's Eve and numerous songs 
and piano pieces of considerable merit, in 
a romantic Russian style mainly influenced 
by Tchaikovsky; most of these were pub- 
lished by Belaiev. 

Alfieri, Pietro, Italian music scholar; 
b. Rome, June 29, 1801; d. there, June 12, 
1863. He was a member of the Camaldolese 
Order; taught Gregorian music at the Eng- 
lish College in Rome. His major work is 
Raccolta di musica sacra (1841-46), a col- 
lection of 16th-century church music in 7 
vols., which includes virtually all representa- 
tive works of Palestrina; other collections 
are Excerpta ex celebrioribus de musica viris 
(Rome, 1840), containing works by Pales- 
trina, Victoria and Allegri; Raccolta di 
motetti (1841), etc. His essays on Gregorian 
chant are very valuable: Ristabilimento del 
canto e della musica ecclesiastica (1843); 
Saggio storico del canto gregoriano (1855); 
Prodromo sulla restaurazione de' libri di 
canto ecclesiastico detto gregoriano (1857), 
etc. ; he also publ. a biography of N. Jom- 
melli (1845) and contributed articles on 
musical subjects to Italian periodicals. 



Alford, Violet, English writer and lecturer 
on folk dancing; b. Bristol, March, 1881. 
She studied at London Univ., and at the 
Royal Academy of Music. She has published 
valuable compendia on folk music and 
dance: English Folk Dances (1923); The 
Traditional Dance (with Rodney Gallop ; 
1935); Pyrenean Festivals (1937); Intro- 
duction to English Folklore (1952). She 
also composed A Folk Masque, showing 
origins and development of the folk dance. 

Alfven, Hugo, outstanding Swedish com- 
poser; b. Stockholm, May 1, 1872. He 
studied at the Stockholm Cons., and played 
the violin in the Court Orch. He was then 
sent by the government to Belgium where 
he studied violin with Cesar Thomson 
(1896-99). In 1900 he received the Jenny 
Lind stipend for three years. In 1910 he 
became musical director at the Univ. of 
Uppsala and conductor of the student chorus 
there until 1939 when he retired. His best 
known work is Midsommarvaka (Midsum- 
mer Vigil, 1904), the first of his three Swe- 
dish rhapsodies for orch. It was produced 
as a ballet, La Nuit de Saint- Jean (Ballets 
Suedois, Paris, Oct. 25, 1925) and had over 
250 performances in four years. He has 
written 5 symphonies: I in F minor (Stock- 
holm, Feb. 9, 1897) ; II in E major (Stock- 
holm, May 2, 1899); III in E major 
(Goteborg, Dec. 5, 1906); IV in C minor 
(Stockholm, Nov. 16, 1918) ; V in A minor 
(Stockholm, April 30, 1952); contributed 
u number of festive cantatas on various oc- 
casions, patriotic anniversaries and the like, 
among them a cantata celebrating the 450th 
year since the founding of Uppsala Univ. 
(1927) and another on the 500th jubilee of 
the Swedish Parliament (1935). He also 
wrote a ballad on Gustaf Vasa (1920) for 
soloists, mixed chorus and organ; and nu- 
merous male choruses. He published 3 vol- 
umes of memoirs: Tempo furioso (Stock- 
holm, 1948) ; I dur och moll (1949) ; Finale 
(1952). In Swedish music Alfven occupies 
the position of a late romantic composer, 
representing the best traits of Scandinavian 
national art, along the lines of Grieg and 
Sibelius. — Bibl.: S. E. Svensson, Hugo 
Alfven, som mdnniska och konstnar 
(Uppsala, 1946). 

Algarotti, Francesco, Italian musician and 
scholar; b. Venice, Dec. 11, 1712; d. Pisa, 
May 3, 1764. The fame of his great knowl- 
edge reached Frederick the Great who in- 
vited him to Berlin in 1740 and gave him 
the title of Count; and, in 1747, that of 
'Chevalier de l'ordre pour le merite.' In 
1753 Algarotti returned to Italy. His mu- 
sical monument is the Saggio sopra I'opera 

in musica, published in 1755; also in many 
later editions, including German and French 
translations. The English text of the Saggio 
... is reproduced in part in O. Strunk's 
Source Readings in Music History (N. Y.j 
1950). Bibl.: D. Michelessi, Memorie in- 
torno alia vita ed agli scritti del Francesco 
Algarotti (Venice, 1770); R. Northcott, 
Francesco Algarotti, A Reprint of His 
'Saggio . . .' and a Sketch of His Life 
(London, 1917). 

Aliabiev (ahl-yah'-byev), Alexander Niko- 
layevitch, Russian song composer; b. Tobolsk, 
Siberia, Aug. 15, 1787; d. Moscow, March 
6, 1851. He left Tobolsk at the age of nine; 
served in the cavalry during the War of 
1812 and participated in the entry of the 
Russian Army into Dresden and Paris. Re- 
turning to Russia, he lived in Moscow. In 
1825, he was arrested on suspicion of mur- 
der after a card game, and was exiled (on 
the express order of the Czar Nicholas I) 
to his birthplace in Siberia (1828). In 1831, 
he was allowed to return to European 
Russia, and lived in the Caucasus, Oren- 
burg, and in the Crimea, before settling in 
Moscow. He wrote more than 100 songs, 
of which The Nightingale became extremely 
popular; it is often used in the music lesson 
scene in the Barber of Seville. Glinka and 
Liszt made piano arrangements of it. In 
exile, Aliabiev wrote a symphony (1830), 3 
string quartets and a violin sonata. His 
opera The Prisoner of the Caucasus was 
very popular in Russia. He also set to music 
the stage ballads The Village Philosopher 
(to Zagoskin's text) and The Moon Night; 
with Verstovsky and Maurer he contributed 
the music to Chmelnitsky's comedy A Novel 
Prank, or Theatrical Combat. Bibl.: Dobro- 
hotov, Alexander Aliabiev in 'Sovietskaya 
Musica' (April, 1951); Ilyin, Aliabiev in 
Siberia (with a facsimile reproduction of 
the registry of Aliabiev's birth), ibid. (Aug., 

Alio, Francisco, Spanish composer; b. 
Barcelona, March 21, 1862; d. there, March 
31, 1908. He studied piano with Vidiella 
and composition with Anselmo Barba. As 
a composer, he was a determined believer in 
the Spanish national type of music, and in 
his piano pieces and songs brought out 
native rhythms and melodies. He published 
several albums of Catalan folk songs. 

Aliprandi, Bernardo, Italian cellist and 
composer; b. Milan, c. 1710; d. Munich, 
c. 1785. He became a member of the Court 
Orchestra in Munich (1732) ; then was con- 
certmaster (1750); retired in 1780. He 



wrote 3 operas: Mitridate (1738), Ifigenia 
(1739), Semiramide (1740); a divertimento 
Apollo tra le Muse in Parnasso (1737), and 
a Stabat Mater (1749). 

Alkan (ahl-kahn) (real name Morhange); 
Charles-Henri Valentin, French pianist and 
composer of Jewish extraction; b. Paris, 
Nov. 30, 1813; d. there, March 29, 1888. 
His three brothers were also musicians; his 
father was the founder of a school for 
Jewish children. Alkan's talent was pre- 
cocious; he was accepted at the Paris Cons, 
at the age of six and studied piano with 
Zimmermann. In 1833 he visited London, 
then returned to Paris, where his main acti- 
vities were playing concerts in the fashion- 
able salons and teaching piano. He entered 
the brilliant circle of musicians and littera- 
teurs, among whom were Chopin, George 
Sand, Hugo and Liszt. He died as a result 
of injuries sustained when a heavy bookcase 
fell on him as he tried to reach for a book. 
Like Chopin, Alkan wrote almost exclusively 
for piano; the list of his works includes 76 
opus numbers, in addition to many pieces 
not numbered by opus. His pieces are pro- 
grammatic, bearing such titles as Desk; a 
set of variations, Les Omnibus; Le vent (op. 
15) ; Le Tambour bat aux Champs (op. 50) ; 
he was the first composer to write a piece de- 
scriptive of the railroad {Le Chemin de fer, 
op. 27). His 2 sets of etudes, in all major and 
minor keys (op. 35 and 39), of transcendent 
difficulty, present great interest as examples 
of modern piano technique. Other works 
are 3 Etudes de bravoure (op. 16) ; Le 
preux, etude de concert (op. 17); 3 pieces 
poetiques (op. 18); Bourree d'Auvergne (op. 
29); a sonata (op. 33, subtitled Les quatre 
ages); Les mois (op. 8, 74), comprising 12 
pieces, etc. He also wrote 2 piano con- 
certos, a piano trio, a cello sonata and vocal 
music. Cesar Franck arranged several of 
his pieces for organ. For a long time Alkan's 
music was completely forgotten, but his sig- 
nificance as an inventive composer became 
more evident in the 20th century. Chapters 
dealing with Alkan are found in Sorabji's 
book Around Music (London, 1932), and in 
Bernard van Dieren's Down Among the 
Dead Men (London, 1935). 

Allegri, Domenico, Italian composer; b. 
Rome, 1585; d. there, Sept. 5, 1629. He 
was maestro di cappella at S. Maria Maggiore 
from 1610-29, and was one of the first to 
provide vocal music with an independent 
instrumental accompaniment. A few of his 
Mottetti are extant (a soprano solo with 
violins, a tenor duet and a bass solo, each 
accompanied by 2 violins). 

Allegri, Gregorio, Italian composer; b. 
Rome, c. 1582; d. there, Feb. 17, 1652. 
He was a choir boy in Rome from 1591-96; 
then studied with Giovanni Maria Nanino 
(1600-07). He entered the Papal Chapel in 
1629, after serving for some years as choris- 
ter and composer for the cathedral at Fermo. 
He is chiefly known as the composer of the 
celebrated Miserere in 9 parts (i.e., for two 
choirs singing 4 and 5 parts respectively), 
regularly sung during Holy Week at the 
Sistine Chapel, and surreptitiously written 
out by Mozart after hearing it twice, though 
its publication was forbidden on pain of 
excommunication; since then it has been 
frequently published. Many other works by 
Allegri are preserved in MS.; 2 books of 
Concertini and 2 of Mottetti have been 
printed, also a 4-part sonata for strings 
which might be regarded as the prototype 
of the string quartet. See A. Cametti, La 
scuola dei pueri cantus di S. Luigi dei 
Francesi in Roma, in 'Rivista Musicale 
Italiana' (1915); J. Amann, Allegris Mi- 
serere und die Auffiihrungspraxis in der 
Sixtina (Regensburg, 1935); A. Eaglefield- 
Hull, The Earliest Known String Quartet, 
in the 'Mus. Quarterly' (Jan., 1929). 

Allen, Creighton, American pianist and 
composer; b. Macon, Miss., March 26, 1900. 
He made his first public appearance at the 
age of nine; studied with Hutcheson in 
New York; then settled there as teacher 
and composer. He has written a piano con- 
certo, a violin concerto, 17 settings of the 
poems of Edgar Allan Poe, piano pieces and 
many songs, some of which have acquired 
considerable popularity. 

Allen, George Benjamin, English singer 
and composer; b. London, April 21, 1822; 
d. Brisbane, Queensland, Nov. 30, 1897. He 
was active successively as chorister, con- 
ductor, and organist in England, Ireland, 
and Australia; managed a light opera com- 
pany, producing several of Sullivan's operas. 
He composed the operas: Castle Grim 
(London, 1865) ; The Viking (not perform- 
ed) ; The Wicklow Rose (Manchester, 
1882); 3 cantatas and songs. 

Allen, Sir Hugh Percy, eminent English 
organist and educator; b. Reading, Dec. 23, 
1869; d. Oxford, Feb. 20, 1946. He studied 
with Dr. F. Read in Reading, and at Ox- 
ford Univ. (Mus. Doc, 1898). At the age 
of 11 he acted as church organist in Read- 
ing. Thereafter he was organist at various 
churches and cathedrals until the turn of 
the century. He was appointed organist at 
New College, Oxford (1901-18), and later 



(1908-18) director of music at University 
College, Reading. In 1918 he succeeded Sir 
Walter Parratt as prof, of music at Oxford, 
and in the same year became director of 
the Royal College of Music, London, from 
which he resigned in 1937 (succeeded by 
George Dyson). He was knighted in 1920. 
For many years he conducted the London 
and the Oxford Bach Choirs; he was an 
ardent promoter of British music. — Cf. C. 
Bailey, Hugh Percy Allen (London, 1948). 

Allen, Nathan H., American organist and 
choral conductor; b. Marion, Mass., April 
14, 1848; d. Hartford, Conn., May 9, 1925. 
He studied organ in Berlin; was active as 
church organist and teacher in Hartford, 
Conn. From 1906-11 he was organist at 
Worcester, Mass., then returned to Hartford. 
He wrote church music (including a can- 
tata, The Apotheosis of St. Dorothy), and 
concert pieces for organ, violin and piano. 

Allen, Paul Hastings, American composer; 
b. Hyde Park, Mass., Nov. 28, 1883; d. 
Boston, Sept. 28, 1952. He studied at Har- 
vard Univ. (A.B., 1903), then in Italy. 
During World War I was in the American 
diplomatic service there; returning to the 
U. S. in 1920 and settling in Boston. A 
prolific composer, he wrote 12 operas, mostly 
in Italian, several of which were performed 
in Italy. They include II Filtro (Genoa, 
Oct. 26, 1912); Milda (Venice, June 14, 
1913) ; L'Ultimo dei Mohicani (Florence, 
Feb. 24, 1916); Cleopatra (1921); La pic- 
cola Figaro (1931). His Pilgrim Symphony 
received the Paderewski prize (1910); other 
orchestral works are largely unperformed. 
Allen wrote much chamber music, some for 
unusual combinations, such as a quartet for 
2 clarinets, basset-horn and bass-clarinet; 
several piano sonatas and a great number 
of other piano pieces; choral works and 
songs. His writing is marked by technical 
mastery in a romantic style. 

Allen, Warren D., American musicologist; 
b. San Jose, Cal., Aug. 3, 1885. He studied 
at the Univ. of Cal.; later with Fielitz in 
Berlin and with Widor in Paris. From 1913- 
19 he was dean of music at the College of 
the Pacific, San Jose. In 1918 he became 
choral director at Stanford Univ.; from 1940 
till 1949, on the faculty there; 1949-55, 
prof, at Florida State Univ.; retired in 1955 
and settled in Seattle. — Books : Philosophies 
of Music History (1939) and Our Marching 
Civilization (1943). 

Allende (ah-yen-da.) Saron, (Pedro) 
Humberto, eminent Chilean composer; b. 
Santiago, June 29, 1885. He studied violin 
and theory at the National Cons, in Santiago 
(1899-1908); then taught in public schools 
there. Elected member of the Chilean Folk- 
lore Soc. in 1911. He was in France and 
Spain (1922-23); appointed Chilean dele- 
gate to the Congress of Popular Arts in 
Prague, under the auspices of the League of 
Nations (1928); in 1929 he took part in 
the Festival of Ibero-American Music in 
Barcelona. He was prof, of composition at 
the National Cons, in Santiago from 1928- 
45. In 1945 he received the Chilean Govern- 
ment Prize. In his music, Allende combines 
authentic national sentiment with a modern 
treatment, often in an impressionistic man- 
ner. He has written a Symphony in B Fiat 
(1910; awarded Chilean Centennial Prize); 
Campesinas Chilenas for orch. (1913) ; cello 
concerto (1915); La Voz de las Calles, 
symphonic poem utilizing street cries of 
Chilean cities (Santiago, May 20, 1921); 
La Despedida for 2 sopranos, contralto and 
orch. (Santiago, May 7, 1934) ; violin con- 
certo (Santiago, Nov. 27, 1942); string 
quartet (1947); 3 piano sonatas (1909-15); 
12 Tonadas de cardcter popular chileno for 
piano (1918-22; his most distinctive work 
in a national style; also arranged for orch.) 
and songs. He also published a teaching 
manual Metodo Original de Iniciacion Mu- 
sical (Santiago, 1937). — Cf. special issue 
of 'Revista Musical Chilena' (Sept., 1945); 
N. Slonimsky, Humberto Allende, First 
Modernist of Chile, in 'Musical America,' 
(Aug. 1942); V. S. Viu, La Creadon Mu- 
sical en Chile, pp. 115-129 (Santiago, 1952). 

Allihn, Heinrich (Max), German music 
scholar; b. Halle-on-Saale, Aug. 31, 1841; 
d. there Nov. 15, 1910; from 1885 pastor 
and school inspector at Allenstedt; edited 
the 2nd edition (1888) of Topfer's Lehr- 
buch der Orgelbaukunst (Theorie und 
Praxis des Orgelbaues) ; publ. Die Hausin- 
strumente Klavier und Harmonium (1892), 
and Die Pflege des musikalisches Teils des 
Gottesdienstes (1906); contributed many 
essays to De Wit's 'Zeitschrift fur Instru- 

d'Almeida, Fernando, Portuguese com- 
poser; b. Lisbon, c. 1618; d. Thomar, March 
21, 1660. Distinguished pupil of Duarte 
Lobo; in 1638, entered the Order of Christ 
at Thomar. Of his many church composi- 
tions, only one folio vol. in MS. is known: 
Lamentacbes, Responsorias e Misereres das 
tres officias da Qjuarta, Quinta e Sexta-ferim 
da Semana Santa. 



Almeida, Renato, Brazilian music histor- 
ian; b. S. Antonio de Jesus, Bahia, Dec. 6, 
1895. He studied law; worked as a journalist 
in Rio de Janeiro. He is the author of the 
standard work on Brazilian music: Historia 
da musica brasileira (1926; new enlarged 
ed., 1942). 

Almenrader, Karl, German bassoon vir- 
tuoso; b. Ronsdorf, near Diisseldorf, Oct. 3, 
1786; d. Biebrich, Sept. 14, 1843. Was prof, 
of bassoon at Cologne, theater conductor in 
Frankfurt and regimental bandmaster; 
started a factory for wind instruments 
(1820) at Cologne, but gave it up in two 
years, entering the Nassau Court Orch. at 
Biebrich. He materially improved the bas- 
soon, wrote a treatise on it (Mainz, 1824), 
and a method for it; publ. a bassoon con- 
certo; variations for bassoon and quartet; 
Duettinos for 2 bassoons, etc.; and the 
popular ballad, Des Hauses letzte Stunde. 

Almquist, Carl Jonas Love, Swedish com- 
poser and writer on music; b. Stockholm, 
Nov. 28, 1793; d. Bremen, Sept. 26, 1866. 
He studied at Uppsala Univ.; wrote songs 
to his own words, but refused to study music 
for fear that his instinct for simple melody 
might be destroyed by learning. He pub- 
lished these songs in a collection Tornrosens 
bok (1838); he also published 11 albums 
of piano pieces under the title Fria Fan- 
tasier (1848). Almquist's life was an adven- 
turous one; he was forced to leave Sweden, 
where he was accused of forgery; lived in 
America (1851-65) ; then went to Germany, 
where he died. 

Alnaes, Eyvind, Norwegian composer; b. 
Fredriksstad, April 29, 1872; d. Oslo, Dec. 
24, 1932. He studied in Oslo with Ivar 
Holter (1889-92) and in Leipzig with Carl 
Reinecke (1892-95). From 1895 he occu- 
pied various positions as church organist in 
Norway. His works include 2 symphonies 
(1898 and 1923); Variations Symphoniques 
(1898); piano concerto (Oslo, Feb. 7, 
1914) ; Marche symphonique for 2 pianos, 
and several choruses and songs. He also 
published a collection of Norwegian folk 
songs (1922). 

Alnar, Hasan Ferid, Turkish composer; 
b. Istanbul, March 11, 1906. As a child he 
played native instruments; at 16 composed 
an operetta in oriental style. In 1927 he 
went to Vienna, where he studied with 
Joseph Marx (composition) and Oswald 
Kabasta (conducting). Returning to Istan- 
bul in 1932, he taught at the Municipal 
Cons. He was associate conductor of the 
Presidential Philh. Orch. in Ankara from 

1936-49, and its director from 1949-52. He 
also taught composition at the Ankara Cons. 
(1937-46). Alnar's music is mostly of native 
inspiration. He has written Prelude and 
Two Dances for orch. (1935); Istanbul 
Suite for orch. (1938); cello concerto (An- 
kara, Feb. 15, 1943); concerto for Kanun 
(Turkish psaltery) and orch. (1951); etc. 

Alpaerts, Flor, Belgian composer; b. Ant- 
werp, Sept. 12, 1876; d. there, Oct. 5, 1954. 
He studied with Benoit and Blockx at the 
Royal Flemish Cons, in Antwerp; in 1903 
he became prof, there; was its director from 
1934-41. From 1919 he conducted the local 
orchestra at the Zoological Gardens, also 
conducted in France and Holland. His music 
is influenced by early impressionism, without 
venturing into the field of modern harmony. 
He wrote the opera Shylock (Antwerp, Nov. 
22, 1913) ; Symphonie du printemps; symph. 
poems Psyche (1900); Renouveau (1904); 
Cyrus (1905); Pallieter (1921); Poeme 
symphonique for flute and orch. (1903; re- 
vised 1940) ; incidental music to various 
plays ; a violin concerto ( 1 948 ) and several 
school manuals in Flemish. Cf. A. Corbet, 
Flor Alpaerts (Antwerp, 1941). 

Alpaerts, Jef, Belgian conductor and 
pianist; son of Flor Alpaerts; b. Antwerp, 
July 17, 1904. He studied in Paris with 
Isidor Philipp and Cortot (piano) and 
with Vincent d'Indy (comp.). In 1936 he 
was appointed prof, at the Antwerp Cons.; 
in 1938 he inaugurated the Collegium Mu- 
sicum Antverpiense for performances of old 

Alsleben, Julius, German pianist and 
pedagogue; b. Berlin, March 24, 1832; d. 
there, Dec. 8, 1894. He studied piano with 
Zech, and theory with S. Dehn. In 1865 he 
became president of the Berlin 'Tonkiin- 
stlerverein' ; in 1879 he was president of the 
'Musiklehrerverein' of which he was also a 
founder. From 1874 he edited the periodical 
"Harmonic" Alsleben published 12 Vorle- 
sungen iiber Musikgeschichte (1862); Vber 
die Entwickelung des Klavierspiels (1870), 
Licht- und Wendepunkte in der Entwicke- 
lung der Musik (1880). He wrote a Re- 
quiem, a liturgy, choral pieces and some 
orchestral overtures. 

Alsted, Johann Heinrich, German music 
scholar; b. Bellersbach, Nassau, in 1588; 
d. Weissenburg, Transylvania, Nov. 8, 1638. 
He taught philosophy and theology in 
Weissenburg. His articles on music are 
found in his Encyclopadie der gesammten 
Wissenschaften (1610) and in his Elemen- 



tale mathematicum (1611), translated into 
English by Birchensha (1644). 

Altar, Cevat, Turkish writer on music; 
b. Constantinople, Sept. 14, 1902. He 
studied in Leipzig (1922-27); taught music 
theory in Ankara (1927-35), and was a 
founder of the Ankara State Cons. (1936). 
In 1951 he was appointed director of Turk- 
ish theaters; in 1954 he visited the U.S. 
under the Educational Exchange Program. 
He has translated several German books into 
Turkish; wrote several essays on Beethoven's 
use of so-called Turkish music, and initiated 
a 6-volume edition of musical biography. 

Altenburg, Johann Ernst, German trum- 
pet player and composer; b. Weissenfels, 
June 15, 1734; d. Bitterfeld, May 14, 1801. 
He was field-trumpeter during the 7 Years' 
War; then became organist at Bitterfeld. 
He wrote the first special manual on play- 
ing the trumpet and kettledrums, Versuch 
einer Anleitung zur heroisch-musikalischen 
Trompeter- und Paukerkunst (Halle, 1795; 
reprinted, Dresden, 1911); also pieces for 
2, 4, 6, and 8 trumpets, and a concerto for 
7 trumpets and kettle-drums. Cf. A. Werner, 
Johann Ernst Alternburg ( 'Zeitschrif t fur 
Musikwissenschaf t,' 1933). 

Altenburg, Michael, German church mu- 
sician; b. Alach, near Erfurt, May 27, 1584; 
d. Erfurt, Feb. 12, 1640. He studied theol- 
ogy at Halle (1601); became pastor at 
Trochtelborn (1611), then at Gross-Som- 
merda (1621), and finally in Erfurt (1637). 
He published a Wedding Motet in 7 parts; 
a collection of songs 'for Church and Home' 
in 6, 7, 8, and 9 voices (3 vols.; Erfurt, 
1620-21); 16 instrumental Intraden in 6 
parts (Erfurt, 1620) and numerous church 
anthems some of which have been perma- 
nently incorporated in the Lutheran service. 
For a detailed list of works, see Adrio's 
article in 'Die Musik in Geschichte und 

Altes, Ernest-Eugene, French violinist and 
conductor; brother of Joseph-Henri Altes; 
b. Paris, March 28, 1830; d. St.-Dye, near 
Blois, July 8, 1899. He studied with Haben- 
eck at the Paris Cons., where he won first 
prize for violin playing in 1848. In 1871 he 
joined the staff of the Paris Opera as con- 
ductor, retiring in 1887. He composed a 
symphony, chamber music, and an orchestral 
Divertissement on ballet airs by Auber on 
the occasion of Auber's centennial (1882). 

Altes, Joseph-Henri, French flutist; brother 
of Ernest-Eugene Altes; b. Rouen, Jan. 18, 
1826; d. Paris, July 24, 1895. He studied 

at the Paris Cons.; then became flutist at 
the Paris Opera. He was appointed prof, 
of flute at the Paris Cons, in 1868, holding 
this post to the end of his life. He published 
a number of flute pieces. 

Altglass, Max, lyric tenor; b. Warsaw, 
Feb. 16, 1886; d. New York, Feb. 15, 1952. 
He studied at the Berlin Cons. ; sang in 
Berlin and Prague, and made his American 
debut with the Metropolitan Opera in 1924. 
Later he was active as vocal teacher in New 

Althouse, Paul, American tenor; b. Read- 
ing, Pa., Dec. 2, 1889; d. New York, Feb. 
6, 1954. He studied with O. Saenger, and 
made his debut as Dimitri in the American 
premiere of Boris Godunov at the Metro- 
politan Opera on March 19, 1913; later 
undertook Wagnerian tenor roles there; was 
also for a time a member of the Chicago 
Civic Opera and of the San Francisco Opera. 
He sang with Toscanini and the N. Y. Philh. 
as soloist in Beethoven's Ninth Symphony; 
also appeared with other U.S. orchestras. 
He gave two recital tours in Australia and 
New Zealand. In the last years of his life 
Althouse was mostly active as vocal teacher 
in New York. 

Altmann, Wilhelm, German music bibli- 
ographer, b. Adelnau, near Posen, April 4, 
1862; d. Hildesheim, March 25, 1951. He 
studied philology and government in Mar- 
burg and Berlin, and in 1885 received his 
Dr. phil. He served as librarian in Greifs- 
wald (1889-1900). In 1900 he was ap- 
pointed a librarian of the Prussian State 
Library in Berlin; in 1915 he became direc- 
tor of the music dept., retiring in 1927. In 
1906 he founded, in cooperation with Breit- 
kopf & Hartel, the 'Deutsche Musiksamm- 
lung ; ' at the Berlin library. From 1945 
he lived in Hildesheim. Altmann compiled 
a number of valuable bibliographical works; 
among them Chronik des Berliner Philh. 
Orchesters (1902); Richard Wagners Brief e 
(1905; a list of 3143 letters with brief 
synopses); Brahms Briefwechsel (1908); 
Wagners Briefwechsel mit seinen Verlegern 
(2 vols., 1911); Kammermusik-Literatur- 
Verzeichnis (1910; a list of chamber music 
published since 1841; 6 revisions up to 
1945); Max-Re ger-Katalog (1917 and 
1923); catalogue of music for viola and 
viola d'amore (1937) and a catalogue of 
piano music for 4 and 6 hands and 2 pianos 
(1943). Altmann also edited Paul Frank's 
Tonkunstler-Lexikon (1926, 1927, 1936, 
1949). Furthermore, he published bibliogra- 
phies of books on instruments; also made 
arrangements of classical works. 



Altnikol, Johann Ghristoph, German or- 
ganist and composer; b. Berna (Silesia) in 
December 1719 (baptized Jan. 1, 1720); 
d. Naumburg, July 25, 1759. In 1744-48 
he studied with J. S. Bach; was then or- 
ganist at St. Wenzel's Church in Naumburg. 
On Jan. 20, 1749 Altnikol married Bach's 
daughter, Elisabeth. In a letter of recom- 
mendation Bach describes him as "quite 
skillful in composition." As Bach's copyist, 
Altnikol established authentic texts of many 
of Bach's works. See (passim) H. David and 
A. Mendel, The Bach Reader (N.Y., 1945); 
also F. Blume's article in 'Die Musik in 
Geschichte und Gegenwart.' 

Altschuler (ahlt-shoo'-ler), Modest, Rus- 
sian conductor; b. Mogilev, Russia, Feb. 15, 
1873. He studied cello at the Warsaw Cons. 
(1884-86), and later took courses at the 
Moscow Cons, with Arensky and Taneyev 
(comp.) and Safonov (piano and cond.), 
graduating in 1890. After touring Russia as 
a cellist, he emigrated to America. In 1903 
he organized in New York the Russian 
Symph. Soc. and conducted its first concert 
on Jan. 7, 1904. This organization became 
an important cultural medium for perform- 
ances of Russian music in America; Alt- 
schuler obtained from Scriabin the right of 
the world premiere of The Poem of Extasy 
and conducted it in New York on Dec. 10, 
1908. At the same concert Mischa Elman 
made his American debut. Altschuler also 
gave the first American perf. of Scriabin's 
Prometheus, employing the 'color organ' pre- 
scribed in the score, which was built es- 
pecially for this performance (N. Y., March 
20, 1915) ; among other Russian composers 
whose works were presented by him for the 
first time in America were Ippolitov-Ivanov, 
Liadov, Rachmaninov and Vassilenko. Even- 
tually Altschuler settled in Los Angeles as 
a teacher. In 1956 he was writing his mem- 

Alvarado, Alberto, Mexican composer; 
b. Durango, Dec. 10, 1864; d. there, June 
18, 1939. He wrote nearly 1000 pieces of 
various types ranging from waltzes to sym- 
phonic works, mostly of a descriptive nature : 
(El principe de Asturias; Angel Mujer; 
Almas Destrozadas; La Fiesta encantadora; 
Suite Tropical, Corazdn latino). 

Alvarez (ahl-vah-ra'), Albert Raymond 
(real name Albert Gourron), French tenor; 
b. Bordeaux, 1861; d. Nice, Feb. 26, 1933. 
He sang at various opera houses and at the 
Paris Opera; made his American debut at 
the Metropolitan Opera, on Dec. 18, 1899, 
as Romeo. He remained there for three 
seasons, then appeared in London, and 

again in France. His repertoire comprised 
about 60 roles. 

Alvary, Max (real name Achenbach), 
German tenor; b. Diisseldorf, May 3, 1856; 
d. near Gross-Tabarz, Thuringia, Nov. 7, 
1898. His father was a well known painter. 
Alvary studied with Stockhausen; made his 
debut at Weimar. On Nov. 25, 1885 he 
made his American debut at the Metro- 
politan Opera as Don Jos6 singing in Ger- 
man; later he specialized in Wagnerian 
roles, in which he was eminently successful 
in America and in Germany. 

Alwin, Karl, German conductor and 
composer; b. Konigsberg, April 15, 1891; 
d. Mexico City, Oct. 15, 1945. He studied 
in Berlin with Humperdinck and Hugo 
Kaun; then became Karl Muck's assistant 
(Berlin and Bayreuth, 1912). He conducted 
in Halle (1913); Posen (1914); Diisseldorf 
(1915-17) and Hamburg (1917-20). From 
1920-38 he was conductor of the Vienna 
Staatsoper, and guest conductor in England, 
France and Spain. He left Austria per- 
manently in 1938. He was conductor at the 
Opera National in Mexico from 1941 until 
his death in 1945. In 1920 he married 
Elisabeth Schumann (divorced 1936). 

Alwyn, William, English composer, b. 
Northampton, Nov. 7, 1905. He studied at 
the Royal Academy with McEwen; in 1928 
became teacher there. In 1937 he was 
elected a member of the Worshipful Com- 
pany of Musicians. He wrote a piano con- 
certo (1930); violin concerto (1938); oboe 
concerto (1944); a symphony (1949); the 
oratorio The Marriage of Heaven and Hell 
(1936); several orchestral suites; Lyra An- 
gelica for harp and string orch. (1954); 
some chamber music; piano sonata and 
songs. Alwyn has achieved his greatest suc- 
cess as composer of film music (Desert Vic- 
tory, Odd Man Out, etc.) to which his 
ability to write effective music in a moder- 
ately advanced idiom is eminently suited. 

Alypios, Greek musical theorist, who 
flourished in the middle of the 4th century. 
His 'Introduction to Music' is the chief 
source of specific information regarding an- 
cient Greek notation; it contains a summary 
of Greek scales in all their transpositions, 
both for voices and instruments. This treatise 
was published by Meursius (Leyden, 1616); 
by Meibom in his Antiquae musicae auctores 
septem (Amsterdam, 1652); and reprinted 
by F. Bellermann in Die Tonleitern und 
Musiknoten der Griechen (Berlin, 1847). 
A new critical edition is found in Jan's 
Musici scriptores graeci (1895). A graphic 



explanation of the notation of Alypios is 
presented by A. Samoiloff in his article Die 
Alypiusschen Reihen der altgriechischen 
Tonbezeichnung in 'Archiv fiir Musikwissen- 
schaft' (1924; pp. 383-400). 

Amadei, Filippo, Italian opera composer; 
b. Reggio, 1683; place and date of death 
unknown. His claim to attention arises from 
the circumstance that he, under the name 
of Signor Pippo (diminutive of Filippo), 
was the real author of the first act of the 
opera Muzio Scevola, for which Bononcini 
wrote the second act, and Handel the third, 
and which was produced at the Royal 
Academy of Music in London, April 15, 
1721. Amadei's name was erroneously con- 
verted into Filippo Mattei by Mattheson in 
his Critica musica and the mistake was car- 
ried into reference works and Handel's 

Amalia, the name of three German prin- 
cesses who were musicians. See Anna Amalia 
(Princess of Prussia), Anna Amalia (Duch- 
ess of Saxe- Weimar) and Amalia Friederike. 

Amalia Friederike, Princess of Saxony 
who wrote comedies under the name of 
Amalie Heiter; b. Dresden, Aug. 10, 1794; 
d. there, Sept. 18, 1870. She composed 
several light operas (Una donna, Le tre 
cinture, Die Siegesfahne, Der Kanonen- 
schuss, etc.) and church music. 

Amani, Nikolay Nikolayevitch, Russian 
composer; b. St. Petersburg, April 4, 1872; 
d. Yalta, Oct. 4, 1904. He studied at the 
St. Petersburg Cons, with Rimsky-Korsakov 
and Liadov (1890-1900); then went to 
Italy and played a concert of his piano 
works at Naples (July 29, 1900) ; in 1901- 
02 he traveled in Germany. Tuberculosis 
forced him to stop working; he lived his 
last two^ years in the Crimea. Amani's music 
is close in style to Tchaikovsky; but he wrote 
only in small forms. 

Amar, Licco, Hungarian violinist; b. 
Budapest, Dec. 4, 1891. He studied with 
Henri Marteau in Berlin, and later joined 
the Marteau Quartet as second violinist. He 
was subsequently concertmaster of the Berlin 
Philharmonic (1916-20) and at the National 
Theater in Mannheim (1920-23). In 1922 
he organized the Amar Quartet (with Wal- 
ter Caspar, Paul Hindemith and Maurits 
Frank) ; toured Europe with this group 
until 1929. He left Germany in 1933; lived 
in Paris, and eventually settled in Turkey 
as prof, at the Ankara Cons. 

Amat, Juan Carlos, Spanish physician 
and writer on guitar playing; b. Monistrol, 
1572; d. there, Feb. 10, 1642. His book 
Guitarra Espanola en cinco or denes (Bar- 
celona, 1596) has been reprinted many 
times. See E. Pujol, Significacidn de Juan 
Carlos Amat (1572-1642) en la historia de 
la guitarra in 'Anuario Musical,' vol. V 
(Barcelona, 1950). 

Amati, a renowned family of violin mak- 
ers at Cremona, Italy. (1) Andrea, b. 1530 
(?),d. 1611 (?), was the first violin maker 
of the family; his violins were usually of small 
pattern, but show a marked advance over 
the Brescia instrs. His two sons, ( 2 ) Antonio, 
b. 1550, d. 1638, and (3) Girolamo, b. 
1556; d. Nov. 2, 1630, worked together for 
a time, producing violins of nearly the same 
style of their father. (4) Niccold, b. Dec. 3, 
1596; d. April 12, 1684, the most celebrated 
of the Amatis, improved the model in several 
respects, and, though generally working with 
a small pattern, built some so-called 'grand 
Amatis' — large violins of powerful tone, 
clearer, purer, and more sonorous than in 
those of his predecessors. His label is 'Nico- 
laus Amati Cremonens. Hieronimi Alius An- 
tonii nepos. Fecit anno 16 — .' In his work- 
shop were trained both Andrea Guarneri 
and Antonio Stradivari. (5) Niccolo's son, 
Girolamo, b. Feb. 26, 1649; d. Feb. 21, 
1740, the last of the family, was far inferior 
to his father as a workman. — See Lutgen- 
dorff, Die Geigen- und Lautenmacher vom 
Mittelalter bis zur Gegenwart (Frankfurt, 
1904; 4th ed. 1922, in dictionary form) ;G. 
de Piccolellis, Genealogia degli Amati e 
Guarneri (1866). 

Amato, Pasquale, Italian baritone; b. 
Naples, March 21, 1878; d. New York, Aug. 
12, 1942. He studied at the Cons, of Naples 
(1896-99); made his debut in La Traviata 
in Naples in 1900. He later sang at leading 
European opera houses, and in Russia, Eng- 
land, Egypt and Argentina. He made his 
American debut at the Metropolitan Opera 
in La Traviata (Nov. 20, 1908) with Sem- 
brich and Caruso. Amato remained a mem- 
ber of the Metropolitan Opera until 1921 
and then settled in New York as voice 

Ambros, August Wilhelm, eminent musical 
historiographer; b. Mauth, near Prague, 
Nov. 17, 1816; d. Vienna, June 28, 1876. 
He studied law and music; rapidly rose 
in the legal profession; was appointed Public 
Prosecutor in Prague (1850), but continued 
to devote much time to music; published his 
Die Grenzen der Musik und Poesie (Leipzig, 



1856; English translation, N. Y.„ 1893) as 
a reply to Hanslick's views on esthetics; 
followed by a brilliant collection of essays 
under the title, Culturhistorische Bilder aus 
dem Musikleben der Gegenwart (Leipzig, 
1860) ; also published two collections of ar- 
ticles, Bunte Blatter (1872-74; 2nd ed. by 
E. Vogel, 1896). In 1869 Ambros was ap- 
pointed prof, of music at Prague Univ. and 
Prague Cons.; in 1872 received a post in the 
Ministry of Justice in Vienna; he also taught 
at Vienna Cons. His major work was the 
monumental Geschichte der Musik commis- 
sioned by the publisher Leuckart in 1860. 
Ambros spent many years of research in the 
libraries of Munich, Vienna, and several 
Italian cities for this work, but died before 
completing the 4th volume, which was ed- 
ited from his notes by C. F. Becker and 
G. Nottebohm; a 5th volume was published 
in 1882 by O. Kade from newly collected 
materials. W. Langhans wrote a sequel in 
a more popular style under the title Die 
Geschichte der Musik des 17., 18. und 19. 
Jahrhunderts, bringing the work up to date 
(2 volumes, 1882-86). A list of names and 
general index were issued by W. Baumker 
(1882). A 2nd edition of the original 4 
volumes (Leipzig, 1880) contained the fol- 
lowing: Vol. I, The Beginnings of Music; 
Vol. II, From the Christian Era to the First 
Flemish School; Vol. Ill, From the Nether- 
lands Masters to Palestrina; Vol. IV, Pales- 
trina, his contemporaries and immediate 
successors. Volume I has been rewritten, not 
always for the better, by B. Sokolovsky; 2nd 
volume was reprinted in a new revision by 
Riemann (1892); volume IV by Leichten- 
tritt (1909); volume V was revised and 
enlarged by O. Kade (1911). Ambros was 
also an excellent practical musician, a pro- 
ficient pianist, and composer. He wrote an 
opera in Czech, Bretislaw a Jitka; overtures 
to Othello and the Magico prodigioso, nu- 
merous songs, and religious music. Cf. Guido 
Adler, August Wilhelm Ambros in the 'Mus. 
Quarterly' (July, 1931). 

Ambrose (Ambrosius), Christian saint 
and creator of Ambrosian Chant;' b. Trier 
(Treves), c. 333; d. Milan, April 4, 397. 
He was elected Bishop of Milan in 374; 
canonized after his death. In 384 he was 
made responsible for the regulation and^" 
development of singing in the Western 
Church, by the introduction and cultivation 
of ritual song (antiphonal and congrega- 
tional) as practiced at the time in the 
Eastern Church. His indisputable authorship 
of several sacred songs has earned him the 
title of 'Father of Christian Hymnology,' 
but his reputed composition of the Ambro- 


sian Chant,' Te Deum laudamus (said to 
have been sung by St. Ambrose and St. 
Augustine at the baptism of the latter) is 
mythical. — Bibl. : Biraghi, Inni sinceri e 
carmi di S. Ambrogio (Milan, 1862); G. 
M. Dreves, Aurelius Ambrosius, der Vater 
des Kirchengesanges (Freiburg, 1893); A. 
Mocquereau, Notes sur I'influence de V accent 
et du cursus tonique latins dans le chant 
ambrosien (Paris, 1897); A. Steier, Unter- 
suchungen iiber die Echtheit der Hymnen 
des Ambrosius (Leipzig, 1903) ; P. Wagner, 
Introduction to the Gregorian melodies, part 
1, Origin and Development of the Forms of 
Liturgical Chant. (London, 1907); E. Gar- 
bagnati, Riviste sull' antica salmodia am- 
brosiana (Rome, 1912); A. S. Parodi, S. 
Ambrogio e la sua eta (Milan, 1941). 

Ambrose, Paul, organist; b. Hamilton, 
Ontario, Oct. 11, 1868; d. there, June 1, 
1941. He studied with his father; was or- 
ganist at various churches in New York 
(1886-1917); then taught in New Jersey. 
He was four times president of the National 
Association of Organists. 

d'Ambrosio, Alfredo, Italian violinist and 
composer; b. Naples, June 13, 1871; d. 
Nice, Dec. 29, 1914. He studied with E. 
Bossi at the Cons, of Naples (comp.) ; 
violin with Sarasate in Madrid and with 
Wilhelmj in London. Settled in Nice as 
teacher, and leader of a string quartet. He 
wrote an opera Pia de Tolomei; a ballet 
Ersilia; a string quintet; a string quartet; 
2 violin concertos, and many smaller com- 
positions for violin (Romanza, Canzonetta, 

Ambrosius, Hermann, German composer; 
b. Hamburg, July 25, 1897. He studied at 
the Univ. of Leipzig; took master courses 
with Pfitzner in Berlin (1921-24). From 
1924-45 he was active in Leipzig as teacher 
and lecturer. After World War II he settled 
at Engen. A prolific composer of symphonies, 
instrumental concertos, chamber music and 

Ameller, Andre-Charles, French composer; 
b. Arnaville, Jan. 2, 1912. He studied com- 
position with Roger-Ducasse and Gaubert 
at the Paris Cons.; also violin and double- 
bass. He was a prisoner of war in Germany 
in 1940; then resumed his studies. He has 
written an opera Sampiero Corso; Ouverture 
solennelle for orch. ; Fresques symphoniques 
(Paris Radio, 1949) ; a ballet, La coupe de 
sang (1950); Jeux de table for saxophone 
and piano (1955); Terre secrete, 6 poems 
for voice and orch. (1956). 


Amengual, Rene, Chilean composer; b. 
Santiago, Sept. 2, 1911; d. there, Aug. 2, 
1954. He studied with Humberto Allende 
at the National Cons, in Santiago. His com- 
positions are few, and mostly in small forms; 
their style shows influences of the modern 
French school. He wrote a piano sonatina 
(1938); Introduction and Allegro for 2 
pianos (1939); piano concerto (Santiago, 
June 30, 1942); El Vaso for voice and 
chamber orch. (Santiago, Aug. 25, 1944), 
etc. His Burlesca for piano is included in 
the album 'Latin American Art Music for 
the Piano' (N. Y., 1942). 

Amfiteatrov, Daniele, composer and con- 
ductor; b. St. Petersburg, Russia, Oct. 29, 
1901; studied composition in St. Petersburg 
with Wihtol, in Prague with Kricka, and in 
Rome with Respighi. He stayed in Italy 
until 1937 when he came to America as 
assistant conductor of the Minneapolis 
Symph. Orch. (1938-41). In 1941 he settled 
in Hollywood as composer of film music; 
became an American citizen in 1944. He 
has written for orch. Poema del Mare 
(1925), Miracolo delle Rose (1927) ; Amer- 
ican Panorama (1934), and some chamber 
music, as well as numerous film scores. 

Amiot (ah-myoh'), Joseph Marie, French 
ecclesiastic; b. Toulon, Feb. 8, 1718: d. 
Peking, Oct. 8, 1793. He was Jesuit mis- 
sionary to China; while there, he translated 
Li Koang Ti's work on Chinese music ; Com- 
mentaire sur le livre classique touchant la 
musique des anciens; also wrote Memoires 
sur la musique des Chinois, tant anciens que 
modernes (vol. VI of 'Memoires concernant 
l'histoire, les sciences, les arts, etc., des 
Chinois'; Paris, 1780, edited by Abbe 

Amirov, Fikret Dzhamil, Azerbaidzhan 
composer; b. Kirovabad, Nov. 22, 1922. He 
played native instruments; also studied com- 
position. His music reflects native folkways. 
He has written a symph. poem To the 
Memory of the Heroes of the Greek Na- 
tional War (1944); several symph. poems 
on national modes 'mugamas'; double con- 
certo for violin, piano and orch. (1948); 
The Pledge of the Korean Guerilla Fighter 
for voice and orch. (1951); variations for 
piano (1940), many arrangements of folk 

Ammann, Benno, Swiss composer and 
conductor; b. Gersau, June 14, 1904. He 
studied at the Leipzig Cons, and with 
Honegger, Milhaud and Roussel in Paris. 
He was choirmaster at the State Theater in 
Basel (1936-39); at the Teatro Reale in 

Rome (1939-42); then, conductor in Switz- 
erland and France. Among his works are 
a mass Defensor Pads (Rome, 1947), a 
string quartet and a saxophone sonata. 

Ammerbach, Elias Nikolaus, German or- 
ganist and contrapuntist; b. Naumberg, c. 
1530; d. Leipzig, Jan. 1597 (buried Jan. 
29). From 1560 he was organist of the 
Thomaskirche, Leipzig. He published Orgel 
oder Instrument Tabulatur (Leipzig, 1571), 
a work of importance regarding progress 
and development in the practice of tuning, 
the fingering of keyboard instruments, ex- 
ecution of graces, etc. (described by Becker 
in Die Hausmusik in Deutschland, Leipzig, 
1840) ; and Ein neu kiinstlich Tabulatur- 
buch (1575; 2nd ed., 1583). He also pub- 
lished numerous compositions for organ and 

Ammon, Blasius, contrapuntist; b. 1560 at 
Imst, Tirol; d. Vienna, June, 1590. He was 
a choir boy in the service of Archduke 
Ferdinand of Austria, who sent him to 
Venice for his musical education. In 1578 he 
returned to Innsbruck and joined the Fran- 
ciscan Order. In 1587 he went to the Fran- 
ciscan monastery in Vienna, where he 
entered the priesthood. He printed a book 
of 5-part Introits (Vienna, 1582); a book 
of 4-part masses (Vienna, 1588) ; 2 books 
of 4, 5 and 6-part motets (Munich, 1590). 
A number of works in MS are in the li- 
braries of Munich and Vienna. A volume 
containing his church music was published 
by Caecilianus Huigens in 'Denkmaler der 
Tonkunst in Osterreich' (38, I). 

Amon, Johann (Andreas), German mu- 
sician; b. Bamberg, 1763; d. Wallerstein, 
Bavaria, March 29, 1825. He studied horn 
with Giovanni Punto and traveled with him 
on tours in France and Germany. From 
1789 till 1817 he was music director at 
Heilbronn; then became court conductor to 
the Prince of Ottingen-Wallerstein. He 
wrote 2 operas, 3 Requiems (one of which 
he intended for performance at his funeral), 
and many pieces of chamber music. 

Ancina, Giovanni Giovenale, Italian 
choral composer; b. Fossano, Oct. 19, 1545; 
d. Saluzzo, Aug. 31, 1604. He studied med- 
icine and theology; became interested in 
music when he met Filippo Neri; in 1578 
he joined the Congregazione dell' Oratorio, 
founded by Neri. Ancina wrote church 
music; published Tempio armonico della 
beata Vergine (Rome, 1599). — Cf. J. Bacci, 
Vita di G. G. Ancina (Rome, 1671); also 
Pietro Damilano, G. G. Ancina e la lauda 
cinque cent esc a (Milan, 1953). 



Ancona, Mario, Italian baritone, b. 
Leghorn, Feb. 28, 1860; d. Florence, Feb. 
22, 1931. He studied social science and law, 
and started as a diplomat. He soon turned 
to the study of singing, however, and made 
his debut at Trieste; then sang at the prin- 
cipal opera houses of Italy. He appeared 
as Tonio at both the London (1892) and 
New York (1894) premieres of Pagliacci; 
for nine seasons he was a member of Covent 
Garden; he spent five seasons at the Metro- 
politan Opera, and two at the Manhattan 
Opera House. He also appeared in Spain, 
Portugal, Russia and Argentina. His reper- 
toire included such various roles as Amon- 
asro, Sachs, Wolfram, etc. After retiring 
from opera he was active as vocal teacher 
in Italy. 

Ancot (ahn-koh'), a family of musicians 
at Bruges. Jean (pere), b. Bruges, Oct. 22, 
1779; d. there July 12, 1848; violin virtuoso, 
pianist and composer; studied (1799-1804) 
in Paris under Baillot, Kreutzer, and Catel; 
then settled in Bruges as teacher. Publ. 4 
violin concertos; overtures, marches, sacred 
music, etc.; most of his works are still in 
MS. Taught his sons: (1) Jean (fils); b. 
Bruges, July 6, 1799; d. Boulogne, June 5, 
1829; finished his mus. education at the 
Paris Cons, under Pradher and Berton; an 
accomplished pianist, he was successful in 
London (1823-25); eventually settled in 
Boulogne. He was an astonishingly prolific 
composer (225 works; a piano concerto, 
sonatas, etudes, 4-hand fantasias, also violin 
concertos); and (2) Louis; b. Bruges, June 
3, 1803; d. there, 1836; for a time pianist 
to the Duke of Sussex, London; made ex- 
tended continental tours, taught at Boulogne 
and Tours, and finally returned to Bruges. 
He wrote piano music in salon style. 

Anda, Geza, Hungarian pianist; b. Buda- 
pest, Nov. 19, 1921. He studied with 
Dohnanyi at the Royal Music Academy in 
Budapest; won the Liszt Prize. During World 
War II he escaped from Hungary and 
settled in Switzerland. He appeared with 
major symphony orchestras in Europe ; made 
his American debut with the Philadelphia 
Orch. in Oct. 1955. He has also given nu- 
merous recitals in Europe and America; his 
programs are built on contrasts of romantie 
and modern music; he is especially success- 
ful in the works of Brahms, Liszt and Bartok. 

Andersen, (Carl) Joachim, Danish flute 
player and composer; b. Copenhagen, April 
29, 1847; d. there, May 7, 1909; son and 
pupil of the flutist Christian Joachim Ander- 
sen. From 1869-77, member of the Royal 
Orch.; 1881 in Berlin, where he was co- 

founder, and for 10 years first flutist and 
assistant conductor of the Philh. Orch.; 
from 1893, cond. of the Palace Orch. at 
Copenhagen. He wrote solo works for the 
flute; also pieces with orch.: Hungarian 
Fantasia, Ballade; Dance of the Sylphs; 24 
easy and 24 difficult etudes, etc. His brother, 
Vigo, was an eminent flute player; b. 
Copenhagen, April 21, 1852; d. by suicide 
at Chicago, Jan. 29, 1895. He was first 
flutist in the Thomas Orch. in Chicago. 

Andersen, Karl August, Norwegian com- 
poser and cellist; b. Oslo, Sept. 29, 1903. 
He studied cello in Oslo and later with 
Hugo Becker in Berlin. Since 1924, cellist 
in the Oslo Philh. Orch. He has written 
a string quartet (1934); chamber symph. 
(1936); suite for orch. (1937); trio for 
flute, clarinet and cello (1939); and choral 

Andersen, Stell, American pianist; b. Linn 
Grove, Iowa, Feb. 28, 1897, of Norwegian 
parentage. She studied at the American 
Cons., Chicago, with Josef Lhevinne in 
New York, and with Isidor Philipp in Paris. 
She made her New York debut at Town 
Hall in 1921; then gave recitals in Europe. 
Returning to America in 1939, she was ac- 
tive as teacher (American Cons., Chicago) 
as well as performer; she later settled in 
St. Paul, Minn.; after 1946 made several 
European tours. 

Anderson, Arthur, American bass; b. Har- 
vey, 111., Aug. 16, 1898. He studied at Cin- 
cinnati Cons, and later in Italy. He made 
his debut in Malta; then toured Italy. Upon 
his return to America he made his debut 
at the Metropolitan Opera as Donner in 
Das Rheingold (Feb. 26, 1932). Eventually 
he settled in New York as vocal teacher. 

Anderson, Marian, American contralto; b. 
Philadelphia, Pa., Feb. 17, 1902. She studied 
voice with Giuseppe Boghetti; won a vocal 
competition against 300 entrants and was 
soloist at the Lewisohn Stadium with the 
N. Y. Philh., on Aug. 27, 1925. She later 
appeared in programs with Roland Hayes. 
In 1930 she made her European debut in 
Berlin. 1930-32, she gave 52 concerts in 
Scandinavia and again in 1933-34 (142 
concerts) ; in 1934 she sang in Paris, Lon- 
don, Holland and Belgium; in 1934-35, 
made a tour of Poland, Russia, Latvia, 
Switzerland, Belgium, Austria, Hungary, 
Italy and Spain. From 1935-36 she toured 
America, giving a concert in Carnegie Hall 
on Jan. 30, 1936; another European tour 
followed including Vienna, Budapest and 
The Hague. From Jan. to May, 1938, she 



gave 70 concerts in the U.S. and South 
America, and again in Europe (1938-39). 
In Feb., 1939, Marian Anderson became a 
center of national attention when she was 
forbidden to sing at Constitution Hall in 
Washington. In protest against this case of 
racial discrimination, a distinguished group 
of citizens, headed by Mrs. Franklin D. 
Roosevelt, sponsored her concert at the 
Lincoln Memorial (April 9, 1939), which 
was attended by 75,000 persons. She was 
the first Negro singer to be engaged as a 
permanent member of the Metropolitan 
Opera Co., making her debut as Ulrica in 
The Masked Ball (Jan. 7, 1955). She re- 
ceived the honorary degree of Mus. Doc. 
from Howard Univ., Washington, D. C. in 
June, 1938. Cf. Kosti Vehanen, Marian 
Anderson (N. Y. } 1941). 

Anderson, Thomas, English organist; b. 
Birmingham, April 15, 1836; d. there, Sept. 
18, 1903. He served as organist in Birming- 
ham churches; was also music critic there. 
He composed several cantatas: The Song 
of Deborah and Barak; The Wise and Fool- 
ish Virgins; The Wreck of the Hesperus; 
John Gilpin; The Three Jovial Huntsmen; 
The Norman Baron; and Yuletide; an Eng- 
lish Requiem and instrumental music. 

Anderssen, Alfred, Finnish composer; b. 
Helsinki, July 4, 1887; d. there, Sept. 10, 
1940. He studied in Helsinki and in Munich; 
settled in Abo as a choral conductor and 
music critic. In 1926 he married the singer, 
Karin Limnell. He wrote an opera Kohtalo 
(1932), 2 symphonies, 15 cantatas, and 
many choral works. 

d'Andrade (dahn-drah'-de), Francesco, 
Portuguese baritone; b. Lisbon, Jan. 11, 
1859; d. Berlin, Feb. 8, 1921. He studied 
in Italy; made his debut in San Remo 
(1882); then lived in Berlin. He was well 
known as a successful singer in Europe; his 
most famous role was that of Don Giovanni. 

Andrade, Mario de, Brazilian poet and 
writer on music; b. S. Paulo, Oct. 9, 1893; 
d. there, Feb. 25, 1945. He studied at S. 
Paulo Cons.; in 1935 he was appointed 
director of the S. Paulo Dept. of Culture. 
Andrade spent much time on special re- 
search and reconstruction of Brazilian folk 
songs and dances; he was also active as 
music critic. Among his publications are 
Carlos Gomes (Rio de Janeiro, 1939); 
Music a do Brasil (1941); Pequena Historia 
de Musica (1942). 

Andre, Johann, German composer, pub- 
lisher, and father of a musical family; b. 

Offenbach, March 28, 1741; d. there, June 
18, 1799. He founded (Sept. 1, 1774) at 
Offenbach a music publishing house under 
his name and had publ. 1,200 compositions 
by the time of his death. For seven years 
(1777-84) he was Kapellmeister at Dobble- 
lin's Theater in Berlin. He was a prolific 
composer, author of 19 Singspiele and 14 
miscellaneous scores for the stage, among 
them Der Topfer (Hanau, Jan. 22, 1773) 
and Der Liebhaber als Automat (Berlin, 
Sept. 11, 1782). Bretzner wrote the libretto 
of Die Entfiihrung aus dem Serail, or Bel- 
mont und Constanze for him; the opera was 
produced in Berlin, May 25, 1781. The 
same text was used the following year by 
Mozart for his celebrated work, which 
elicited Bretzner's haughty protest against 
"a certain man named Mozart" for the un- 
authorized use of his libretto. Among 
Andre's songs, the Rheinweinlied ('Bekranzt 
mit Laub') was widely performed. Andre is 
credited with being the composer of the first 
'durchkomponierte Ballade,' Die Weiber von 
Weinsberg (1783). 

Andre, (Johann) Anton, third son of 
Johann Andre; b. Offenbach, Oct. 6, 1775; 
d. there April 6, 1842. A precocious talent, 
he studied with Vollweiler in Mannheim 
(1793-96); was a fine pianist, violinist and 
composer before entering the Univ. of Jena; 
after completing his studies he made exten- 
sive travels, and on his father's death took 
charge of the business, adding particular 
lustre to its good name by the purchase 
( 1 800 ) of Mozart's entire musical remains. 
He publ. Mozart's autograph thematic cat- 
alogue, and supplemented it by a list of the 
works so acquired. By accepting the appli- 
cation of the lithographic process to music- 
engraving (1779), he took another long 
stride towards placing his firm in the front 
rank. He was also a composer (2 operas, 
symphonies, songs, etc. ) , a successful teacher, 
and a noteworthy theorist. He wrote 2 vols, 
on harmony, counterpoint, canon and fugue, 
(1832-43; new revised ed. 1875); and An- 
leitung zum Violinspiele. — His sons were: 
(1) Carl August, b. Offenbach, June 15, 
1806; d. Frankfurt, Feb. 15, 1887; head 
(from 1835) of the Frankfurt branch opened 
in 1828, and founder of a piano factory 
( 'MozartflugeP ) ; author of Der Klavierbau 
und seine Geschichte (1855). — (2) Julius, 
b. Frankfurt, June 4, 1808; d. there, April 
17, 1880; a fine organist and pianist, pupil 
of Aloys Schmitt (his grandfather's pupil), 
author of a Praktische Orgelschule, com- 
poser of several interesting organ composi- 
tions, and arranger of Mozart's works for 
piano, 4 hands. — (3) Johann August, b. 



Offenbach, March 2, 1817; d. there, Oct. 
29, 1887; his father's successor (1839) in 
the publishing establishment. His two sons, 
Karl (b. Aug. 24, 1853; d. June 29, 1914) 
and Adolf (b. April 10, 1855; d. Sept. 10, 
1910), succeeded to the business. — (4) Jean 
Baptiste (de St.-Gilles), b. Offenbach, March 
7, 1823; d. Frankfurt, Dec. 9, 1882; pianist, 
and composer of various pieces for piano 
and voice, was a pupil of A. Schmitt, Tau- 
bert (piano), and Kessler and Dehn (har- 
mony); lived for years in Berlin; had the 
honorary title of 'Herzoglich Bernbergischer 

Andreae, Volkmar, Swiss conductor and 
composer; b. Bern, July 5, 1879. He studied 
music with Karl Munzinger in Bern, and 
later at the Cologne Cons, with Wiillner. 
From 1901 on, he devoted himself mainly 
to conducting; was conductor at the Munich 
Opera (1901); then chorus leader at Win- 
terthur and Zurich, where he settled in 1902. 
He was director of the Zurich Cons, from 
1914 till 1939. He distinguished himself par- 
ticularly by his performances of oratorios 
and became known as one of the best con- 
ductors of Bruckner's music. In his compo- 
sitions Andreae reflects the post-romantic 
tendencies of German music. He wrote 2 
operas: Ratcliff (Duisburg, May 25, 1914) 
and Abenteuer des Casanova (Dresden, June 
17, 1924) ; several choral works (Der Gott- 
liche, Charons Nachen, Magentalied, etc.) ; 
2 symphonies, a violin concerto, a concertino 
for oboe and orch. ; 8 Chinese songs for 
tenor, Li-Tai-Po; 2 string quartets; 2 piano 
trios; a string trio, a violin sonata and piano 
pieces. See F. Seiler, Dr. Volkmar Andreae 
. . . zum Jubilaum seiner 25 jahrigen Tdtig- 
keit (Zurich, 1931). 

Andree, Elfrida, Swedish organist and 
composer; b. Visby, Feb. 19, 1841; d. Stock- 
holm, Jan. 11, 1929. She studied at the 
Stockholm Cons, and with Gade in Copen- 
hagen; at the same time studied telegraphy, 
and was the first woman telegrapher in 
Sweden. In 1867 she obtained the post of 
organist at the Goteborg Cathedral. She 
established a series of popular concerts, and 
presented about 800 programs. She was a 
member of the Swedish Academy of Music. 
A pioneer among women musicians, she 
was the first Swedish woman to write an 
organ symphony, and wrote a Swedish Mass, 
which had frequent performances, and 
chamber music. 

Andreis, Josip, Croatian music historian; 
b. Split, March 19, 1909. He studied philos- 
ophy in Zagreb; then music at the Zagreb 

Cons. He was subsequently appointed prof, 
there. He has written a music history in 3 
volumes (Zagreb, 1951-54) ; monographs on 
Berlioz and on several Yugoslav composers; 
became editor of a musical encyclopedia in 
2 volumes (Zagreb, 1957). 

Andrevi, Francisco, prominent Spanish 
church composer; b. Sanahuja, near Lerida, 
Nov. 16, 1786; d. Barcelona, Nov. 23, 
1853. He started as choir boy, and from 
his earliest years devoted himself to the 
study of church music. At the age of 22 
he became director of music at the Cathe- 
dral of Segorbe; then held similar posts at 
the churches at Barcelona, Valencia and 
Seville. During the civil war in Spain he 
was in Bordeaux (1832-42); later in Paris 
(1845-49), where he published his Traite 
d'Harmonie et de Composition (1848); in 
the same year it was also published in 
Spanish. Andrevi returned to Barcelona in 
1849. He wrote a sacred drama Juicio uni- 
versal; also much choral music, most of 
which is in MS.; two of his sacred choruses 
(Nunc dimittis and Salve regina) are in- 
cluded in Eslava's 'Lira Sacra-Hispana.' 

Andrico, Michal, Rumanian composer; 
b. Bucharest, Sept. 22, 1894. He studied at 
the Bucharest Cons. ; won the Enesco Prize 
(1924); later taught at the Academy of 
Music. He has written a Suite pittoresque 
for orch.; piano quintet; a string quartet 
and piano pieces. 

Andries, Jean, Belgian musician; b. Ghent, 
April 25, 1798; d. there, Jan. 21, 1872. He 
played violin in a local theater from 1813 
till 1848, at the same time taught at the 
Ghent Cons.; in 1851 became director, re- 
tiring in 1859. He published the following 
treatises: Apergu historique de tous les in- 
struments de musique actuellement en usage 
(1856); Precis de I'histoire de la musique 
depuis les temps les plus recules (1862); 
Instruments a. vent: La Flute (1866); Re- 
marques sur les cloches et les carillons 

Andriessen, Hendrik, Dutch organist and 
composer (brother of Willem) ; b. Haarlem, 
Sept. 17, 1892. He studied with his brother; 
then with Zweers (composition) at the Am- 
sterdam Cons.; taught harmony there (1928- 
34). He was organist at Utrecht Cathedral 
(1934-42) and director of the Utrecht Cons. 
(1937-49); director of the Royal Cons, at 
The Hague (1949). His works include 3 
symphonies (1930, 1937, 1946); Ricercare 
for orch. (1949); Missa Simplex (1928); 
Missa Sponsa Christi (1933); Missa Dia- 



tonka (1935); Psalm 47 (1945); cello 
sonata (1926) ; violin sonata (1933) ; Sonata 
da Chiesa for organ (1927); Miroir de 
Peine, song cycle (1923). His opera Philo- 
mela attracted a great deal of attention 
when it was produced at the Holland Festi- 
val, in Amsterdam, on June 23, 1950. 

Andriessen, Jurriaan, Dutch composer; 
son of Hendrik Andriessen; b. Haarlem, 
Nov. 15, 1925. He studied with his father, 
and later in Paris, returning to Holland in 
1948. He has written many scores for the 
theater; a piano concerto; Dutch Rhapsody 
for 2 pianos; a violin sonata and other 
chamber music for various combinations. 
His style reflects the neo-classical trend, in 
which Stravinsky's influence is much in 

Andriessen, Willem, Dutch pianist and 
composer; brother of Hendrik Andriessen; 

b. Haarlem, Oct. 25, 1887. He studied at 
the Amsterdam Cons.; received a prize for 
excellence, having performed his own con- 
certo at the graduation ceremony (1908). 
He was prof, of piano at The Hague Cons. 
(1901-18); later at the Rotterdam Cons.; 
in 1937 he was appointed director of the 
Amsterdam Cons. He was also active as a 
concert pianist, notable for his performances 
of the classics. As a composer, he has written 
mainly for piano (sonata, sonatina, etc.). 

Anerio, Felice, Italian composer; brother 
of Giovanni Francesco Anerio; b. Rome, 

c. 1560; d. there, Sept. 27, 1614. He studied 
with G. M. Manni; was a chorister at Santa 
Maria Maggiore in Rome (1568-75); then 
sang at St. Peter's under Palestrina (from 
May, 1575 to March, 1579). In 1584 he 
became maestro di cappella of the English 
College in Rome. After Palestrina's death, 
Anerio was appointed by Clement VIII to 
succeed him as composer to the Papal 
Chapel (April 3, 1594). His eminence as 
composer is best attested by the fact that 
several of his compositions were for a long 
time supposed to be Palestrina's own. Be- 
sides MSS. in Roman libraries, many of 
Anerio's works are extant in printed collec- 
tions. They include: Madrigali spirituali 
a 5 (1585, reprinted 1598); Canzonette 
a 4 (1586, reprinted 1603, 1607) ; Madrigali 
a 5 (1587); Madrigali a 6, book I (1590, 
reprinted 1599); Concerti spirituali a 4 
( 1 593 ) ; Sacri hymni e cantica a 8, book I 
(1596); Madrigali a 3 (1598); Madrigali 
a 6, book II (1602); Responsorii per la 
Settimana Santa a 4 (1602); Sacri hymni 
e cantica a 8, book II (1602) and Respon- 
soria a 4 (1606). Bibl. : L. Torri, Nei par en- 
tali di Felice Anerio ('Rivista Musicale 
Italiana,' 1914) : A. Cametti, Nuovi con- 

tributi alle biografie di Felice Anerio 
('Rivista Musicale Italiana,' 1915). 

Anerio, Giovanni Francesco, Italian com- 
poser; younger brother of Felice Anerio; b. 
Rome, c. 1567; d. June, 1630, on his way 
from Poland to Italy (buried in Graz, June 
12, 1630). He was a chorister at St. Peter's 
(1575-79) and sang with his brother under 
Palestrina; later he became maestro di 
cappella at the Lateran Church (1600-1603). 
He was at the court of King Sigismund III 
of Poland in Cracow (1607); in 1608 he 
returned to Rome; then became choirmaster 
at Verona cathedral (1609); at the Sem- 
inario Romano (1611-12) and at the Jesuit 
church of S. Maria dei Monti in Rome 
(1613-20). He became a priest in 1616; 
visited Treviso (near Venice) in 1624. He 
was a prolific composer in all forms of sacred 
music; many of his works were printed by 
leading Italian publishers. He also arranged 
Palestrina's 6-part Missa Papae Marcelli for 
4 voices (Rome, 1600). Bibl.: G. Liberali, 
Giovanni Francesco Anerio, in 'Note d'Ar- 
chivio' (Dec, 1940). 

Anet (ah-na'), Jean-Baptiste, French 
violinist, known as Baptiste; b. c. 1661; d. 
Luneville, Aug. 14, 1755. He was a pupil 
of Corelli in Rome; returning to France, 
became a member of the Royal Chapel in 
Paris; in 1736 he went to Luneville as 
musician to the former Polish King Stanislas 
Leszczynski. Anet publ. 3 sets of sonatas for 
violin with basso continuo (1729) and 3 
albums of duos for musettes (1726, 1730, 
1734. Cf. L. de La Laurencie, L'ecole 
frangaise de violin (vol. 1, Paris, 1922). 

Anfossi, Pasquale, prolific Italian opera 
composer; b. Taggia, near Naples, April 25, 
1727; d. Rome, Feb., 1797. Originally a 
violinist, he studied composition under 
Piccinni, and brought out two unsuccessful 
operas, but with his third opera, L'incognita 
perseguitata (Rome, 1773) won popular ap- 
proval. This opera was written on the same 
subject as Piccinni's previously staged opera 
and Anfossi had a greater success, backed 
by a powerful clique hostile to Piccinni. 
Anfossi then proceeded to bring out opera 
after opera. He wrote 76, which were suc- 
cessful in Rome for a time; later he sought 
new fields: in Paris (1779), London (1781- 
83, as director of the Italian Opera) ; then 
in Prague, Dresden and Berlin. Returning 
to Italy in 1784 he was appointed maestro 
di cappella at the Lateran in 1791, and 
turned his attention to sacred composition 
(12 oratorios, masses, psalms, etc.). Mozart 
wrote two arias for use in Anfossi's opera 
II curioso indiscreto (Vienna, 1783) and 
for he Gelosie fortunate (Vienna, 1788). 



Angeles, Victoria de Los. See De Los 

d'Angeli, Andrea, Italian composer and 
writer on music; b. Padua, Nov. 9, 1868; 
d. S. Michele, near Verona, Oct. 28, 1940. 
He studied at the Univ. of Padua; then 
was instructor at the Liceo Rossini in Pesaro. 
He wrote several operas: L'Innocente; II 
Negromante; Al Ridotto di Venezia; Fiori 
e Colombi; Maurizio e Lazzaro; also a 
number of libretti. He published monographs 
on Verdi (Milan, 1924) and Benedetto 
Marcello (Milan, 1930), and numerous es- 
says on music in 'La Cronaca Musicale' of 
which he was editor (1907-14). 

Angelini, Bontempi Giovanni Andrea. See 
Bontempi, Giovanni Andrea. 

d'Angelo, Louis, baritone; b. Naples, May 
6, 1888; brought to the U.S. as a child; 
first apprenticed as a glove cutter in Glovers- 
ville, N. Y., then sang in a local church. 
He went to New York at 18 and appeared 
in vaudeville; then sang with the Savage 
Opera Co.; joined the staff of the Metro- 
politan Opera during the 1917-18 season, 
retiring in 1946. He had more than 300 
operatic roles in his repertoire and was par- 
ticularly successful as Bartolo in The Barber 
of Seville. 

Angeloni, Carlo, Italian composer; b. 
Lucca, July 16, 1834; d. there, Jan. 13, 
1901. He wrote the following operas, all 
performed at Lucca: Carlo di Viana (1855) ; 
Asraele degli Abenceragi (1871); Dramma 
in montagna (perf. posthumously, 1902). 
Bibl. : L. Landucci, Carlo Angeloni (Lucca, 

Angeloni, Luigi, Italian writer on music; 
b. Frosione, Papal States, 1759; d. London, 
Feb. 5, 1842. He wrote a valuable mono- 
graph, Sopra la vita, le opere ed il sapere 
di Guido d'Arezzo, restauratore della scienza 
e dell' arte music a (Paris, 1811). 

d'Anglebert, Jean-Henri, French clavecin 
player; b. Paris, probably in 1628; d. there, 
April 23, 1691. He studied with Champion 
de Chambonnieres; in 1664 he succeeded 
his teacher as clavecinist to Louis XIV. In 
1689 he published a collection, Pieces de 
clavecin avec la maniere de les jouer, con- 
taining original suites, arrangements of airs 
from Lully's operas and also 22 variations 
on Folies d'Espagne (the theme later used 
by Corelli) ; the same volume contains in- 
struction on figured bass. D'Anglebert con- 
tributed greatly to the establishment of the 
French method of performance on the clav- 
ecin. His extant compositions were published 

in 1934 by Marguerite Roesgen-Champion 
in 'Publications de la Societe Francaise de 
Musicologie,' also containing biographical 
information. His son Jean-Baptiste Henri (b. 
Paris, Sept. 5, 1661; d. there, March 9, 
1747) succeeded his father as court musician. 
Cf. Ch. Bouvet, Les deux d'Anglebert in 'La 
Revue de Musicologie' (May, 1928). 

Angles, Higini (Catalan form; in Spanish, 
Higinio Angles), distinguished musicolo- 
gist; b. Maspujols, Catalonia, Jan. 1, 1888. 
He studied philosophy at Tarragona (1900- 
13); musicology with Felipe Pedrell and 
composition with V. M. Gibert in Barcelona 
(1913-19). In 1917 he became head of the 
Music Dept. of the Barcelona library. In 
1923 he went to Germany and studied with 
W. Gurlitt at Freiburg and F. Ludwig at 
Gottingen. In 1924 he returned to Barcelona 
and in 1927, became prof, of music history 
at the Cons. With the outbreak of the Span- 
ish Civil War in 1936, he went to Munich; 
returned to Barcelona in 1939. In 1943 he 
was appointed director of the Instituto Es- 
panol de Musicologia; in 1947 he became 
director of the Pontifical Institute of Sacred 
Music in Rome. His most important pub- 
lication is El Codex Musical de Las Huelgas 
(3 vols., 1928-31), containing facsimiles and 
transcriptions of Spanish music of the 13th 
and 14th centuries. Part of the text of this 
edition was published in the 'Mus. Quar- 
terly' (Oct., 1940). He has published the 
following books: Cantigas del Rei N'Anfos 
el Savi (Barcelona, 1927); Historia de la 
musica espanola (Barcelona, 1935); La mu- 
sica a Catalunya fins al segle XIII (Bar- 
celona, 1935) ; La musica espanola desde la 
edad media hasta nuestros dias (Barcelona, 
1941), and many smaller works. He edited 
the collected works of J. Pujol (1925); the 
organ works of Cabanilles (1926); La Mu- 
sica en la Corte de los Reyes Catolicos (2 
vols.; Madrid, 1941, Barcelona, 1947); Re- 
copilacion de Sonetos, etc. by Juan Vasquez 
(Barcelona, 1946) ; El cancionero musical 
de Palacio (Barcelona, 1947). Angles has 
contributed to many music journals and 
has written articles on Spanish music for 
'Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart.' 
He is regarded as an outstanding expert on 
Spanish music of the Middle Ages. 

Angles, Rafael, Spanish organist and 
composer; b. Rafales (Teruel), 1731; d. 
Valencia, Feb. 19, 1816; was organist at 
Valencia Cathedral from 1762-72. He de- 
voted his life to liturgical music; also wrote 
keyboard pieces, four of which are printed 
by J. Nin in his collection, 17 Sonates et 
pieces anciennes d'auteurs espagnols (Paris, 



Animuccia (ah-ne-moo'-tchah), Giovanni, 
Italian composer of sacred music; b. Flor- 
ence, c. 1500; d. Rome, March 25, 1571. 
In 1555 he was appointed maestro di cap- 
pella at St. Peter's as successor to Palestrina 
(who resumed that post after Animuccia's 
death in 1571). In 1570 Animuccia joined 
Neri in the oratory of S. Filippo; his Laudi 
spirituali were used by Neri, who expressed 
his admiration for Animuccia's ability and 
devout spirit. These Laudi were contra- 
puntal songs in several parts, interspersed 
with occasional strophes or lines sung by 
a solo voice for variety's sake; the first book 
of the Laudi was printed by Dorici (1563), 
the second by Blado (1570). Other pub- 
lished works are a book of masses (1567), 
2 of magnificats, a 4-part Credo, 4 books 
of madrigals. Modern reprints of a mass 
and a 5-part madrigal are in Torchi's 
'L'Arte musicale in Italia' (vol. I). Ani- 
muccia's compositions show a gradual eman- 
cipation from the involved formalism of 
the Flemish school in the direction of a more 
practical style, which is in some respects 
similar to Palestrina's. That Animuccia pos- 
sessed great skill in purely contrapuntal 
writings is shown by his intricate canons. 
His association with Neri undoubtedly 
played a role in the formation of the ora- 
torio. See G. Reese, Music in the Renais- 
sance (N.Y., 1954; pp. 453-55). 

d'Ankerts. See Danckerts, Ghiselin. 

Anna Amalia, Princess of Prussia, sister 
of Frederick the Great; b. Berlin, Nov. 9, 
1723; d. there, March 30, 1787. She re- 
ceived her general musical training from 
her brother; then studied with the cathedral 
organist, Gottlieb Hayne, and with Joh. Ph. 
Kirnberger. She wrote music to Ramler's 
Tod Jesu which was later set also by Graun; 
she also composed some instrumental works 
and many chorales. Her sonata for flute, a 
trio sonata and 4 military marches have 
been published. She assembled a great 
library of manuscripts, including some of 
Bach; a catalogue was published by Eitner 
(Berlin, 1884). 

Anna Amalia, Duchess of Saxe-Weimar; 
b. Wolfenbuttel, Oct. 24, 1739; d. Weimar, 
April 10, 1807. She was the mother of the 
Grand Duke Charles Augustus, who was 
Goethe's protector. Goethe supplied her with 
a libretto for Erwin und Elmire, a 'Sing- 
spiel'; first performed at the Weimar Court 
(May 24, 1776), it had numerous revivals. 
Max Friedlander publ. its vocal score in 
1921. She also wrote some instrumental 
music (Divertimento for piano, clarinet, 

viola and cello, etc.). Sec W. Bode, Amalie, 
Herzogin von Weimar (3 vols., Berlin, 
1908); O. Heuschelc, Herzogin Anna 
Amalia (Munich, 1947). 

Annibale (II Padovano, from his birth- 
place, Padua) ; Italian organist and com- 
poser; b. Padua, c. 1527; d. Graz, March 
15, 1575. He was organist at San Marco, 
(1552-66) ; from 1566 Kapellmeister ('Obris- 
ter Musicus') to the Archduke Carl at Graz. 
His published works include: a book of 
Ricercari a 4 (1556; modern ed. by N. 
Pierront and J. P. Hennebains, 1934) ; a book 
of madrigals a 5 (1564); a book of motets 
a 5-6 (1567) ; a book of masses a 5 (1573) ; 
a book of Toccate e Ricercari for organ 
(1604). Two Ricercari for organ are re- 
printed in vol. Ill of Torchi's 'L'Arte musi- 
cale in Italia.' — Cf. G. del Valle de Paz, 
Annibale II Padovano, nella storia della 
musica del cinquecento (Turin, 1933; con- 
tains complete bibliography and musical 

Anrooy (properly Anrooij), Peter van, 
Dutch conductor and composer; b. Zalt- 
Bommel, Oct. 13, 1879. He studied with 
Johan Wagenaar; later went to Moscow, 
where he took lessons with Willem Kes and 
Taneyev. He played the violin in the or- 
chestras of Glasgow and Zurich; then was 
engaged as conductor in Holland (Gron- 
ingen, Arnhem). In 1917 he became con- 
ductor of the Residentie Orch. at The 
Hague. He retired in 1935. Anrooy has 
written an orchestral rhapsody on native 
themes Piet Hein (1911), a ballade for 
violin and orch., and chamber music. 

Anschiitz, Johann Andreas, German mu- 
sician; father of Karl Anschiitz; b. Koblenz, 
March 19, 1772; d. there, Dec. 26, 1856. 
In 1808 he founded a school for vocal music 
at Koblenz. He was a lawyer by profession, 
but was also a pianist and conductor, and 
composed numerous vocal works. 

Anschiitz, Karl, German conductor; son 
of Johann Andreas; b. Koblenz, Feb., 1815; 
d. New York, Dec. 30, 1870. He studied 
with Friedrich Schneider. In 1844 he as- 
sumed the directorship of the music school 
founded by his father, in 1848 went to 
London (where he conducted the Wednes- 
day Concerts for a time). In 1857 he went 
to America and settled in New York as 
opera conductor. He was a cultivated musi- 
cian; apart from his activity as conductor 
he published several piano pieces. 

Ansermet, Ernest, celebrated Swiss con- 
ductor; b. Vevey, Nov. 11, 1883. He first 



studied mathematics with his father, who 
was a teacher of geometry; received his first 
musical training from his mother; after ob- 
taining a degree from a college in Lausanne, 
Ansermet taught mathematics at the High 
School (1906-10). At the same time he 
pursued his musical studies with Denereaz, 
Barblan and Ernest Bloch; later with Ge- 
dalge in Paris. He also studied conducting 
with Mottl in Munich and with Nikisch in 
Berlin. He conducted popular concerts in 
Montreux (1911-14), where he met Stravin- 
sky who recommended him to Diaghilev. 
Subsequently, Ansermet conducted Dia- 
ghilev's Ballets Russes in Europe and America 
(1915-23). On Sept. 28, 1918, he presented 
in Lausanne the world premiere of Stravin- 
sky's Histoire du Soldat; in 1918 he became 
permanent conductor of the newly founded 
Orchestre de la Suisse Romande in Geneva. 
He has made numerous successful appear- 
ances in the U. S. with major American 
orchestras. His specialty is modern French 
and Russian music; he is regarded as one 
of the greatest interpreters of Debussy, Ravel 
and Stravinsky. He has composed a sym- 
phonic poem Feuilles de Printemps, a bal- 
lade for piano and orch. ; has also or- 
chestrated Debussy's 6 epigraphes antiques, 
and 2 Argentinian dances by Julian Aguirre. 
He published Le geste du chef d'orchestre 
(Lausanne, 1943). 

Ansorge, Conrad (Eduard Reinhold), 
German pianist; b. Buchwald, near Lobau, 
Silesia, Oct. 15, 1862; d. Berlin, Feb. 13, 
1930. He studied at the Leipzig Cons. 
(1880-82) and was one of the last pupils 
of Liszt in Weimar (1885). He toured in 
Russia and America; then lived in Weimar 
(1893-95) and in Berlin (from 1895). From 
1898 he taught at the Klindworth-Schar- 
wenka Cons. In 1920 he gave courses at 
the German Cons, in Prague. Ansorge ex- 
celled as an interpreter of romantic com- 
positions; he was called "a metaphysician 
among pianists" for his insight into the 
inner meaning of the music of Beethoven, 
Schubert and Schumann. He wrote a piano 
concerto, a string sextet, 2 string quartets 
and a cello sonata; Ballade, Traumbilder, 
Polish Dances, and 3 sonatas for piano, and 
a Requiem. 

Ansorge, Joachim, German pianist, son 
of Conrad; b. Weimar, July 24, 1893; d. 
Vienna, July 22, 1947. He studied with his 
father and his mother, Margarethe Ansorge 
(b. Halle, Dec. 14, 1872; d. Berlin, Oct. 4, 
1944). He taught at the Cons, of Konigs- 
berg; in 1933 became prof, at the Hoch- 

schule fur Musik in Berlin; then went to 

Antcliffe, Herbert, English writer on 
music; b. Sheffield, July 30, 1875. He 
studied organ with a local church organist; 
as a young man began writing music criti- 
cism; in 1916 became music critic of 'The 
Evening Standard.' In 1925 he went to 
Holland as correspondent for 'The Daily 
Mail'; in 1939 was elected President of the 
Foreign Press Association; in 1948 returned 
to England. During his long sojourn in 
Holland, he became an authority on Dutch 
music and contributed many articles on 
contemporary events in Holland to music 
magazines. He also published miniature bi- 
ographies of Brahms (1905) and Schubert 
(1910) ; brief manuals Living Music (1912) 
and How to Enjoy Music (1921), etc. 

Antegnati (ahn-ta-fiah'-te), Costanzo, 
Italian organist and composer; b. Brescia, 

c. 1549; d. there, Nov. 16, 1624. He was 
descended from a family of organ builders, 
and served as apprentice to his father. In 
1584 he became organist at Brescia cathe- 
dral. His madrigals and sacred compositions 
(masses, motets, psalms and canzoni) were 
published in Venice (1571-1608) with 
pieces in organ tablature; he also published 
an important treatise, L'Arte organica 
(Brescia, 1608; new ed. by Renato Lunelli, 
Mainz, 1938). His 3 Ricercari for organ are 
reprinted in vol. Ill of Luigi Torchi's 
'L'Arte musicale in Italia.' Bibl. : D. Muoni, 
Gli Antegnati (Milan, 1883). 

Antes, John, 'Moravian' minister; b. 
Frederickstownship, Pa., March 24, 1740; 

d. Bristol, England, Dec. 17, 1811. He left 
America in 1764, and was a missionary in 
Egypt where he was beaten and crippled 
by order of a bey who tried to extort money 
from him. He spent the rest of his life in 
England. Watchmaker by trade, he was an 
inventive artisan. He constructed several 
string instruments; one violin, made by ' 
him in Bethlehem in 1759, is preserved in 
the Museum of the Moravian Historical 
Society at Nazareth, Pa. A contribution by 
Antes to the 'Allegemeine Musikalische 
Zeitung' in 1806 describes a device for 
better violin tuning, as well as improvements 
of the violin bow and of the keyboard ham- 
mer. Antes also invented a machine with 
which one could turn pages while playing. 
He wrote about 25 melodious short an- 
thems to German or English words for 
chorus, winds, strings, and organ. All of his 
MS compositions are in the Archives of the 
Moravian Church at Bethlehem, Pa. and 



Winston-Salem, N. C. His three string trios 
were discovered in 1949. They are the earli- 
est chamber works by a native American. His 
interesting autobiography was publ. in 
'Nachrichten aus der Bruder-Gcmeine' 
(1845).— Cf. D. M. McCorkle, John Antes, 
"American Dilettante" in the 'Mus. Quar- 
terly' (Oct., 1956). 

Antheil, George, American composer; b. 
Trenton, N. J., July 8, 1900. He studied 
with Constantin von Sternberg and Ernest 
Bloch; also with Clark Smith at the Phila- 
delphia Cons. In 1920 he went to Europe, 
where he played concerts of his piano 
works, in an ultra-modern vein, with titles 
such as Mechanisms, Airplane Sonata, 
Sonate sauvage. This emphasis on modern- 
ism culminated in his Ballet mecanique, 
performed as an orchestral piece by Golsch- 
mann (Paris, June 19, 1926). Upon his 
return to New York, Antheil staged a 
spectacular production of the Ballet meca- 
nique at Carnegie Hall (April 10, 1927) 
with the use of airplane propellers, which 
created an uproar in the audience. A re- 
vival of this work in a new version (with 
4 pianos instead of 8) and using a recording 
of the noise of a jet plane (Composer's 
Forum, N. Y., Feb. 20, 1954), passed with- 
out incident, almost as a period piece. In 
Europe, Antheil composed Zingareska for 
orch. (1921); Jazz Symphony for chamber 
orch. (1925); Symphony in F major, No. 1 
(Paris, 1926) and a piano concerto (1926). 
His first opera Transatlantic (to his own 
libretto), employing jazz rhythms, was staged 
for the first time in Frankfurt (May 25, 
1930) and aroused considerable attention 
as a curiosity of American modern music. A 
second opera, Helen Retires (libretto by 
John Erskine), was produced in New York 
(Feb. 28, 1934). In 1936 Antheil settled in 
Hollywood. In the meantime he had aban- 
doned the extreme modernism of his early 
music, and adopted an effective style com- 
prising elements of classicism, romanticism 
and impressionism, with moderately ad- 
vanced harmonies. A number of works fol- 
lowed: 'American' Symphony No. 2 (1937); 
Symphony No. 3 (1942); Symphony No. 4 
(NBC Symph. Orch., Stokowski conducting, 
Feb. 13, 1944); Violin concerto (Dallas, 
Feb. 9, 1947); Symphony No. 5 (Phila- 
delphia, Dec. 31, 1948); Symphony No. 6 
(San Francisco, Feb. 10, 1949); Volpone, 
opera after Ben Jonson (Los Angeles, Jan. 
9, 1954) ; ballet, The Capital of the World 
(N. Y., Dec. 27, 1953); and two short 
operas, The Brothers (Denver, July 28, 
1954) and The Wish (commissioned by the 
Louisville Orch.; first perf., Louisville, April 

2, 1955). Antheil has also written 3 string 
quartets, 2 violin sonatas, 4 piano sonatas, 
a concerto for flute, bassoon and piano, and 
many flute scores. He married Boski Markus 
on Nov. 4, 1925. He is the author of an 
autobiographical volume Bad Boy of Music 
(N. Y., 1945). The poet Ezra Pound pub- 
lished a pamphlet entitled Antheil and the 
Treatise on Harmony, with Supplementary 
Notes (Chicago, 1927), which, however, 
has little bearing on AntheiPs work as 

Antill, John Henry, Australian composer; 
b. Sydney, April 8, 1904. He studied music 
at Sydney Cons., and began to compose very 
early. He has worked for the Australian 
Broadcasting Commission; his compositions 
have been mainly for the stage. His ballet, 
Corrobboree (Sydney, Aug. 18, 1946) is 
based on the rhythms of Australian abo- 
riginal music. 

Antipov, Konstantin Afanasievitch, Rus- 
sian composer; b. St. Petersburg, Jan. 18, 
1859; date of death unknown. He was a 
minor composer whose works (mostly minia- 
tures for piano) were published by Belaiev. 
They include: 3 Etudes; 3 Waltzes; Varia- 
tions on an original Russian theme; 5 Pieces 
(of which No. 1, Romance, is the best) ; 
2 Preludes; 3 Miniatures, etc.; also an 
Allegro symphonique for orchestra. 

Antiquus, Andreas (also A. de Antiquiis 
Venetus, or Andrea Antico); Italian music- 
printer and composer; b. Montana (Istria) 
in the latter half of the 15th century. He 
printed music in Rome and Venice (1520), 
and was probably one of the earliest in his 
trade after Petrucci, who himself published 
many of Antiquus's Frottole (Venice, 1504- 
08). His collection of Canzoni, Sonetti, 
Strambotti e Frottole, libro tertio, was edi- 
ted by A. Einstein (Northampton, Mass, 

Antoine, Georges, Belgian composer; b. 
Liege, April 28, 1892; d. Bruges, Nov. 15, 
1918 (of an ailment acquired during World 
War I). He studied at the Cons, of Liege 
(1902-13) with Sylvain Dupuis; joined the 
Belgian Army in 1914. He wrote a piano 
concerto (1914); Vendanges for voice and 
orch. (1914) ; Veillee d'Armes, symph. poem 
(1918); a piano quartet (1916); a violin 
sonata (1912-15) and songs. — Cf. M. 
Paquot, Georges Antoine (Brussels, 1935). 

Antoine, Josephine, American coloratura 
soprano; b. Denver, Colorado, Oct. 27, 
1908. She studied with Marcella Sembrich 
at the Juilliard Graduate School (1931-35). 
After singing with the Philadelphia Opera 



(1935), she made her debut, Jan. 4, 1936, 
as Philine in Mignon at the Metropolitan 
Opera, of which she became a member. She 
also sang with the Chicago Opera Go. dur- 
ing the 1936-37 season. 

Antoine, Paul. Pen-name of Ernest Clos- 

Anton, Karl, German writer on liturgical 
music; b. Worms, June 2, 1887. He studied 
theology and music at Halle Univ.; took the 
degree of Dr. Phil, with the thesis Beitrage 
zur Biographie Carl Loewes (Halle, 1912). 
From 1918 he taught music history at the 
Mannheim Hochschule fur Musik. He pub- 
lished a number of treatises on church 
music, among them Luther und die Musik 
(1917); Angewandte Liturgik (1918) and 
Erneuerung der Kirchenmusik (1932). 

Anton, Max, German conductor and 
pedagogue; b. Bornstedt, Aug. 2, 1877; d. 
Bonn, Aug. 18, 1939. He studied with Sta- 
venhagen in Munich and James Kwast in 
Frankfurt; then taught at Gladbach and 
Detmold. From 1922 was active in Bonn as 
choral conductor until his retirement in 
1934. A prolific composer, he wrote an opera 
Die Getreuen; an oratorio Ekkehard; sev- 
eral instrumental concertos, piano pieces and 
songs. He published Versuch einer Kunst- 
anschauung (1922). 

Antony, Franz Joseph, German organist 
and writer on music; b. Munster, West- 
phalia, Feb. 1, 1790; d. there, Jan. 7, 1837. 
He was appointed music director at Munster 
cathedral in 1819; in 1832, succeeded his 
father Joseph Antony (1758-1836) as or- 
ganist. He published Archaologisch-litur- 
gisches Gesangbuch des Gregorianischen 
Kirchengesangs (1829) and Geschichtliche 
Darstellung der Entstehung und Vervollkom- 
mnung der Orgel (1832). 

Apel, Johann August, German scholar; 
b. Leipzig, Sept. 17, 1771; d. there, Aug. 
9, 1816. He is important in music history 
for his collection Gespensterbuch (1810-14), 
dealing with supernatural tales, which was 
the inspiration for Weber's Der Freischutz. 
Apel also published several treatises on 
music, among them a series of articles on 
rhythm (in 'Allgemeine musikalische Zei- 
tung,' 1807-8) and a large work in 2 vol- 
umes, Metrik (1814-16). 

Apel, Willi, musicologist; b. Konitz, Ger- 
many, Oct. 10, 1893. He studied mathe- 
matics at Bonn Univ. (1912), Munich 
(1913), and Berlin (1918-21), and took 
piano lessons. He taught mathematics and 

music in Germany; in 1935 he came to 
the U.S. He gave lectures at Harvard Univ. 
(1938-42); in 1950 he was engaged as 
prof, of musicology at Indiana Univ., Bloom- 
ington. While in Germany he edited 2 
volumes of early music, Musik aus friiher 
Zeit (Mainz, 1934), and published 2 trea- 
tises: Die Fuge (1932) and Accidentien und 
Tonalitdt in den Musikdenkmdlern des 15. 
und 16. Jahrhunderts (Strasbourg, 1936) ; 
he also contributed to German music mag- 
azines. In America he published the ex- 
tremely valuable compilations, The Notation 
of Polyphonic Music, 900-1600 (Cambridge, 
Mass, 1942); The Harvard Dictionary of 
Music (ibid., 1944) ; Historical Anthology 
of Music, 2 vols, (with A. T. Davison; 
ibid., 1946 and 1949) ; Masters of the Key- 
board (ibid., 1947). The Harvard Diction- 
ary of Music, comprising only articles on 
forms and terms, has established itself as a 
prime reference work of musical terminology. 

Apostel, Hans Erich, Austrian composer; 
b. Karlsruhe, Jan. 22, 1901. He studied 
with Schoenberg and Berg in Vienna; 
adopted the 12-tone method in some of his 
works. He has written a Symphony, a 
Requiem (to Rilke's text), string quartet, 
wind quartet, Sonata ritmica for piano, etc. 

Appel, Richard Gilmore, music librarian 
and organist; b. Lancaster, Pa., April 25, 
1889. He studied with Wallace Goodrich in 
Boston and Karl Straube in Germany. He 
received his M.A. from Harvard Univ. 
(1912) ; was active as organist at various 
churches in Boston and vicinity. He was 
appointed head of the music dept. of the 
Boston Public Library in 1922; retired in 

Appeldoorn, Dina, Dutch composer; b. 
Rotterdam, Feb. 26, 1884; d. The Hague, 
Dec. 4, 1938. She was the composer of sev- 
eral works in romantic style, including 2 
symphonic poems, Noordzee and Volkfeest; 
she also wrote chamber music and songs, 
and taught piano at The Hague. 

Appenzeller (Appencellers; Appenzelder; 
Appenzelders), Benedictus, Franco-Flemish 
composer of the first half of the 16th cen- 
tury. Possibly a pupil of Josquin, he served 
Mary of Hungary as court musician and 
master of the choir boys at her chapel in 
Brussels (1539 — c. 1554) and probably ac- 
companied her on her visit to Spain (1551). 
Appenzeller's works were formerly attributed 
to Benedictus Ducis, a German composer 
whose identity was confused with his. Among 
Appenzeller's extant compositions are a book 
of chansons (1542; two of the chansons 



from this collection had been published by 
Attaingnant in 1529 without being ascribed 
to Appenzellcr) ; a lament on the death of 
Josquin (1521) which uses half of the 
Musae Jovis text; and a double-canon on 
Sancta Maria embroidered on a tablecloth 
for Mary of Hungary (1548). Pieces by him 
are included in the second Musyckboexken 
of Susato; the Hortus Musarum, part I 
(1552), published by Phalese, contains a 
transcription for two lutes of a piece by him. 
Bibl. : E. van der Straeten, La Musique aux 
Pays-Bas (Brussels, 1867-8; volumes 3, 7, 
and 8) ; D. Bartha, Benedictus Ducis und Ap- 
penzeller (Wolfenbuttel, 1930); G. Reese, 
Music in the Renaissance (N. Y., 1954). 

Aprile, Giuseppe, Italian male contralto; 
b. Martinafranca, Apulia, Oct. 28, 1731; d. 
there, Jan. 11, 1813. From c. 1763 he sang 
at the principal theaters of Italy and Ger- 
many; then settled in Naples as teacher; 
among his pupils was Cimarosa. Aprile's 
vocal treatise, The Modern Italian Method 
of Singing, with 36 Solfeggi, first published 
by Broderip in London (1791), has been 
reprinted in many editions and several lan- 

Apthorp, William Foster, American music 
critic; b. Boston, Mass., Oct. 24, 1848; d. 
Vevey, Switzerland, Feb. 19, 1913. A grad- 
uate of Harvard Univ. (1869), he studied 
music with Paine. He taught music at the 
New England Cons, and lectured on music 
history at Boston Univ. He wrote music 
criticism for the 'Atlantic Monthly' (1872- 
77); was music and drama critic on the 
'Boston Evening Transcript' (1881-1903). 
In his criticisms Apthorp violently opposed 
new Russian, French and German music 
(his intemperate attacks on Tchaikovsky 
elicited protests from his readers). Apthorp 
was also the annotator of the Boston Symph. 
programs (1892-1901). He published several 
books: Musicians and Music Lovers (N. Y., 
1894); By the Way, a collection of short 
essays in 2 vols.: I. About Music, II. About 
Musicians (Boston, 1898); The Opera, Past 
and Present (N. Y., 1901). He was co-editor 
of Scribner's 'Cyclopedia of Music and 
Musicians' (N. Y., 1888-90). 

Aptommas. See Thomas, John. 

Ara, Ugo, Italian violinist; member of the 
Flonzaley Quartet; b. Venice, July 19, 1876; 
d. Lausanne, Switzerland, Dec. 10, 1936. 
He studied violin with Tirindelli in Venice; 
at the age of 13 played in theater orchs. In 
1894 he went to Liege where he studied 
with Cesar Thomson; he then took lessons 
in composition with R. Fuchs at the Vienna 

Cons. When the Flonzaley Quartet was 
established, he joined it as a viola player, 
(1903-17). He later returned to Italy. 

Araja (ah-ri'-ah), Francesco, Italian com- 
poser; b. Naples, c. 1700; d. c. 1770. He 
produced his first opera Lo matremmonejo 
pe' mennetta in the Neapolitan dialect 
(Naples, 1729) ; his subsequent operas were 
Berenice (Florence, 1730); La forza dell' 
amore e dell' odio (Milan, 1734); Lucio 
Vero (Venice, Jan. 4, 1735). In 1735 he 
was engaged as musical director and court 
composer in St. Petersburg. There he wrote 
annual pieces for court occasions, beginning 
with the cantata La gara dell' amore e del 
zelo (April 28, 1736). Among his operas 
given at the Russian court were La Se- 
miramide riconosciuta (Feb. 9, 1737); Arta- 
serse (1738); Seleuco (1744); Scipione 
(1745); Mitridate (1747); L'asilo della 
pace (1748); Bellerofonte (1750); Eudossa 
incoronata (1751). He wrote 22 operas; 
La Clemenza di Tito, attributed to him by 
some, was the work of Hasse. On Feb. 27, 
1755, Araja presented in St. Petersburg the 
first opera ever composed to a Russian text, 
Cephale et Procris (libretto by the famous 
Russian dramatist Sumarokov). He was in 
Italy in 1741-42 and 1759-61; in 1762 he 
revisited Russia briefly at the summons of 
Peter III, his great admirer, returning to 
Italy after the Czar's death. Nothing is 
known of Araja's last years. Bibl.: A. 
Mooser, Annales de la musique et des mu- 
siciens en Russie au XVIII siecle, vol. I, 
pp. 121-131 (Geneva, 1951). 

Arakishvili (ah-rah-ke-shve'-le), Dmitri, 
Russian composer; b. Vladikavkaz, Georgia, 
Feb. 23, 1873; d. Tiflis, Aug. 13, 1953. He 
studied composition at the Moscow Phil- 
harmonic Institute, graduating in 1901. He 
lived mostly in the Caucasus; compiled na- 
tive songs for the Musical Ethnographic 
Committee of Moscow Univ. (1901-08). 
From 1917 on, he was prof, of music at 
the Tiflis Cons. He composed The Legend of 
Shota Rustaveli (first national opera of 
Georgia, performed in Tiflis, 1919) ; 3 sym- 
phonies; symph. poem Hymn to the New 
East (1933); many choral works and ar- 
rangements of native songs. 

d'Aranyi, Adila. See Fachiri, Adila. 

Aranyi, Francis, violinist; b. Budapest, 
March 21, 1893. He studied at the Royal 
Academy in Budapest, and later in Berlin 
with Willy Hess and Henri Marteau. He 
was a concert player and orchestral violinist 
in Europe; in Vienna (1912-14), in Buda- 
pest (1914-17); later in Stockholm (1921- 



22), and Zagreb (1924-26). In 1935 he 
came to America; was violin teacher at 
Duquesne Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (1935-40); 
at Michigan State College (1940-41); con- 
certmaster of the Seattle Symphony Orch. 
(1941-42). In 1942 he organized the Youth 
Symph. Orch. of the Pacific Northwest, in 
Seattle, where he settled. 

d'Aranyi, Yelly, violinist; grandniece of 
Joachim, and sister of the violinist, Adila 
Fachiri; b. Budapest, May 30, 1895. She 
studied with Hubay in Budapest; made her 
concert debut in New York on Nov. 26, 
1927; made her second American tour in 
1932. She has frequently appeared in joint 
recitals with Myra Hess. A pioneer in mod- 
ern music, she has given first performances 
of many new works. Bela Bartok's violin 
sonatas, Ravel's Tzigane and Vaughan Wil- 
liams' violin concerto are dedicated to her. 
In 1937 she attracted considerable attention 
by proclaiming that Schumann's spirit ap- 
peared to her and revealed the secret of his 
unpublished violin concerto; the MS of the 
concerto, long known to have been preserved 
at the Berlin State Library, was made avail- 
able to her, but the concerto was given its 
first performance by another violinist in 
Germany in 1937; Yelly d'Aranyi played it 
on Feb. 16, 1938 with the B.B.C. orch. in 

Arauxo (or Araujo). See Correa de 

Arbatsky, Yury, composer and music 
scholar; b. Moscow, April 15, 1911. His 
family left Russia in 1924; he studied with 
Lopatnikov in Berlin, and also took lessons 
with Rachmaninoff in Dresden; he gradu- 
ated from Leipzig Cons, in 1932; in 1933 
he settled in Yugoslavia where he was active 
as conductor and teacher. He accumulated 
numerous materials on Balkan folk music, 
most of which were destroyed during the 
bombardment of Belgrade in 1941. In 1942- 
45, he was in Prague where he continued 
his work on Slavic folk music; in 1944 he 
received his doctorate from the Charles 
Univ. In 1949 Arbatsky came to the U.S.A., 
and settled in Chicago. In 1954 he trans- 
ferred his valuable collection of folk music 
and deposited it at the Newberry Library,* 
Chicago. Despite constant changes of resi- 
dence, due to political upheavals, Arbatsky 
has composed a great number of works: 
8 symphonies, chamber and choral music, 
etc. The Newberry Library published his 
paper Beating the Tupan in the Central 
Balkans (Chicago, 1953), and several of 
his sacred works. Cf. 'The Arbatsky Collec- 

tion,' in the 'Bulletin of the Newberry 
Library' (July, 1954). 

Arbeau (ahr-boh), Thoinot (anagram of 
real name Jehan Tabourot), French writer; 
b. Dijon, c. 1519; d. Langres, c. 1595. He 
owes his fame to his unique treatise in 
dialogue form, Orchesographie, et traite en 
forme de dialogue par lequel toutes personnes 
peuvent facilement apprendre et pratiquer 
I'honnete exercise des danses (Langres, 1589; 
2nd ed., 1596), which contains not only in- 
struction for dancing (indicating dance 
steps by a simple system of initial letters) 
but also valuable observations on the dance 
music of his time. It was publ. in English 
translations by C. W. Beaumont (London, 
1925) and M. Evans (N. Y., 1948). 

Arbo, Jens, Norwegian music critic; b. 
Kristiansand, Aug. 20, 1885; d. Oslo, Jan. 
8, 1944. He studied in Oslo; then in Ger- 
many (1911-14). He was music critic of 
'Musikbladet' (1917-24) and of 'Morgen- 
bladet' (1924-43). 

Arbos, Enrique Fernandez, Spanish violin- 
ist and conductor; b. Madrid, Dec. 24, 
1863; d. San Sebastian, June 2, 1939. He 
studied violin with Monasterio in Madrid, 
with Vieuxtemps in Brussels, and with 
Joachim in Berlin. After successful tours in 
Europe he returned to Spain in 1888; taught 
violin at the Madrid Cons. In 1889 he was 
concertmaster of the Glasgow Symph. Orch. ; 
from 1894-1916 he held the post of hon- 
orary prof, at the Royal College of Music 
in London. He was appointed conductor of 
the new Madrid Symph. Orch. in 1904; 
conducted in the U.S. (1928-31); then in 
Europe. At the outbreak of the Spanish 
Civil War in 1936 he retired to San Se- 
bastian. Arbos was the author of a comic 
opera El Centro de la Tierra (Madrid, 
Dec. 22, 1895). He was a brilliant orches- 
trator; his arrangement of the music from 
Iberia by Albeniz is very popular. Bibl. : 
V. Espinos Molto, El Maestro Arbos 
(Madrid, 1942). 

Arbuckle, Matthew, American cornet 
player and bandmaster; b. 1828; d. New 
York, May 23, 1883. He published a 
manual under the title Complete Cornet 

Arbuthnot, John, British physician and 
musical amateur; b. Arbuthnot, Scotland, 
in 1667; d. London, Feb. 27, 1735. He 
was one of the founders of the Scriblerus 
Club in London (1714), and was friendly 
with Handel during the composer's difficul- 
ties with his opera company. Arbuthnot's 



publication entitled Miscellaneous Works 
throws sharp sidelights on various persons 
of interest at the time. He wrote several 
anthems, glees, etc. 

Arcadelt, Jacob (or Jachet Arkadelt, 
Archadet, Arcadet, Harcadclt), great Flem- 
ish composer; b. probably in Liege, c. 1505; 
d. Paris, c. 1560. He was 'magister puero- 
rum' to the Papal Chapel (1539), and 
choirmaster (1540). In 1544 he held the 
office of 'Camerlingo.' He went to France 
in 1546; returned to Rome in May, 1547. 
In 1555 he again went to France, this time 
with the Due de Guise. Arcadelt is men- 
tioned in Paris as 'Regis musicus,' in 1557. 
In the domain of secular music, his Roman 
period was, in the main, devoted to the 
madrigal; his Paris period to the French 
chanson. He wrote 20 motets, about 120 
French chansons and 200 madrigals. Of his 
extant works, the most important are 6 
books of 5-part madrigals (Venice, 1538-56; 
his finest and most characteristic composi- 
tions) and 3 books of masses in 3-7 parts 
(Paris, 1557). Modern reprints include the 
4-part 'Madrigale parlando' II ciel che rado 
(Riemann, Handbuch der Musikgeschichte, 
Part II ) ; the 4-part madrigal II bianco e 
dolce cigno (W. B. Squire's 'Ausgewahlte 
Madrigale') ; others in Eitner (vol. XXIII) ; 
Schering's 'Geschichte der Musik in Bei- 
spielen'; Maldeghem's 'Tresor Musical.' See 
also The Chansons of Jacob Arcadelt, ed. 
by E. B. Helm ('Smith College Music Ar- 
chives,' vol. V, 1942). — Bibl.: W. Klefisch, 
Arcadelt als Madrigalist (Cologne, 1938) ; 
A. Einstein, The Italian Madrigal (Prince- 
ton, 1949). 

d'Archambeau (dar-shahn-boh'), Iwan, 
Belgian cellist; member of the Flonzaley 
Quartet; b. Herve, Sept. 28, 1879; d. Ville- 
franche-sur-Mer, France, Dec. 29, 1955. He 
studied music at home; played in a family 
quartet with his father and two brothers. 
He then studied cello with A. Massau in 
Verviers and with Hugo Becker in Frank- 
furt. In 1903 he became a member of the 
Flonzaley Quartet, until it disbanded in 
1929; in 1935 he joined the Stradivarius 
Quartet in New York. From 1939 until 1950 
he lived in Cambridge, Mass. ; then returned 
to Belgium. 

Archangelsky (ar-hahn'-gel-ske), Alex- 
ander, Russian choral conductor; b. near 
Penza, Oct. 23, 1846; d. Prague, Nov. 16, 
1924. He studied singing and theory of 
music at the Court Chapel in St. Petersburg; 
in 1880 organized a chorus there, toured 
Russia with it in 1899-1900, presenting 110 

concerts; also gave concerts with his chorus 
in Western Europe (1907 and 1912). 
Archangelsky was the first choir leader in 
Russia to include women's voices in per- 
formances of sacred works. He supported 
(with Gretchaninov) the reform movement 
in Russian church music; wrote a number 
of choral pieces for his organization and 
made transcriptions of Russian church 
hymns. In 1923 he went to Prague as con- 
ductor of a students' choir, and died there 
the following year. 

Archer, Frederick, English-American or- 
ganist, conductor and composer; b. Oxford, 
June 16, 1838; d. Pittsburgh, Oct. 22, 1901. 
He studied organ in Leipzig, and in 1873 
was appointed organist of Alexandra Palace 
in London; then became conductor of a 
Glasgow choir (1878-80). In 1881 he came 
to America; was active as church organist 
in Brooklyn and, from 1895, at Carnegie 
Institute in Pittsburgh. He was the first 
conductor of the newly organized Pittsburgh 
Symphony Orchestra, from Feb. 27, 1896, 
to 1898, when he was succeeded by Victor 
Herbert. A prolific composer, he published 
a cantata, King Witlafs Drinking-horn; 
organ and piano pieces and songs. The bulk 
of his music remains in MS. He was the 
author of the manuals The Organ (1875) 
and A Complete Method for the American 
Reed Organ (1899), and founder and editor 
of the music magazine 'The Keynote' (1883 ) . 

Ardevol, Jose, Spanish-Cuban composer; 
b. Barcelona, March 13, 1911. In 1930 he 
went to Havana, Cuba, settling there as 
composer and teacher and conducting a 
chamber music society. He has written a 
ballet Forma, with chorus (Havana, May 
18, 1943, composer conducting) ; 3 concerti 
grossi (1937-46); concerto for 3 pianos 
(1938); 3 symphonies (1943; 1945; 1946); 
6 sonatas for 3 instruments (1937-46) and 
3 piano sonatas (1944). Bibl.: O. Mayer- 
Serra, Musica y Musicos de Latino-America 
(Mexico, 1947, I, pp. 44-54). 

Arditi, Luigi, Italian composer and con- 
ductor; b. Crescentino, Piedmont, July 22, 
1822; d. Hove, near Brighton, England, 
May 1, 1903. He studied violin, piano and 
composition at the Milan Cons., where he 
also produced his first opera, I Briganti 
(1841). He then embarked on a career as 
operatic conductor. From 1846 he traveled 
in Cuba (where he produced his opera II 
Corsaro, Havana, 1846), and visited New 
York and Philadelphia. In New York he 
produced his opera La Spia (March 24, 
1856). He finally settled in London (1858) 
as conductor and vocal teacher, while mak- 



ing annual tours with the Italian Opera 
in Germany and Austria. He conducted in 
St. Petersburg in 1871 and 1873. His operas 
and other works were never revived, but 
he created a perennial success with his vocal 
waltz II Bacio. He wrote his autobiography 
My Reminiscences (N. Y., 1896). 

Arel, Biilent, Turkish composer and pian- 
ist; b. Constantinople, April 23, 1918. He 
studied composition with Necil Kazim Akses. 
Since 1951, musical dir. of Radio Ankara. 
Among his works are 2 symphonies (1951 
and 1952) ; Cain and Abel, music for radio; 
piano concerto ( 1 946 ) ; Suite Intime for 
orch. (1949) and chamber music. 

Arens, Franz Xavier, German-American 
composer; b. Neef (Rhenish Prussia), Oct. 
28, 1856; d. Los Angeles, Jan. 28, 1932. 
His family came to the U.S. and settled in 
Milwaukee when he was very young; he 
studied with his father and later in Germany 
with Rheinberger. Upon his return to 
America he was active as conductor of var- 
ious choral and instrumental groups. He 
led the Gesangverein in Cleveland (1885- 
88) ; from 1890-92 he was again in Europe; 
he was the first to present complete pro- 
grams of orchestral works by American 
composers in Germany. He was president 
of the Indianapolis College of Music (1892- 
96), and later settled in New York as vocal 
teacher. In 1900 he established a series of 
People's Symph. Concerts, with low admis- 
sion prices (from 5$ to 50tf). He wrote 
orchestral music, a string quartet and 
numerous songs. 

Arensky, Anton Stepanovitch, Russian 
composer; b. Novgorod, Aug. 11, 1861; d. 
Terijoki, Finland, Feb. 25, 1906. He studied 
at the St. Petersburg Cons, with Johanssen 
and Rimsky-Korsakov (1879-82); then 
taught harmony at the Moscow Cons. 
(1882-94). Returning to St. Petersburg, he 
conducted the choir of the Imperial Chapel 
(1895-1901); a victim of tuberculosis, he 
spent his last years in a sanatorium in Fin- 
land. In his music he followed Tchaikovsky's 
lyric style. Arensky wrote 3 operas : A Dream 
on the Volga (Moscow, Jan. 2, 1891); 
Raphael (Moscow, May 6, 1894) ; Nal and 
Damayanti (Moscow, Jan. 22, 1904) ; and 
2 symphonies. He conducted the first per- 
formances of both in Moscow (Nov. 24, 
1883 and Dec. 21, 1889). He was more 
successful in his works for smaller forms. 
His Variations for string orch. on Tchai- 
kovsky's song, The Christ Child had a 
Garden (originally the Variations formed 
the slow movement of Arensky's quartet, 

op. 35, in A minor for violin, viola and 2 
cellos) became a standard work. His piano 
trio in memory of Tchaikovsky also retains 
its popularity. His 4 suites for 2 pianos, ex- 
pertly written, are often heard; he also ar- 
ranged these suites for orch. Some of his 
songs are included in vocal anthologies. 
Other works are: music to Pushkin's poem 
The Fountain of Bakhtchissaray ; ballet 
Egyptian Nights (St. Petersburg, 1900) ; The 
Diver, ballad for voices and orch.; Corona- 
tion Cantata; Marche solennelle for orch.; 
Intermezzo for string orch.; piano concerto; 
violin concerto in A minor; a fantasy on epic 
Russian songs, for piano and orch.; piano 
quintet in D; string quartet (op. 11, in G) ; 
pieces for cello, for violin, and many pieces 
for piano solo. He also published a Manual 
of Harmony (translated into German) and 
Handbook of Musical Forms. 

d'Arezzo, Guido. See Guido d'Arezzo. 

Argenta, Ataulfo, Spanish conductor; b. 
Castro Urdiales, Santander, Nov. 19, 1913. 
He first sang in a church choir; in 1926 
he entered the Madrid Cons., studying piano, 
violin and composition. He continued his 
musical education in Germany and studied 
conducting. Returning to Spain in 1939, he 
conducted various small groups; in 1945 
became director of the National Orch. in 

Aria, Cesare, Italian singing teacher; b. 
Bologna, Sept. 21, 1820; d. there, Jan. 30, 
1894. He studied at the Bologna Cons, with 
Mattei. Rossini helped him in his career. 
For a number of years he was a voice 
teacher in France and England. He com- 
posed some church music; his Dies irae is 
particularly noteworthy. 

Aribon (Aribo Scholasticus), medieval 
scholar, known also as Aribon de Liege, 
Aribon de Freising and Aribon d'Orleans; 

b. probably in Liege, about the year 1000; 
d. in Orleans, about 1078. In 1024 he was 
chancellor to the Bishop of Liege; after a 
short period of service he went to Italy, 
where he acquired a knowledge of the meth- 
ods of Guido d'Arezzo. From 1060-70 he was 
again in Liege as preceptor at the Cathedral 
school ; then went to Orleans. Aribon was the 
author of the important treatise De Musica, 
written by him in Liege about 1065. It is 
reproduced in Gerbert's 'Scriptores,' vol. II, 
pp. 197-230|^and by J. Smits van Waes- 
berghe ('Corpus Scriptorum de Musica,' vol. 
II, Rome, 1951). See also Waesberghe's 
Muziekgeschiedenis der Middeleeuwen 



d'Arienzo, Nicola, Italian composer; b. 
Naples, Dec. 22, 1842; d. there April 25, 
1915. He composed an opera in the Neapol- 
itan dialect at the age of 18; a series of 
Italian operas followed: / due mariti 
(Naples, Feb. 1, 1866); // cacciatore delle 
Alpi (Naples, June 23, 1870); // cuoco 
(Naples, June 11, 1873); I Viaggi (Milan, 
June 28, 1875); La figlia del diavolo (Na- 
ples, Nov. 16, 1879; his most successful op- 
era which aroused considerable controversy 
for its realistic tendencies) ; / tre coscritti 
(Naples, Feb. 10, 1880), etc. He also wrote 
2 symphonies and much choral music. He 
published a treatise Introduzione del sistema 
tetracordale nella moderna musica, favoring 
pure intonation; a historical essay, Dell' opera 
comica dalle origini a Pergolesi (1887; Ger- 
man translation, 1902), several monographs 
on Italian composers and numerous articles 
in periodicals. 

Ariosti, Attilio, Italian opera composer; 
b. Bologna, Nov. 5, 1666; d. c. 1740. He 
joined the Servite Order in 1688, but later 
abandoned it. He served as organist in 
Bologna in 1693; in 1697 he was in Berlin 
as court musician. From 1703 till 1711 he 
was in Vienna, then returned to Bologna. 
He was in London in 1716 and again from 
1723-27. A volume of his cantatas and 
'lessons' for the viola d'amore, on which he 
was an accomplished performer, was publ. 
in London in 1728. Ariosti then disappeared, 
the most probable conjecture being that he 
returned to Italy and died there in obscurity. 
Burney's attribution to Ariosti of one act 
of the opera Muzio Scevola (produced in 
London on April 15, 1721) is an anachron- 
ism, for Ariosti was not in London at the 
time. A list of his known operas includes 
the following: Tirsi (erroneously named 
Dafne by many music historians; Venice, 
1696, in collaboration with Lotti and Cal- 
dara) ; Mars und Irene (Berlin, July 12, 
1703); Marte placato (Vienna, March 19 
1707); Artaserse (London, Dec. 1, 1724); 
Dario (London, April 5, 1725) ; Lucio Vero, 
imperator di Roma (London, Jan. 7, 1727). 
He also wrote 5 oratorios, some instrumental 
works and numerous cantatas (many of 
which are preserved in various European 
libraries), etc. 

Aristides Quintilianus, Greek writer on 
music; lived about 200 A.D. in Smyrna. His 
treatise De Musica libri VII was printed in 
Meibom's 'Antiquae Musicae Auctores Sep- 
tem' (1652) and by A. Jahn (1882); R. 
Schafke published it in German (1937) 
with a commentary. Despite the dubious 
authenticity of some of his descriptions of 

Greek scales, the work is one of the basic 
sources of our knowledge of ancient Greek 

Aristotle, famous Greek philosopher, pupil 
of Plato; b. Stagira, 384 B.C.; d. Chalcis, 
322 B.C. The 19th section of the Problems, 
once ascribed to him, is the product of a 
much later follower of his theories; the 
English translation, by E. S. Forster, is 
found in The Works of Aristotle, vol. 7 
(Oxford, 1927) ; the Greek text with French 
translation and commentary by F. A. 
Gevaert and C. Vollgraff is published in 
Les probldmes musicaux d'Aristote (3 vols., 
1899-1902). Aristotle's actual writings on 
music are reproduced by K. von Jan in his 
Musici Scriptores Graeci (1895). The name 
Aristotle was also used by a writer on men- 
surable music of the 12 th- 13 th centuries, 
whose treatise is published by E. de Gousse- 
maker in his Scriptores, vol. I. 

Aristoxenos, one of the earliest Greek 
writers on music; b. Tarentum, 354 B.C. 
His Harmonic Elements (complete) and 
Rhythmical Elements (fragmentary) are 
among the most important treatises on Greek 
musical theory that have come down to us. 
They have been published by R. Westphal 
and F. Saran (2 vols., 1883, 1893); also by 
H. S. Macran, with English and Greek text 
and a commentary (1902). The Harmonic 
Elements are included, in an English trans- 
lation, in O. Strunk's Source Readings in 
Music History (N. Y., 1950). See also L. 
Laloy, Aristoxene de Tarente (1904); C. 
F. A. Williams, The Aristoxenian Theory of 
Musical Rhythm (Cambridge, 1911). 

Arkwright, Godfrey Edward Pellew, Eng- 
lish music editor; b. Norwich, April 10, 
1864; d. Highclere, near Newbury, Aug. 16, 
1944. He studied at Eton and at Oxford. 
His most important publication is 'The Old 
English Edition' in 25 volumes (1889-1902) 
containing masques, ballets, motets and 
madrigals by English composers of the 17th 
and 18th centuries. He also edited Purcell's 
church music published by the Purcell So- 
ciety. He was the editor of 'The Musical 
Antiquary' from 1909-13. 

Arlen, Harold (real name Hyman Ar- 
luck), American composer of popular music; 
b. Buffalo, Feb. 15, 1905. He received his 
elementary music training from his father, 
a cantor of the Buffalo Synagogue. As a 
youth, he went to New York, where he 
earned his living by playing and singing 
in nightclubs. He began to compose songs 
in the course of his professional occupation; 
his greatest success was Stormy Weather 



(1932), a song that has achieved enormous 
popularity. From 1943-55 Arlen lived in 
Hollywood as composer of film music; in 
1955 settled again in New York. 

Anna, Paul (real name, Imre Weisshaus), 
composer; b. Budapest, Oct. 22, 1904. He 
studied with Bela Bartok at the Budapest 
Academy of Music (1921-24). He then 
went to New York (1925-30); later settled 
in Paris, where he assumed the pseudonym 
Paul Arma, under which he published a 
Nouveau Dictionnaire de Musique (Paris, 
1947). A composer of empiric music explor- 
ing the ultimate in complexity, he has de- 
veloped a compromise method evocative of 
folk songs in an advanced rhythmic style. 
Among his works are a concerto for string 
quartet (1947); sonatina for solo flute 
(1947) ; violin sonata (1949) ; 5 movements 
for solo viola; 31 instantanes for woodwind, 
percussion, celesta, xylophone and piano 

Armbruster, Karl, conductor; b. Ander- 
nach-on-Rhine, Germany, July 13, 1846; d. 
London, June 10, 1917. He studied piano in 
Cologne; at the age of 17 settled in London, 
where he made propaganda for Wagner by 
means of numerous lectures. He was Hans 
Richter's assistant at the Wagner concerts 
in London in 1884; later conducted operas 
at London theaters. He was also one of the 
conductors of the Wagner cycles at Bayreuth 

Armes, Philip, English organist and com- 
poser; b. Norwich, Aug. 15, 1836; d. Dur- 
ham, Feb. 10, 1908. He received his early 
musical education from his father, a singer; 
was chorister at the Cathedrals of Norwich 
(1846) and Rochester (1848); for his work 
as a boy soloist he received the gift of a 
grand piano. He subsequently was organist 
in London, Chichester and Durham, retiring 
shortly before his death. He wrote the 
oratorios Hezekiah (1877), St. John the 
Evangelist (1881), Barnabas (1891). His 
madrigal Victoria won the first prize of the 
Madrigal Society in 1897. 

Armin, Georg (real name Hermann), 
German singer and pedagogue; b. Bruns- 
wick, Nov. 10, 1871. He studied architec- 
ture; then turned to singing. He settled in 
Berlin as voice teacher; from 1925 he edited 
the periodical 'Der Stimmwart.' His home 
was destroyed in Berlin during an air raid 
in World War II; in 1949 he settled in Den- 
mark. He published several papers on voice 
production, among them Das Stauprinzip 
(1905) and Von der Urkraft der Stimme 

(1921). Cf. J. Berntsen, Ein Meister der 
Stimmbildungskunst (Leipzig, 1936). 

Armingaud (ahr-man-goh'), Jules, French 
violinist; b. Bayonne, May 3, 1820; d. Paris, 
Feb. 27, 1900. He began his career as a 
member of the orch. at the Paris Opera. In 
1855 he organized a string quartet, which 
he later enlarged by adding wind instru- 
ments, and named the 'Societe classique.' 
He published some violin pieces, and 2 
musico-philosophical books of essays: Con- 
sonances et dissonances and Modulations. 

Armstrong, William Dawson, American 
organist and composer; b. Alton, 111., Feb. 
11, 1868; d. there, July 9, 1936. He studied 
with Clarence Eddy; occupied posts at var- 
ious churches in Alton and St. Louis from 
1890-1908; established a music school at 
Alton. He was active in local pedagogical 
groups. He wrote an opera The Specter 
Bridegroom (St. Louis, 1899) ; published 
some church music and many pieces for 
organ, and songs. He was the author of The 
Romantic World of Music (N.Y., 1922) 
and Rudiments of Musical Notation, an 
Elementary Handbook. Cf. W. T. Norton, 
W. D. Armstrong (N. Y., 1916). 

Arne (ahrn), Michael, English opera 
composer (natural son of T. A. Arne) ; b. 
London, 1741; d. there Jan. 14, 1786. He 
was trained in his youth as an actor and 
a singer, and made his debut in London 
on April 2, 1750. He also acquired consider- 
able skill as a harpsichord player. He wrote 
much stage music; among his operas (all 
produced at Drury Lane or at Covent Gar- 
den) are: Hymen (Jan. 20, 1764); Cymon 
(Jan. 2, 1767); The Artifice (April 14, 

1780) ; The Choice of Harlequin (Dec. 26, 

1781) and Vertumnus and Pomona (Feb. 
21, 1782). He collaborated with other com- 
posers in the music of 14 other productions. 
In 1771-72 he traveled in Germany as con- 
ductor; from 1776 he was in Dublin; from 
1784 again in London. He was an eccentric 
person, and among his vagaries was a pre- 
occupation with alchemy, and a search for 
the philosopher's stone to convert base 
metals into gold. 

Arne, Thomas Augustine, famous English 
dramatic composer; b. London, March 12, 
1710; d. there, March 5, 1778. His father, 
an upholsterer, sent him to Eton College; 
he then spent three years in a solicitor's 
office. He studied music on the side, much 
against his father's wishes, and acquired 
considerable skill on the violin. He soon 
began to write musical settings "after the 
Italian manner," to various plays. His first 



production was Addison's Rosamond (March 
7, 1733). He renamed Fielding's Tragedy of 
Tragedies as Opera of Operas, and produced 
it at the Haymarket Theatre (May 31, 
1733) ; a masque Dido and Aeneas followed 
(Jan. 12, 1734). His most important work 
was the score of Comus (Drury Lane, March 
4, 1738). On Aug. 1, 1740, he produced at 
Clivedon, Bucks., the masque Alfred, the 
finale of which contains the celebrated song 
Rule Britannia, which became a national 
patriotic song of Great Britain. In the mean- 
time Arne married Cecilia Young (March 
15, 1737), daughter of the organist Charles 
Young, and herself a fine singer. In 1742 
he went with her to Dublin, where he also 
stayed in 1755 and 1758. Of his many 
dramatic productions the following were 
performed at Drury Lane, London: The 
Temple of Dullness (Jan. 17, 1745); Har- 
lequin Incendiary (March 3, 1746) ; The 
Triumph of Peace (Feb. 21, 1749); Bri- 
tannia (May 9, 1755) ; Beauty and Virtue 
(Feb. 26, 1762); The Rose (Dec. 2, 1772). 
The following were staged at Covent Gar- 
den: Harlequin Sorcerer (Feb. 11, 1752); 
The Prophetess (Feb. 1, 1758); Thomas 
and Sally (Nov. 28, 1760) ; Love in a Vil- 
lage (Dec. 8, 1762) ; The Fairy Prince (Nov. 
12, 1771). He further contributed separate 
numbers to 28 theatrical productions, among 
them songs to Shakespeare's As You Like 
It; 'Where the Bee Sucks' in The Tempest, 
etc. He wrote 2 oratorios: Abel (Dublin, 
Feb. 18, 1744); and Judith (Drury Lane, 
Feb. 27, 1761), the latter remarkable for 
the introduction of female voices into 
the choral parts. He also wrote numerous 
glees and catches, and miscellaneous in- 
strumental music. He received the honorary 
degree of Doc. of Mus. from Oxford Univ. 
(July 6, 1759), which accounts for his 
familiar appellation of 'Dr. Arne'. 

d'Arneiro, (Jose Augusto) Ferreira Veiga, 
Viscount, distinguished Portuguese composer; 
b. Macao, China, Nov. 22, 1838; d. San 
Remo, July, 1903. He studied with Botelho, 
Schira and Soares in Lisbon. The production 
of his ballet Gina (Lisbon, 1866) attracted 
attention; he then produced an opera 
L'Elisire di Giovinezza (Lisbon, March 31, 
1876), followed by La Derelitta (Lisbon, 
1885). Te Deum, performed in Lisbon and 
in London in 1871 was very successful; it 
was later given in Paris under the somewhat 
affected title of 'Symphonie-Cantate.' 

Arnell, Richard, English composer; b. 
London, Sept. 15, 1917. He studied with 
John Ireland at the Royal College of Music 
(1935-38). He was in New York from 

1939-47; was active as conductor there. 
He composed Prelude and Flourish for brass, 
performed for the reception of Winston 
Churchill at Columbia University in 1946. 
He wrote 3 ballets: Punch and the Child; 
Harlequin in April; and The Great Detec- 
tive (about Sherlock Holmes); 4 sym- 
phonies; a symph. poem, Lord Byron; a 
violin concerto; Abstract Forms for string 
orchestra; 2 string quartets, piano pieces 
and several film scores. Since 1948 he has 
been living in London. 

Arnold, Byron, American composer; b. 
Vancouver, Washington, Aug. 15, 1901. He 
studied at Willamette Univ. (B.A., 1924); 
taught music at Oregon State College 
(1934-35); then went to the Eastman 
School of Music, where he took lessons in 
theory and composition with Rogers and 
Hanson (1935-37). He became asst. prof, 
of music at the Univ. of Alabama (1938- 
48). He has written Five Incapacitated Pre- 
ludes for Orchestra (Rochester, N. Y., April 
19, 1937, Hanson conducting) ; Three Fan- 
aticisms for Orchestra; piano pieces and 
songs. He has published Folk Songs of 
Alabama (1950). 

Arnold, Frank Thomas, English music 
scholar; b. Rugby, Sept. 6, 1861; d. Bath, 
Sept. 24, 1940. He studied at Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge, and was lecturer in Ger- 
man literature at the University College of 
South Wales at Cardiff (1886-1926). He 
wrote a valuable book, The Art of Accom- 
paniment from a Thorough-Bass, as Practiced 
in the 17 th and 18th Centuries (London, 
1931), and contributed numerous papers on 
Bach, Viadana, Corelli, etc. to various music 
journals. He was also a collector of rare 
editions. Cf. D. R. Wakeling, 'An Interesting 
Music Collection' ('Music & Letters,' July, 

Arnold, Georg, Hungarian composer; b. 
Paks, June 5, 1781; d. Subotica, Oct. 25, 
1848. Adopting an operatic method in re- 
ligious music, he created some unusual ef- 
fects. His 3 operas were never performed, 
and the MSS seem to be lost, but his church 
music is extant. Arnold completed a music 
dictionary (1826) which, however, was 
never published. His songs, in the Hungarian 
style, were once very popular. See K. Isoz, 
Georg Arnold (Budapest, 1908). 

Arnold, Gustav, Swiss organist and com- 
poser; b. Altdorf, Uri, Sept. 1, 1831; d. 
Lucerne, Sept. 28, 1900. He studied at 
Innsbruck; in 1850 he went to England, 
where he was choirmaster and organist at 
various churches. He returned to Switzer- 



land in 1865 and settled in Lucerne as 
organizer of choral festivals and conductor. 
He wrote some sacred music and piano 

Arnold, Johann Gottfried, German violon- 
cellist and composer; b. Niederhall, near 
Ohringen, Feb. 15, 1773; d. Frankfurt, July 
26, 1806. He studied with Willmann and 
Bernhard Romberg; after a brief concert 
career he became a theater cellist in Frank- 
furt. He wrote a Symphonie concertante for 
2 flutes and orch. ; several cello concertos; 
6 sets of variations for cello, and various 
pieces for the guitar and other instruments. 

Arnold, Karl, German pianist; b. Neu- 
kirchen, near Mergentheim, Wurttemberg, 
March 6, 1794; d. Christiania (Oslo), Nor- 
way, Nov. 11, 1873. He studied with J. A. 
Andre and Karl Vollweiler in Frankfurt; 
then occupied various positions in St. Peters- 
burg (1819), Berlin (1824), and Minister 
(1835). In 1849 he settled in Norway, 
where he conducted the Philharmonic So- 
ciety in Christiania, and was also active 
as church organist. He wrote an opera Irene 
(Berlin, 1832), a piano sextet, and numer- 
ous works for piano solo. 

Arnold, Malcolm, English composer; b. 
Northampton, Oct. 21, 1921. He studied 
at the Royal College of Music in London; 
has written a symph. poem Larch Trees 
( 1 943 ) ; concerto for horn and orch. 
( 1 946 ) ; symphony for strings ( 1 947 ) ; 
Festival Overture (1948) ; concerto for clar- 
inet and strings ( 1 948 ) ; Symphony No. 2 
(Bournemouth, May 25, 1953); ballet, 
Homage to the Queen (London, June 2, 
1953); Concerto for oboe and string orch. 
(London, June 9, 1953) ; harmonica con- 
certo (London, Promenade Concert, Aug. 
14, 1954, Larry Adler soloist) ; violin sonata; 
viola sonata and songs. 

Arnold, Maurice (real name Maurice 
Arnold Strothotte), American violinist and 
composer; b. St. Louis, Jan. 19, 1865; d. 
New York, Oct. 23, 1937. He studied in 
Cincinnati; then in Germany with several 
teachers, including Max Bruch. The per- 
formance of his orchestral work American 
Plantation Dances (New York, 1894) 
aroused the interest of Dvorak, because of 
the Negro melodies used in it, and he en- 
gaged Arnold to teach at the National Cons, 
of which Dvorak was then head. Arnold 
subsequently was active as conductor of light 
opera, and as violin teacher. He wrote a 
comic opera The Merry Benedicts (Brooklyn, 
1896) ; a grand opera Cleopatra; a sym- 
phony; a cantata The Wild Chase; Minstrel 

Serenade for violin and piano; and a fugue 
for piano-8 hands. 

Arnold, Richard, German-American vio- 
linist; b. Eilenberg, Prussia, Jan. 10, 1845; 
d. New York, June 21, 1918. He emigrated 
to the U.S. in 1853, but returned to Ger- 
many in 1864 to study with Ferdinand 
David in Leipzig. He was a violinist in the 
Theodore Thomas Orch. (1869-76), and 
concertmaster of the New York Philhar- 
monic Orch. (1880-1909). Then lived in 
New York as violin teacher. 

Arnold, Samuel, celebrated English com- 
poser, organist and music scholar; b. Lon- 
don, Aug. 10, 1740; d. there, Oct. 22, 1802. 
He received his musical training from Gates 
and Nares as a chorister of the Chapel 
Royal. He early showed a gift for composi- 
tion, and was commissioned to arrange the 
music for a play The Maid of the Mill; for 
this he selected songs by some 20 composers, 
including Bach, and added several numbers 
of bis own; the resulting pasticcio was pro- 
duced with success at Covent Garden (Jan. 
31, 1765). This was the first of his annual 
productions for Covent Garden and other 
theaters in London, of which the following 
were composed mainly by Arnold : Harlequin 
Dr. Faustus (Nov. 18, 1766); The Royal 
Garland (Oct. 10, 1768); The Magnet 
(June 27, 1771); A Beggar on Horseback 
(June 16, 1785); The Gnome (Aug. 5, 
1788) ; New Spain, or Love in Mexico (July 
16, 1790); The Surrender of Calais (July 
30, 1791); The Enchanted Wood (July 25, 
1792); The Sixty-Third Letter (July 18, 
1802). He also wrote several oratorios, 
among them The Cure of Saul (1767); 
Abimelech; The Resurrection; The Prodigal 
Son; and Elisha (1795; his last oratorio). 
On the occasion of a performance of The 
Prodigal Son at Oxford Univ. in 1773, 
Arnold was given the degree of D. Mus. In 
1783, he became the successor of Nares as 
composer to the Chapel Royal, for which he 
wrote several odes and anthems. In 1789 
Arnold was engaged as conductor of the 
Academy of Ancient Music; in 1793 he be- 
came organist of Westminster Abbey. He 
was buried in Westminster Abbey, near to 
Purcell and Blow. Arnold's edition of 
Handel's works, begun in 1786, was carried 
out by him in 36 volumes, embracing about 
180 numbers; it is, however, incomplete and 
inaccurate in many respects. His principal 
work is Cathedral Music (1790, 4 vols.) ; its 
subtitle describes its contents: "A collection 
in score of the most valuable and useful 
compositions for that Service by the several 
English Masters of the last 200 years." It 



forms a sequel to Boycc's work of the same 
name. A new edition of Arnold's Cathedral 
Music was issued by Rimbault (1847). 

Arnold, Youri von (Yury Karlovitch), 
Russian opera composer and theorist; b. 
St. Petersburg, Nov. 13, 1811; d. Karakash, 
Crimea, July 20, 1898. He studied in Dres- 
den; and later at the German Univ. of 
Dorpat, Estonia; went to Germany in 1855; 
from 1870-94 was in Moscow, where he 
founded a music school; in 1894 he settled 
in St. Petersburg. He wrote a vaudeville- 
opera Treasure Trove (St. Petersburg, Feb. 
1, 1853), the MS of which was lost in the 
fire at the Imperial Theater in 1859, to- 
gether with the MS of his other opera St. 
John's Eve. He also wrote an overture, 
Boris Godunov. Arnold was the author of 
the first book in Russian dealing with the 
theory of composition (1841); he also pub- 
lished Theory of Old Russian Religious 
Chants (Moscow, 1886), and many articles 
in the German press. In 1867 he published, 
in Leipzig, the periodical 'Neue Allgemeine 
Zeitschrift fur Theater und Musik.' Two of 
his papers from that journal were issued 
separately: Der Einfluss des Zeitgeistes auf 
die Entwickelung der Tonkunst and an essay 
on Der Freischutz in 24 auserlesene Opern- 
Charactere. He also translated into German 
the libretti of operas by Tchaikovsky, Cui 
and others. He was friendly with Glinka 
and many other celebrated composers, and 
published historically valuable Reminiscences 
(3 volumes; Moscow, 1892). 

Arnoldson, Sigrid, Swedish dramatic so- 
prano; b. Stockholm, March 20, 1861; d. 
there, Feb. 7, 1943. She was the daughter of 
the celebrated tenor Oscar Arnoldson (b. 
1830; d. Carlsbad, July 8, 1881). She stud- 
ied with Maurice Strakosch and Desiree 
Artot; made her debut in Moscow in 1886 
as Rosina in II Barbiere di Siviglia; then 
sang as prima donna in London (June 20, 
1887), at the Opera-Comique in Paris, in 
Nice and Rome with brilliant success. In 
1888 she was engaged at Covent Garden as 
successor to Patti. On Nov. 29, 1894, she 
made her debut at the Metropolitan Opera. 
In 1910 she was elected member of the 
Stockholm Academy; in 1922 settled in 
Vienna as a singing teacher; later taught 
in Berlin. On June 16, 1888, she married 
the Austrian impresario, Alfred Fischhof, a 
nephew of Maurice Strakosch. 

Arnould (ar-noold'), (Madeleine) So- 
phie, French operatic soprano; b. Paris, Feb. 
14, 1740; d. there Oct. 18, 1802. She 
studied singing with Mme. Fel and acting 

with Mile. Clairon; made her debut at the 
Paris Opera on Dec. 15, 1757. She created 
the title role in Gluck's IphigSnie en Aulide 
(April 19, 1774), and after a highly suc- 
cessful career retired in 1778 with a pension 
of 2,000 livres. Bibl.: Arnouldiana, a large 
collection of anecdotes, published anony- 
mously (Paris, 1813; real author, A. De- 
ville) ; E. and J. de Goncourt, Sophie 
Arnould d'apris sa correspondance et ses 
mSmoires (Paris, 1877); R. B. Douglas, 
Sophie Arnould, Actress and Wit (Paris, 
1898). Gabriel Pierne wrote a one-act 'lyric 
comedy' Sophie Arnould (1926), based on 
incidents of her life. 

Aron, Pietro. See Aaron. 

Arquier (ahr-kya), Joseph, French opera 
composer; b. Toulon, 1763; d. Bordeaux, 
Oct., 1816. He played the cello in a theater 
at Lyon; then lived in Marseilles and Paris. 
After 1800 he went to New Orleans as 
director of an opera troupe, but failed and 
returned to France in 1804, holding various 
positions in Paris, Toulouse, Marseilles and 
Perpignan; he died in poverty. Arquier 
wrote about 16 comic operas. 

Arrau, Claudio, Chilean pianist; b. Chil- 
ian, Feb. 6, 1903. He played in public at 
the age of five, and in 1910 was sent by 
the Chilean government to Berlin where 
he studied with Martin Krause. In 1914-15 
he played recitals in Germany and Scan- 
dinavia, attracting a great deal of attention 
by his precocious talent. He made an exten- 
sive European tour after World War I, 
returning to South America in 1921. His 
U.S. debut was in 1923. Between 1925-40 
he lived chiefly in Berlin, where he taught 
at Stern's Cons. He won the Grand Prix 
International des Pianistes at Geneva in 
1927. In 1941 he settled in the U.S., making 
frequent European and South American 
tours. In his playing Arrau combines a 
classical purity of style with the rhapsodic 
breadth requisite for romantic music. 

Arregui Garay (ahr-ra-ge-gah-ri'), Vi- 
cente, Spanish composer; b. Madrid, ]uly 
3, 1871; d. there, Dec. 1, 1925. He studied 
in Paris and Rome; was active in Madrid as 
music critic; wrote a symph. poem Historia 
de una madre (after H. C. Andersen, 1910) ; 
Sinfonia vasca for orch. ; the operas Yolanda, 
La Maya and El Cuento de Barba Azul; 
a cantata El hobo ciego; chamber music 
and choral works. His music follows the 
romantic school of programmatic writing. 

Arriaga, Juan Crisostomo, precocious 
composer; b. Rigoitia, near Bilbao, Jan. 
27, 1806; d. Paris, Jan. 17, 1826 (ten days 



before his 20th birthday). He was an ex- 
ceptionally gifted musician. While still in 
Bilbao, at the age of 13, he composed a 2- 
act opera Los esclavos felices (1819). He 
then went to Paris, where he studied at the 
Cons, with Baillot and Fetis, arousing their 
admiration for his talent. In Paris he wrote 
a symphony, a biblical scene Agar, 3 string 
quartets, several fugues, piano pieces and 
songs. On Aug. 13, 1933, a monument was 
unveiled to him in Bilbao, and a 'Comision 
Permanente Arriaga' was formed there. The 
vocal scores of Los esclavos felices and En- 
sayo en octeto, subtitled Nada o mucho 
(scored for strings, trumpet, guitar and 
piano), were published in Bilbao in 1935 
with extensive bio-bibliographical notes by 
Juan de Eresalde; the full score of a sym- 
phony was also publ. (Bilbao, 1953). 

Arrieta y Corera, Pascual Juan Emilio, 

Spanish composer; b. Puente la Reina, Oct. 
21, 1823; d. Madrid, Feb. 11, 1894. He 
studied at the Milan Cons. (1842-45) with 
Vaccai; returned to Spain in 1848; was 
prof, at the Madrid Cons, in 1857; became 
its director in 1868. He wrote more than 50 
zarzuelas and several grand operas in Italian. 
Of these productions the most important is 
La conquista de Granada, produced in Ma- 
drid (Oct. 10, 1850) with Arrieta himself 
conducting, and revived five years later 
under the title Isabel la Catolica (Madrid, 
Dec. 18, 1855). Other successful zarzuelas 
and operas are Ildegonda (Milan, Feb. 28, 
1845); El Domino Azul (Madrid, Feb. 19, 
1853); El Grumete (Madrid, June 17, 
1853; its sequel, La Vuelta del Corsario 
was performed in Madrid, Feb. 18, 1863); 
Marina (Madrid, Sept. 21, 1855; revised 
and produced as a grand opera, Madrid, 
Oct. 4, 1871); S. Francesco da Siena 
(Madrid, Oct. 27, 1883). 

Arrigoni, Carlo, Italian composer; b. 
Florence, Dec. 5, 1697; d. there, Aug. 19, 
1744. He left Italy as a young man; in 
1728 he was in Brussels. In 1732 he was 
invited to London by a group favorable to 
Italian composers in opposition to Handel; 
there he produced an opera Fernando (Feb. 
8, 1734). Arrigoni then went back to Italy 
through Vienna, where he produced an 
oratorio Esther (1737); returning to Flor- 
ence, he staged his new operas Sirbace and 
Scipione nelle Spagne (1739). His 10 Can- 
tate da camera were published in London 
(1732). Several airs from his opera Fer- 
nando are preserved in the British Museum; 
Burney mistakenly attributed the music of 
this opera to Porpora. 

l'Arronge, Adolf, German conductor and 

composer; b. Hamburg, March 8, 1838; d. 
Berlin, Dec. 25, 1908. He studied at the 
Leipzig Cons.; then conducted opera in 
Cologne, Danzig, Berlin, Breslau and Buda- 
pest. He wrote a number of light operas 
which, however, failed to obtain any degree 
of success. 

Arroyo, Joao Marcellino, eminent Portu- 
guese composer, writer and statesman; b. 
Oporto, Oct. 4, 1861; d. there, May 18, 
1930. A member of a musical family, he 
first took lessons with his father; at the 
same time he studied law. From 1884-1904 
he was a member of the Portuguese parlia- 
ment; in 1900-01 he held the posts of min- 
ister of foreign affairs and public education. 
A royalist, he abandoned politics after the 
revolution of 1910, and received a professor- 
ship of law at the Univ. of Coimbra. He 
wrote two operas: Amor de Perdigao (Lis- 
bon, March 2, 1907;. Hamburg, Jan. 25, 
1910), which is regarded as the first modern 
Portuguese opera, and Leonor Teles; two 
symphonic poems; several choral works and 
songs; also compiled a manual of solfeggio 
for primary schools. See article on him in 

E. Amorim, Diciondrio biogrdftco de musicos 
do Norte de Portugal (Oporto, 1941); also 
C. A. Dos Santos, Joao Arroyo (Lisbon, 

Artaria, music publishing house in Vienna, 
founded by the cousins Carlo A. (1747- 
1808) and Francesco A. (1744-1808). They 
opened a music shop on Kohlmarkt in 1769, 
and in 1778 began printing music; they in- 
troduced the method of zinc plating for the 
first time in Vienna. In 1779, the firm 
acquired some of Haydn's works, which 
brought fame to them; music of Clementi, 
Salieri and Boccherini was published later. 
Artaria publ. Mozart's 6 violin sonatas (K. 
296, 376-80), the Haffner-Sinfonie and 6 
string quartets dedicated to Haydn, among 
other works, thus becoming Mozart's most im- 
portant publisher in his lifetime. Other first 
editions in Artaria's catalogue were several 
songs by Schubert, Beethoven's C major 
quintet, op. 29, and string quartet, op. 131. 
The last owners were Carl August Artaria 
(d. 1919); Dominik Artaria (d. 1936) and 
Franz Artaria (d. 1942). After 1932, the old 
house became an art gallery and an auction 
bureau, preserving the name Artaria. — Cf. 

F. Artaria and Hugo Botstiber, Joseph Haydn 
und das V erlagshaus Artaria (Vienna, 
1909) ; D. MacArdle, Beethoven, Artaria, 
and the C major Quintet ('Mus. Quarterly,' 
Oct., 1948) ; A. Weinmann, Vollstandiges 
Verlagsverzeichnis, Artaria & Comp. (Vi- 
enna, 1952). 



Arteaga, Esteban de, Spanish writer on 
music; b. Moraleja de Coca, Segovia, Dec. 
26, 1747; d. Paris, Oct. 30, 1799. He joined 
the Jesuit Order at 16, and was banished 
to Corsica when they were proscribed in 
Spain. He left the Order in 1769; from 
1773-78 he studied philosophy at the Univ. 
of Bologna; there he formed a friendship 
with Padre Martini, and at his behest under- 
took a history of the musical theater in Italy. 
The resulting work, he rivoluzioni del teatro 
musicale italiano dalla sua origine fino al 
presente, was published in 3 volumes in 
Bologna and Venice (1783-86; the materials 
in the Bologna edition partly overlap, partly 
supplement those in the Venice edition) ; it 
was brought out in German by J. Forkel (2 
vols., Leipzig, 1789); a summary was pub- 
lished in French (1802). Arteaga's strong 
and often critical opinions expressed in this 
work antagonized many Italian writers who 
resented the intrusion of a foreigner into 
their own field. A polemical exchange of 
considerable acrimony followed; Arteaga's 
views were attacked by Matteo Borsa in a 
tract Del gusto presente in letteratura ita- 
liana . . . and by Vincenzo Manfredini in 
Difesa della musica moderna . . . (Bologna, 
1786). After a sojourn in Venice (1785), 
Arteaga lived in Rome (1786-87); in 1796 
he went to Florence and later to Paris. In 
addition to his magnum opus, he published 
a book on esthetics, Investigaciones filo- 
soficas sobre la belleza ideal ...( Madrid, 
1789; new ed., Madrid, 1943). A book of 
essays Lettere music o-filolo giche and the 
treatise Del ritmo sonoro e del ritmo muto 
nella musica degli antichi (long regarded 
as lost) were published in Madrid in 1944, 
with an extensive biographical account by 
the editor Miguel Batllori, who also gives 
the bibliographical synopsis of the Bologna 
and Venice editions of Rivoluzioni. 

Artemovsky. See Gulak-Artemovsky. 

Arthur, Alfred, American composer and 
choral conductor; b. Pittsburgh, Pa., Oct. 
8, 1844; d. Lakewood, Ohio, Nov. 20, 
1918. He studied with Eichberg at the Bos- 
ton Cons.; sang at Boston churches; then 
moved to Cleveland where he was conductor 
of the Vocal Society (from 1873) and di- 
rector of the Cleveland School of Music. 
He wrote 3 operas which remained unper- 
formed and unpublished: The Water-carrier 
(1876); The Roundheads and Cavaliers 
(1878) and Adaline (1879); brought out 
Progressive Vocal Studies (1887) and other 
manuals on singing. 

Artot (ahr-toh'), Alexandre- Joseph Mon- 
tagney, Belgian violinist; b. Brussels, Jan. 25, 

1815; d. Ville-d'Avray, July 20, 1845. He 
studied with his father, Maurice Artot, and 
with Snel; then took lessons from Rodolphe 
and Auguste Kreutzer at the Paris Cons., 
obtaining first prize (1828). He then played 
concerts on the continent; made his debut 
in London (June 3, 1839) in his own 
Fantaisie for violin and orch. In 1843 he 
embarked on an American concert tour. He 
wrote a violin concerto, several sets of varia- 
tions for violin, and some chamber music. 

Artot, (Jean) Desire Montagney, Belgian 
horn player and composer; b. Paris, Sept. 
23, 1803; d. Brussels, March 25, 1887. He 
was a pupil and successor of his father, 
Maurice Artot. From 1843 he taught at the 
Brussels Cons.; also played in the Court 
Orch. He published fantasias and etudes for 
horn and quartets for cornets. 

Artot, (Marguerite- Josephine) Desiree 
Montagney, Belgian mezzo soprano (daugh- 
ter of Jean-Desire Artot) ; b. Paris, July 21, 
1835; d. Berlin, April 3, 1907. She studied 
with Mme. Viardot-Garcia ; sang in Belgium, 
Holland and England (1857). Meyerbeer 
engaged her to sing in Le Prophete at the 
Paris Opera (Feb. 5, 1858) ; she was greatly 
praised by Berlioz and other Paris musicians 
and critics. In 1858 she went to Italy; then 
made appearances in London. In 1868 she 
was in Russia, where she was briefly engaged 
to Tchaikovsky; however, this engagement 
was quickly disrupted by her marriage (on 
Sept. 15, 1869) to the Spanish singer Padilla 
y Ramos (1842-1906). Their daughter is 
Lola Artot de Padilla (q.v.). 

Artot, Maurice Montagney, ancestor of a 
celebrated line of musicians (the true family 
name being Montagney) ; b. Gray (Haute- 
Saone), Feb. 3, 1772; d. Brussels, Jan. 8, 
1829. He was a bandmaster in the French 
Army; then went to Brussels where he be- 
came first horn player at the Theatre de la 
Monnaie. A versatile musician, he also 
played the guitar and taught singing. 

Artsybushev (ar-tse-boo'-shef), Nikolay 
Vassilievitch, Russian composer; b. Tsarskoe- 
Selo, March 7, 1858; d. Paris, April 15, 
1937. He studied with Soloviev and Rimsky- 
Korsakov; in 1908 was president of the St. 
Petersburg Royal Music Society; in 1920 
settled in Paris where he was active as 
representative of Belaiev's publishing house. 
Artsybushev is chiefly known for his melodic 
piano pieces and songs, which were pub- 
lished by Belaiev; he also wrote a Valse- 
Fantasia for orch., and was one of the com- 
posers to contribute to a collection of 
variations on a Russian song for string 



quartet, other variations being by Rimsky- 
Korsakov, Glazunov, Liadov, Scriabin, etc. 

Artusi, Giovanni Maria, Italian contra- 
puntist and writer on music; b. Bologna, 
c. 1540; d. there, Aug. 18, 1613. He became 
canon-in-ordinary at S. Salvatore in Bologna 
in Feb., 1562. A capable musician and 
writer, a pupil of Zarlino, Artusi was re- 
actionary in his musical philosophy. His first 
publication, L'Arte del contrappunto (in 2 
parts, Venice, 1586 and 1589) has con- 
siderable theoretical value. He then pub- 
lished several polemical essays directed 
mainly against the innovations of Monte- 
verdi and others: the characteristically 
named volume L'Artusi, ovvero delle im- 
perfettioni della moderna musica (Venice, 
1600; reproduced in part in English by O. 
Strunk in Source Readings in Music History, 
N. Y., 1950), followed by a posthumous 
attack on his teacher Zarlino in Impresa del 
R. P. Gioseffo Zarlino (Bologna, 1604) ; 
Consider azioni musicali (1603; as part II of 
U Artusi, etc.); Discorso musicale . . . 
(1606); Discorso secondo musicale (both 
attacking Monteverdi) ; and further pol- 
emical essays against Bottrigari and Vin- 
cenzo Galileo. Monteverdi replied to Artusi 
in a leaflet entitled Ottuso accademico, and 
in the preface to his 5th book of madrigals; 
this reply is reproduced in Strunk's Source 
Readings in Music History. Bottrigari re- 
plied in a pamphlet entitled Ant' Artusi. 
As a composer, Artusi followed the old 
school; he published a set of 4-part Can- 
zonette (1598), and an 8-part motet Can- 
tate Domino (1599). Cf. H. Redlich, Claudio 
Monteverdi, Life and Works (London, 

Artzibuschew. See Artsybushev, Nikolay 

Arutunian, Alexander, Armenian com- 
poser; b. Erivan, Sept. 23, 1920. He studied 
piano with Igumnov and composition with 
Litinsky. He has written a piano concerto 
(1941); concert overture (1944); Cantata 
for the Fatherland (1948) ; trumpet concerto 
(1950), etc. 

Asafiev, Boris Vladimirovitch, Russian 
composer and writer on music; b. St. Peters- 
burg, July 29, 1884; d. Moscow, Jan. 27, 
1949. He studied with Kalafati and Liadov 
at the St. Petersburg Cons. (grad. in 1910) ; 
at the same time he studied philology and 
history at St. Petersburg Univ. (grad. in 
1908). He then became a ballet coach at 
the Opera. In 1914 he began writing music 
criticism under the pseudonym Igor Glebov. 
Subsequently he published his literary writ- 
ings under that name, sometimes indicating 

his real name as well. He always signed his 
musical works, however, with the name 
Asafiev. In 1920 he was appointed Dean 
of the dept. of music of the Institute of 
History of Arts in Petrograd. He was also 
an editor of the journal 'Novaya Musica' 
(1924-28); within a few years he published 
brief monographs on Mussorgsky, Scriabin, 
Rimsky-Korsakov, Liszt, Chopin, etc.; trans- 
lated articles from German, French and 
Italian. At the same time he continued to 
compose, mostly for the stage. The following 
ballets by him were performed in Lenin- 
grad: Flames of Paris (June 23, 1923); 
The Fountain of Bakhtchisaray, after Push- 
kin (Sept. 28, 1934; very popular); The 
Partisan Days (Sept. 12, 1937) and The 
Prisoner of the Caucasus (April 14, 1938). 
Altogether he wrote 9 operas, 27 ballets, 
works for orch. and chamber music. But it 
is as a historian of Russian music that 
Asafiev-Glebov is especially important. He 
continued the tradition of Vladimir Stasov 
in his ardent advocacy of the national Rus- 
sian style. He published The Russian Poets 
in Russian Music (with a valuable catalogue 
of Russian vocal works; 1921); Symphonic 
Etudes (an account of the evolution of the 
Russian operatic style; 1922); Stravinsky 
(a comprehensive analysis of Stravinsky's 
works; Leningrad, 1929; later he repudiated 
the favorable view of Stravinsky expressed 
in this book) ; Russian Music from the Be- 
ginning of the Nineteenth Century (1930; 
English transl. by A. Swan; American 
Council of Learned Societies, 1953); 
Musical Form as a Process (2 vols., 1930 
and 1947) and Glinka (Moscow, 1947; the 
only book on music to receive the Stalin 
Prize). A 7-volume edition of Asafiev's col- 
lected writings was begun in Moscow in 

Aschaffenburg, Walter, composer; b. Es- 
sen, May 20, 1927. He came to America at 
the age of 11. He was with the U.S. Army 
in Germany in 1947; then studied at Oberlin 
with Elwell and at the Eastman School of 
Music with B. Rogers. In 1953 he was ap- 
pointed instructor at the Oberlin Cons. He 
has written Ozymandias, 'symphonic reflec- 
tions after Shelley' (Rochester, April 22, 
1952); an overture Oedipus Rex; 3 string 
quartets; Divertimento for trumpets, horn 
and trombone; a piano trio and a cello 

Aschenbrenner, Christian Heinrich, Ger- 
man violinist and composer; b. Altstettin, 
Dec. 29, 1654; d. Jena, Dec. 13, 1732. He 
studied with Schiitz; was active as violinist 
at Zeitz (1677-81) and Merseburg (1683- 



90) ; then served as music director to the 
Duke of Zeitz (1695-1713) and later to the 
Duke of Merseburg (1713-19); finally re- 
tired on a pension to Jena. His only known 
work is Gast- und Hochzeitsfreude, bestehend 
in Sonaten, Prdludien, Allemanden, Couran- 
ten, Balletten, Arien, Sarabanden mit 3, 4 
und 5 Stimmen, nebst dem Basso continuo 

Ascher, Joseph, Dutch pianist and com- 
poser; b. Groningen, June 4, 1829; d. 
London, June 20, 1869. He studied with 
Moscheles; went to Paris in 1849 and was 
Court pianist to the Empress Eugenie. He 
wrote numerous pieces of salon music 
(etudes, nocturnes, galops, etc.). 

Ascher, Leo, Austrian composer of light 
operas; b. Vienna, Aug. 17, 1880; d. New 
York, Feb. 25, 1942. His first successful oper- 
etta was Vergeltsgott (Vienna, Oct. 14, 
1905); Soldat der Marie and Hoheit tanzt 
Walzer followed. Altogether he composed 
some 50 stage works, and film music. In 
1938 he left Austria to live in New York. 

Ashdown, Edwin, London music publisher; 
successor (1884) of Ashdown & Parry, who 
were the successors (1860) of Wessel & 
Co. (founded 1825). Two grandsons of 
Edwin Ashdown inherited the company, 
and incorporated into it the catalogue of 
Enoch & Co., and also of J. H. Larway 
& Co. (1936), the official name of the en- 
larged business remaining Edwin Ashdown, 
Ltd. Their list of publications contains 
niostly pedagogical works. 

Ashton, Algernon (Bennet Langton), 
English composer; b. Durham, Dec. 9, 1859; 
d. London, April 10, 1937. His family 
moved to Leipzig and he studied at the 
Leipzig Cons, with Reinecke and Jadassohn 
(1875-79); later took lessons with Raff in 
Frankfurt (1880). Returning to England, he 
obtained the post of piano teacher at the 
Royal College of Music (1885-1910). He 
was a prolific composer, having written more 
than 160 opus numbers, mostly in a con- 
ventional German style: 5 symphonies, 3 
overtures, a piano concerto, a violin con- 
certo, 3 piano quintets, 3 piano quartets, 
3 piano trios, trio for clarinet, viola and 
bassoon, trio for piano, horn and viola, 5 
violin sonatas, 5 cello sonatas, a viola sonata, 
and more than 200 piano works (among them 
a sonata, 3 fantasias, and various pictur- 
esque pieces such as Idyls; Roses and 
Thorns, etc.) ; also more than 200 songs, 
choral pieces and organ works. Many of his 
chamber music compositions were published, 
but he was never given recognition as a com- 

poser; however, he acquired notoriety by his 
curious letters in the English press dealing 
with a variety of subjects. Many of these 
letters he collected in his volumes Truth, Wit 
and Wisdom (London, 1904) and More 
Truth, Wit and Wisdom (London, 1905). 

Ashton, Hugh. See Aston. 

Asioli, Bonifazio, Italian composer; b. 
Correggio, Aug. 30, 1769; d. there, May 18, 
1832. A precocious talent, he began writing 
music at a very early age. He studied with 
Angelo Merighi in Parma (1780-82); then 
lived in Bologna and Venice as a harpsi- 
chord player. His first opera La Volubile 
was produced in Correggio (1785) with 
marked success; it was followed by Le 
no-zze in villa (Correggio, 1786); Cinna 
(Milan, 1793); and Gustavo al Malabar 
(Turin, 1802). From 1796-99 he was private 
maestro to the Marquis Gherardini in Turin; 
then went to Milan and taught at the Cons. 
(1808-14). Asioli wrote 7 operas in all, an 
oratorio Giacobbe in Galaad, many cantatas, 
instrumental music and sacred choral works, 
etc. He was the author of several textbooks: 
Principi elementari di musica (Milan, 1809; 
also in English, German and French) ; 
Trattato d'armonia e d'accompagnamento 
(1813); also manuals for harpsichord, voice 
and double-bass. His theoretical book // 
maestro di composizione was published pos- 
thumously (1836). Bibl.: A. Coli, Vita di 
Bonifazio Asioli (Milan, 1834), also O. S. 
Ancarani, Sopra alcune parole di Carlo 
Botta intorno al metodo musicale di Boni- 
fazio Asioli (1836); A. Amadei, Intorno 
alio stile della moderna musica di chiesa 

Asola (Latin, Asula), Giovanni Matteo, 

Italian composer; b. Verona, c. 1550; d. 
Venice, Oct. 1, 1609. He was ordained 
priest; was at Treviso in 1578; then at 
Vicenza (1581). Later he lived in Venice. 
Asola's importance in music history lies in 
his early use of a basso continuo for the 
organ accompaniment of sacred vocal music. 
He composed a great deal of church music; 
his two books of madrigals were published 
in Venice (1587; 1596; also later editions). 
See F. Caffi, Della vita e delle opere di 
Giammateo Asola (Padua, 1862). 

Asow, Erich H. Miiller von. See Miiller 
von Asow, Erich H. 

Aspa, Mario, Italian opera composer; b. 
Messina, 1799, d. there, Dec. 14, 1868. 
He studied with Zingarelli in Naples. He 
produced 42 operas, of which the most suc- 
cessful were Paolo e Virginia (Rome, April 


29, 1843) and 77 muratore di Napoli 
(Naples, Oct. 16, 1850). His last opera 
Piero di Calais was produced posthumously 
in his native town (Messina, March 6, 

Aspestrand, Sigwart, Norwegian opera 
composer; b. Fredrikshald, Nov. 13, 1856; 
d. Oslo, Dec. 31, 1941. He studied at Leip- 
zig and Berlin and spent 30 years of his life 
(1885-1915) in Germany. Of his 7 operas 
Die Seemansbraut, produced in Gotha 
(March 29, 1894) and later in Oslo (March 
18, 1907) was the most successful. His other 
operas, all in German, are: Der Recke von 
Lyrskovsheid; Freyas Alter; Die Wette; Der 
Kuss auf Sicht; Robin Hood and Pervonte. 

Asplmayr, Franz, Austrian composer; b. 
1728; d. Vienna, July 29, 1786. He was 
composer of ballets at the Austrian Court; 
the scores of his ballets Agamemnon, Iphi- 
genia, Flora, Acis and Galatea and others 
have been preserved. He also wrote the 
Singspiel, Die Kinder der Natur and the 
music for two of Shakespeare's plays: Mac- 
beth (1777) and The Tempest (1781). 
Historically, Asplmayr was important as one 
of the earliest Austrian composers to adopt 
the instrumental style established by the 
Mannheim school. He composed 6 Serenate, 
op. 1 ; 6" Quatuors concertants, op. 2 ; 6 
trios, op. 5; 6" Quatuors, op. 6. A trio (op. 
5, No. 1) and a quartet (op. 6, No. 2) 
were published by Riemann in 'Collegium 

Assmayer, Ignaz, Austrian composer; b. 
Salzburg, Feb. 11, 1790; d. Vienna, Aug. 
31, 1862. He studied with Michael Haydn; 
in 1808 became organist at Salzburg. In 
1815 he moved to Vienna, where he studied 
additionally with Eybler. In 1825 was ap- 
pointed Imperial organist; in 1838 was 
made one of the court conductors. He wrote 
the oratorios Saul und David, Sauls Tod 
and Das Gelubde, and performed them with 
the Vienna Tonkiinstler Society. He further 
wrote 15 Masses, 2 Requiems, other church 
works, and some 60 instrumental composi- 
tions, many of which were published. 

Aston, Hugh, English composer; b. 
1480 (?); d. York, Dec. 9, 1522 (?). The 
dates given above apply to the son of a 
certain Richard Aston of Mawdesley in 
Lancashire, assumed to be the composer. 
After obtaining his B.A. (1505-6) and M.A. 
(Oct. 30, 1507) from Oxford, he moved 
to Cambridge to study canon law; he was 
throughout his life associated with St. John's 
College, Cambridge. On May 27, 1509, he 
became Prebend of St. Stephen's, West- 

minster, and in 1515, Archdeacon of York. 
Among Aston's authentic works are 2 Masses 
(Te Deum for 5 voices and Videte manus 
meas for 6 voices) ; two other vocal works 
for 5 voices (Gaude Virgo Mater Christi 
and Te Deum laudamus) and 3 fragments 
published in Tudor Church Music (vol. X). 
More unusual for the time is Aston's Horn- 
pipe for virginals, which is preserved in a 
manuscript at the British Museum and 
printed in J. Wolf's Sing- und Spielmusik 
aus alter Zeit (Leipzig, 1926). It is the 
earliest known piece for the instrument. Of 
the ten other dances in this manuscript, 
some, notably Lady Carey's Dompe (printed 
in S. Smith's 'Musica Antiqua') may also 
be Aston's work. Bibl. : W. H. Grattan 
Flood, Early Tudor Composers (London, 
1925, pp. 30-33). 

d'Astorga, Emanuele (Gioacchino Cesare 
Rincon), Italian composer of operas; b. Au- 
gusta, Sicily, March 20, 1680; d. probably 
in Madrid, after 1757. Of a noble Spanish 
family which had settled in Augusta, Sicily, 
early in the 17th century; he was a baron 
in his own right, from his estate Ogliastro, 
nearby. Later in life he moved to Palermo; 
during the revolution of 1708 he was an 
officer in the municipal guard. In 1712 he 
went to Vienna; and was in Znaim in 1713. 
He was in London in 1714-15; and returned 
to Palermo where he became senator. It is 
known that he sold his Sicilian estate in 
1 744 and went to Spain, where he was in 
the service of the king. D'Astorga was widely 
known as a versatile and highly educated 
person; he was also adept as a singer and 
a cembalo player, but never regarded music 
as his primary profession. He composed at 
least 3 operas: the first, La moglie nemica, 
was produced at Palermo in 1698; the 
2nd and most notable, Dafni, was staged at 
Genoa on April 21, 1709; it was probably 
also heard in Barcelona (1709) and in Bres- 
lau (1726); the third, Amor tirannico, was 
given in Venice in 1710. He also wrote 
numerous chamber cantatas and published 
himself 12 of them in one volume (Lisbon, 
1726). His best known work is Stabat Mater 
for 4 voices; it was first heard in Oxford 
in 1752; a new edition of it was published 
by R. Franz in 1878. In his 2-volume biog- 
raphy of d'Astorga (Leipzig, 1911 and 1919), 
Hans Volkmann refutes the unsupported 
statement of R. Pohl in the 1st edition of 
Grove's Dictionary, that d'Astorga died at 
Raudnitz on Aug. 21, 1736; Volkmann also 
exposes the romantic account of d'Astorga's 
life published by Rochlitz in volume II of 
'Fur Freunde der Tonkunst' (1825) as a 
fanciful invention. An opera Astorga, based 



on his life, was written by J. J. Abert 
(1866). See also O. Tiby, E. D'Astorga in 
'Acta Musicologica' (1953). 

Atanasov, Georgi, Bulgarian composer; 
b. Plovdiv, May 6, 1881; d. Rome, Nov. 1, 
1931. He studied in Italy; was one of the 
first Bulgarian composers to be fully 
equipped with the technique of composition. 
He wrote the early national Bulgarian operas 
Borislav (Sofia, March 4, 1911) and 
Gergana (Stara Zagora, July 1, 1925); 
other operas are Zapustialata Vodenitza 
(The Abandoned Mill) ; Altzek; Tzveta; 
also 2 children's operas: The Sick Teacher 
and About Birds. 

Atherton, Percy Lee, American composer; 
b. Boston, Mass., Sept. 25, 1871; d. Atlantic 
City, N. J., March 8, 1944. He studied 
music at Harvard Univ. ; then with Rhein- 
berger in Munich, with Sgambati in Rome 
and with Widor in Paris. Returning to 
America he served on various advisory 
boards in Boston. He wrote 2 operas 7 he 
Heir Apparent (1890) and Maharajah 
(1900), a symph. poem, Noon in the Forest, 
and numerous songs. 

Attaignant (at-ta-nan'), Pierre (also 
Attaingnant, Atteignant), French printer 
of music who lived during the first half of 
the 16th century; d. 1552. He was probably 
the earliest printer in France to employ 
movable type in music printing. His first 
publication was a Breviarium Noviomense 
(1525). He continued to publish a great 
many works, including 18 dances in tabla- 
ture for the lute (1529) ; 25 pavans (1530) ; 
a folio edition of 7 books of masses (1532) ; 
13 books of motets (1535) and a series of 
35 books of chansons (1539-49) containing 
927 part songs by French and Flemish 
composers. E. Bernoulli issued a facsimile 
edition of 4 books, under the title Chansons 
und Tame (Munich, 1914) ; 31 chansons 
are found in Henry Expert's edition, Les 
Maitres musiciens de la Renaissance fran- 
qaise (1894-1908). Cf. Yvonne Rihouet 
(Rokseth), Note bibliographique sur Attaig- 
nant in 'Revue de Musicologie' (1924, No. 
10) ; F. Lesure, Pierre Attaignant, Notes et 
Documents in 'Musica Disciplina' (Rome, 

Attenhofer, Karl, Swiss conductor and 
composer; b. Wettingen, May 5, 1837; d. 
Zurich, May 22, 1914. He studied in his 
native city and later at the Leipzig Cons. 
(1857-58) with Richter and Dreyschock. 
Returning to Switzerland he developed vig- 
orous activity as choral conductor and 
teacher. He settled in Zurich in 1867; was 

appointed director of the Cons, in 1896. 
Attenhofer wrote mainly for chorus; his 
cantatas Hegelingenjahrt (1890), Fruhlings- 
feier, and Der deutsche Michel for men's 
voices have achieved great popularity. For 
women's voices he wrote Beim Rattenfdnger 
im Zauberberg, Das Kind der Wuste, Prin- 
zessin Wunderhold and Rutlifahrt; he also 
compiled a manual Liederbuch fur Man- 
ner gesang (1882). See Ernst Isler, Karl 
Attenhofer (Zurich, 1915). 

Atterberg, Kurt, Swedish composer; b. 
Goteborg, Dec. 12, 1887. He studied en- 
gineering and was employed in the wireless 
service; then studied at the Stockholm 
Cons, with Hallen, and in Berlin with Schil- 
lings (1910-12). From 1913-22 he con- 
ducted at the Dramatic Theater in Stock- 
holm; from 1919 he wrote music criticism, 
and also served in the Swedish patent office. 
In 1940 he was named secretary of the 
Royal Academy of Music in Stockholm. His 
6th symphony was the winner of the first 
prize of $10,000 given by the Columbia 
Phonograph Co. (1928) for the Schubert 
centennial contest. Atterberg subsequently 
declared that he had consciously imitated 
the style of some composers on the jury 
(Glazunov, Alfano and Nielsen) in order 
to ingratiate himself in their judgment. His 
other symphonies are, however, marked with 
the same expansive, romantic qualities as 
the winning work. They are: No. 1 (1911) : 
No. 2 (1913); No. 3 (1916); No. 4, Sin- 
fonia piccola (1918); No. 5, Sinfonia 
funebre (1922); No. 6 (1928); No. 7, Sin- 
fonia romantica (Frankfurt, Feb. 14, 1943); 
No. 8 (Helsinki, Feb. 9, 1945). His or- 
chestral rhapsody on Northern Swedish folk 
tunes, Varmlandsrhapsodi, written in honor 
of Selma Lagerlof's 75 birthday (broadcast 
over the Swedish Radio, Nov. 20, 1933), 
became one of his most popular works. 
Atterberg is the author of 5 operas, all 
produced in Stockholm: Harvard Harpol- 
ekare (Sept. 29, 1919; revised as Harvard 
der Harfner, and produced in German at 
Chemnitz, 1936) ; Bdckh'dsten (Jan. 23, 
1925); Fanal (Jan. 27, 1934); Aladdin 
(March 18, 1941); Stormen, after Shake- 
speare's Tempest (Sept. 19, 1949). Other 
works: 9 suites for orch. ; symph. poem, 
The River; Rondeau retrospectif for orch.; 
concertos for violin, cello, piano, and horn; 
2 string quartets. 

Attwood, Thomas, English organist and 
composer; b. London, Nov. 23, 1765; d. 
Chelsea, March 24, 1838. He was a chorister 
at the Chapel Royal under Nares and Ayrton 
from the age of nine. Following a perform- 



ance before the Prince of Wales (afterwards 
George IV), he was sent to Italy for further 
study; there he received instruction in 
Naples from Filippo Cinque and Gaetano 
Latilla. He then went to Vienna, where 
Mozart accepted him as a pupil. In 1787 
he returned to London and held various 
posts as organist. He was also music tutor 
to the Duchess of York (1791) and to the 
Princess of Wales (1795). A founder of the 
London Philharmonic Society (1813), he 
conducted some of its concerts. He occupied 
an important position in the English musical 
world; when Mendelssohn came to London 
as a young man, Attwood lent him en- 
thusiastic support. Attwood was a prolific 
composer of operas, of which many were 
produced in London, including The Prisoner 
(Oct. 18, 1792); The Mariners (May 10, 
1793); The Packet Boat (May 13, 1794); 
The Smugglers (April 13, 1796); The Fairy 
Festival (May 13, 1797); The Irish Tar 
(Aug. 24, 1797); The Devil of a Lover 
.(March 17, 1798); The Magic Oak (Jan. 
29, 1799); True Friends (Feb. 19, 1800); 
The Sea-Side Story (May 12, 1801); The 
Curfew (Feb. 19, 1807). In all, Attwood 
wrote 32 operas, in some of which he used 
material from other composers (he included 
music by Mozart in The Prisoner and The 
Mariners). He also wrote church music, 
piano sonatas, songs and glees. 

Auber (oh-bar'), Daniel-Francois-Esprit, 

prolific French composer of comic operas; 
b. Caen (Normandy), Jan. 29, 1782; d. 
Paris, May 12, 1871. His father, an art 
dealer in Paris, sent him to London to ac- 
quire knowledge of business. Auber learned 
music as well as trade and wrote several, 
songs for social entertainment in London. 
Political tension between France and Eng- 
land, however, forced him to return to Paris 
in 1 804 ; there he devoted himself exclusively 
to music. His pasticcio L'Erreur d'un mo-' 
ment, a resetting of an old libretto, was 
produced by an amateur group in Paris in 
1806; his next theatrical work was Julie, 
performed privately, with an accompaniment 
of 6 string instruments, in 1811. Cherubini, 
who was in the audience, was attracted by 
Auber's talent and subsequently gave him 
some professional advice. Auber's first opera 
to be given publicly in Paris was Le Sejour 
Militaire (1813). Six years later the Opera-^ 
Comique produced his new work Le Testa- 
ment et les billets-doux (1819). These 
operas passed without favorable notice, but 
his next production, La Berg&re chatelaine 
(1820) was a definite success. From that 
time until nearly the end of his life, hardly 
a year elapsed without the production of a 

new opera. Not counting amateur perform- 
ances, 45 operas from Auber's pen were 
staged in Paris between 1813 and 1869. He 
was fortunate in having the collaboration 
of the best librettist of the time, Scribe, who 
wrote (alone, or with other writers) no 
fewer than 37 libretti for Auber's operas. 
Auber's fame reached its height with 
Masaniello, ou la Muette de Portici, pro- 
duced at the Opera, Feb. 29, 1828. Its suc- 
cess was enormous. Historically, it laid the 
foundation of French grand opera with 
Meyerbeer's Robert le Diable and Rossini's 
Guillaume Tell. Its vivid portrayal of pop- 
ular fury stirred French and Belgian 
audiences; revolutionary riots followed its 
performance in Brussels (Aug. 25, 1830). 
Another popular success was achieved by 
him with his romantic opera Fra Diavolo 
(Opera-Comique, Jan. 28, 1830), which 
became a standard work. Despite these suc- 
cesses with grand opera, Auber may be 
rightfully regarded as a founder of the 
French comic opera, a worthy successor of 
Boieldieu and at least an equal of Adam 
and Herold. The influence of Rossini was 
noted by contemporary critics, but on the 
whole, Auber's music preserves a distinctive 
quality of its own. Rossini himself remarked 
that although Auber's music is light, his 
art is profound. Auber was greatly ap- 
preciated by the successive regimes in 
France; in 1829 he succeeded Gossec at the 
Academy; in |842 he was appointed director 
of the Paris Cons, by Louis Philippe, and 
retained this post until his death. In 1857 
Napoleon III made him imperial 'maitre 
de chapelle.' At the age of 87 he produced 
his last opera Reves d'amour. Auber lived 
virtually all his life in Paris, remaining there 
even during the siege by the Germans. He 
died, during the days of the Paris Commune, 
in his 90th year. His memory was honored 
by the Academy. Among his operas (most 
of which were produced at the Opera- 
Comique) are also the following: Le Cheval 
de bronze (March 23, 1835); Le Domino 
noir (Dec. 2, 1837); Les Diamants de la 
couronne (March 6, 1841); Manon Lescaut 
(Feb. 23, 1856) ; Le premier jour de bon- 
heur (Feb. 15, 1868), etc. Bibl.: A. Pougin, 
Auber (Paris, 1873); A. Kohut, Auber 
(Leipzig, 1895); Ch. Malherbe, Auber 
(Paris, 1911). 

Aubert (oh-bar'), Jacques (called 'le 
vieux'), celebrated French violinist; b. Paris, 
Sept. 30, 1689; d. Belleville, near Paris, May 
(buried May 19), 1753. He was a pupil of 
Senaille; in 1719 he became band leader 
to the Duke of Bourbon; in 1727 was one 
of the King's 24 violinists; he played in the 



orch. of the Grand Opera as first violinist 
from 1728-52, and took part in the Con- 
certs Spirituels (1729-40). He published 33 
separate instrumental works; was also the 
first in France to write instrumental con- 
certos (scored for 4 violins and a bass). His 
music, distinguished by elegance, contributed 
to the formation of the French 'style galant.' 
Bibl.: L. La Laurencie, L'Ecole frangaise 
de violon de Lully d Viotti (Paris, 1922-23). 

Aubert, Louis-Francois-Marie, French 
composer; b. Param6, Ille-et-Vilaine, Feb. 
19, 1877. Of precocious talent, he entered 
the Paris Cons, as a child, and studied piano 
with Diemer, theory with Lavignac and ad- 
vanced composition with Gabriel Faure; he 
also sang in church choirs. His song, Rimes 
tendres was published when he was 19. His 
Fantaisie for piano and orch. was performed 
in Paris by the Colonne Orch. with his 
teacher Diemer as soloist (Nov. 17, 1901). 
His Suite breve for 2 pianos was presented 
at the Paris Exposition, 1900; an orchestral 
version of it was performed for the first 
time in Paris on April 27, 1916. Aubert's 
major work is an operatic fairy tale La 
Foret bleue (Geneva, Jan. 7, 1913) ; an Amer- 
ican production was staged in Boston, March 
8, 1913, attracting considerable attention. 
The Paris production of La Foret bleue, 
delayed by the war, took place on June 10, 
1924, at the Opera-Comique. Aubert's style 
is largely determined by the impressionistic 
currents of the early 20th century; like 
Debussy and Ravel, he was attracted by the 
music of Spain and wrote several pieces in 
the Spanish idiom, of which the symph. 
poem Habanera (Paris, March 22, 1919) 
was particularly successful. The list of Au- 
bert's works further includes: La Legende 
du sang for narrator, chorus and orch. 
(1902) ; 3 ballets, La Momie (1903) ; Chry- 
sothimis (1904) and La Nuit ensorciUe 
(1922); 6 poemes arabes for voice and 
orch. (1907); a song cycle CrSpuscules 
d'automne (Paris, Feb. 20, 1909); Nuit 
mauresque for voice and orch. (1911); 
Dryade for orch. (1921) ; Caprice for violin 
and orch. (1925) ; Feuilles d'images, symph. 
suite (Paris, March 7, 1931); Saisons for 
chorus and orch. (1937); Offrande aux 
victimes de la guerre for orch. (1947); Le 
Tombeau de Chateaubriand for orch. (1948) ; 
Cinema, ballet (1953); a set of 3 piano 
pieces Sillages (1913); a piano quintet, 
songs etc. Bibl.: L. Vuillemin, Louis Aubert 
et son ozuvre (Paris, 1921); E. B. Hill, 
Modern French Music (1924); R. Bernard, 
Louis Aubert in 'La Revue Musicale' (Feb. 


Aubery du Boulley (boo-la'), Prudent- 
Louis, French composer; b. Verneuil, Eure, 
Dec. 9, 1796; d. there, Jan. 28, 1870. He 
studied at the Paris Cons, with Momigny, 
Mehul and Cherubini. He wrote much 
chamber music, in which he used the guitar; 
published a guitar method and a text book 
Grammaire musicale (Paris, 1830). He was 
an active teacher in his native province, 
and contributed much to the cultivation of 
music there. See J. de L'Avre, Aubiry du 
Boulley (Paris, 1896). 

Aubin, Tony, French composer; b. Paris, 
Dec. 8, 1907. He studied at the Paris Cons, 
with Paul Dukas; won the Prix de Rome 
in 1930. In 1944 he became a radio con- 
ductor; in 1946 was engaged as prof, of 
composition at the Paris Cons. He has 
written 2 symphonies (1937, 1951); Suite 
danoise for orch. (1945); a string quartet, 
a piano sonata, and incidental music. A 
utilitarian composer par excellence, Aubin 
cultivates a neo-classical style designed for 
immediate effect. 

Aubry, Pierre, French music scholar; b. 
Paris, Feb. 14, 1874; d. (following a fencing 
accident) Dieppe, Aug. 31, 1910. He began 
his education as a philologist; studied ori- 
ental languages, and traveled to Turkestan 
on a research project. He then became in- 
terested in medieval music; was, for a time, 
lecturer on music history at the Ecole des 
hautes etudes sociales. His theories of no- 
tation are based on a plausible interpreta- 
tion of medieval writers. His many 
publications, distinguished by profound 
scholarship, include: Huits Chants heroiques 
de I'ancienne France (1896); Melanges de 
Musicologie critique, in 4 vols.: I. La Mu- 
sicologie medievale (1899); II. Les Proses 
d'Adam de Saint-Victor (1900, with Abbe 
Misset) ; III. Lais et Descorts francais du 
XIIP siicle (1901, with Jeanroy and Brand- 
in) ; IV. Les plus anciens monuments de la mu- 
sique frangaise (1903, with 24 facsimiles); 
Essais de musicologie compare" e, 2 vols.: I. 
Le rhythme tonique dans la poSsie liturgique 
et dans le chant des iglises chretiennes au 
moyen-dge (1903) ; II. Esquisse d'une biblio- 
graphie de la chanson populaire en Europe 
(1905) ; Les caracteres de la danse. Histoire 
d'un divertissement pendant la premiire 
moitie du XV IIP siecle (1905) ; Au Turkes- 
tan. Notes sur quelques habitudes musicales 
chez les Tadjikes et chez les Sartes (1905); 
La Musique et les musiciens d'eglise en 
Normandie au XIIP siecle (1906); Estam- 
pies et danses royales. Les plus anciens textes 
de musique instrumentale au moyen-dge 
(1907); Recherches sur les tSnors frangais 



dans les motets du XIIP siecle (1907) ; Re- 
cherches sur les tenors latins dans les motets 
du XIIP siecle (1907; facsimile ed. of the 
Parisian MS., with index and editorial ex- 
planations) ; Cent Motets du XIIP siecle 
(1908; 3 vols.; photographic facsimile of 
Bamberg Codex E. d. IV. 6, with annota- 
tions; a most important work) ; Refrains et 
Rondeaux du XIIP siecle (1909, in the Rie- 
mann 'Festschrift'); Trouveres et Trouba- 
dours (1909; English ed. N. Y., 1914); and 
a number of essays on kindred topics, publ. 
in the 'Mercure musical' (1903-8). 

Auda (oh-dah'), Antoine, French-Belgian 
organist and music scholar; b. at St. Julien- 
en-Jarez (Loire), Oct. 28, 1879. He studied 
music at Marseilles; then established himself 
at Liege as organist; published important 
studies on the musical history of the city: 
Etienne de Liege (1923); La Musique et 
les Musiciens de I'ancien pays de Liege 
(1930) ; and the valuable theoretical works: 
Les Modes et les Tons (1931); and Les 
Gammes musicales (1947). 

Audran (oh-drahn'), Edmond, French 
composer of light opera; son of Marius 
Audran; b. Lyons, April 12, 1840; d.Tierce- 
ville, Aug. 17, 1901. He studied at the Ecole 
Niedermayer in Paris (grad. in 1859). In 
1861 he was appointed organist at St. 
Joseph's Church in Marseilles where he pro- 
duced his first operetta L'Ours et le Pacha 
(1862). He wrote a funeral march on 
Meyerbeer's death (1864). After the pro- 
duction of Le Grand Mogol (Marseilles, 
Feb. 24, 1877), he returned to Paris, and 
staged Les Noces d'Olivette (Nov. 13, 1879). 
With the production of La Mascotte 
(Bouffes-Parisiens, Dec. 28, 1880), Audran 
achieved fame; this operetta became im- 
mensely popular; thousands of performances 
were given in Paris and all over the world. 
He continued to produce new operettas al- 
most annually; of these, the following were 
successful: Gillette de Narbonne (1882); 
La Cigale et la fourmi (1886) ; Miss Helyett 
(1891); Sainte Freya (1892); Madame 
Suzette (1893); Mon Prince (1893); La 
Duchesse de F err are (1895) ; Photis (1896) ; 
La Poupee (1896); Monsieur Lohengrin 
(1896); Les petit es femmes (1897). 

Audran, Marius-Pierre, French operatic 
tenor and composer of songs; father of 
Edmond Audran; b. Aix, Provence, Sept. 
26, 1816; d. Marseilles, Jan. 9, 1887. He 
began his career in the provinces (Marseilles, 
Bordeaux, Lyons) ; then became first tenor 
at the Opera-Comique, Paris. After a period 
of travel (1852-61), he settled in Marseilles 

and in 1863 became prof, of voice and dir. 
of the Marseilles Cons. 

Auer, Leopold, celebrated Hungarian vio- 
linist and pedagogue; b. Veszprem, June 7, 
1845; d. Loschwitz, near Dresden, July 15, 
1930. He studied with Ridley Kohnel in 
Budapest and with Dont in Vienna; later 
lessons with Joachim. From 1863-65 he was 
in Diisseldorf as concertmaster of the or- 
chestra; in 1866 in Hamburg. In 1868 he 
was called to St. Petersburg as soloist in 
the Imperial Orch., and prof, of violin at 
the newly founded Cons. He became one 
of the most famous violin teachers in Russia; 
among his pupils were Elman, Zimbalist, 
Heifetz and many other virtuosos. Tchaikov- 
sky originally dedicated his violin concerto 
to Auer, but was offended when he sug- 
gested some revisions and changed the dedi- 
cation to Brodsky. Nevertheless, the concerto 
became Auer's favorite work, and he made 
it a piece de resistance for all his pupils. 
After the revolution he left Russia. On 
March 23, 1918, he played a concert in 
New York City; settling permanently in 
America, he devoted himself exclusively to 
teaching. He published the manuals Violin 
Playing as I Teach it (N. Y., 1921), Violin 
Master Works and Their Interpretation 
(1925), and an autobiography My Long 
Life in Music (1923). 

Auer, Max, Austrian writer on music; 
b. Vocklabruck, May 6, 1880. He studied 
in Vienna; later taught in provincial public 
schools; settled in Bad Ischl. He is the 
foremost authority on Bruckner; published 
Anton Bruckner; Sein Leben und Werk (Vien- 
na, 1923) ; Anton Bruckner als Kirchenmusi- 
ker (Regensburg, 1927) ; completed vols. 2-4 
(1928, 1932, 1937) of Gollerich's monument- 
al biography, Anton Bruckner; Ein Lebens- 
und S chaff ensbild. 

Augener, George, English publisher, foun- 
der of Augener & Co.; b. Germany, 1830; 
d. London, Aug. 25, 1915. He organized 
the firm in 1853 (incorporated Oct. 11, 
1904), and was its head until he retired in 
1910. In 1870, Augener started publishing 
the music periodical 'The Monthly Musical 
Record.' In 1896 the firm purchased the 
catalogue of Robert Cocks & Co. 

Augustine (Augustinus), Aurelius, known 
as St. Augustine; b. Tagaste, Numidia, Nov. 
13, 354; d. as bishop, at Hippo (now Bona), 
Algeria, Aug. 28, 430. St. Augustine was 
one of the four great fathers of the Latin 
Church. He was educated at Madaura and 
Carthage. He became a Christian in 387, 
receiving his baptism from St. Ambrose. His 



writings contain valuable information con- 
cerning Ambrosian song; the book entitled 
De Musica treats largely of metre. It is 
printed in Migne, Patrologiae cursus (vol. 
32); German translation by G. J. Perl 
(Strasbourg, 1937); English translation by 
R. Catesby Taliaferro in 'The Classics of the 
St. John's Program' (1939). A synopsis of 
De Musica in English (with commentaries 
and translated by W. F. Jackson Knight) 
was published by the Orthological Institute 
(London, 1949). Cf. J. Hure Saint Augustin 
Musicien (1924); H. Edelstein Die Musik- 
anschauung Augustins (Freiburg, 1928) ; W. 
Hoffmann, Philosophische Interpretation der 
Augustin-Schrift De Musica (Freiburg, 
1930) ; H. Davenson, Traite de la musique 
selon V esprit de Saint Augustin (Neuchatel, 

Aulin, Tor, Swedish violinist and com- 
poser; b. Stockholm, Sept. 10, 1866; d. 
there, March 1, 1914. He studied with C. 
J. Lindberg in Stockholm (1877-83) and 
with Sauret and Scharwenka in Berlin 
(1884-86). In 1887 he established the Aulin 
String Quartet, and traveled with it in Ger- 
many and Russia. He was concertmaster at 
the Stockholm Opera from 1889 till 1902, 
but continued his concert career, and was 
considered the greatest Scandinavian violinist 
since Ole Bull. Aulin was appointed con- 
ductor of the Stockholm Philharmonic Soc. 
in 1902; became leader of the Goteborg 
Orch. in 1909. As conductor and violinist, 
he made determined propaganda for Swed- 
ish composers. He wrote incidental music to 
Strindberg's Master Olof, 3 violin concertos, 
several suites of Swedish dances for orch., 
violin sonata, a violin method and songs. 
His sister Laura Aulin (b. Gavle, Jan. 9, 
1860; d. Orebro, Jan. 11, 1928), was a 
well known pianist; she also composed 
chamber and piano music. 

Aurelianus Reomensis, French scholar; 
monk at Reome in the 9th century. His 
treatise Musica disciplina (published by 
Gerbert in 'Scriptores,' Vol. I) contains the 
earliest information on the melodic character 
of the church modes. See H. Riemann, 
Handbuch der Musikgeschichte (Leipzig, 
1919, vol. I). 

Auric (oh-rek), Georges, French com- 
poser; b. Lodeve, Feb. 15, 1899. He studied 
in Paris with Vincent d'lndy and Roussel, 
but began to compose even before receiving 
formal tuition. Between the ages of 12 and 
16 he wrote some 300 songs and piano 
pieces; at 18 he wrote the ballet Les Noces 
de Gamache; at 20 a comic opera La Reine 
de cozur, but destroyed the MS. Influenced 
mainly by Erik Satie, he pursued the type 

of composition that would, in his own words, 
produce "auditory pleasure without demand- 
ing a disproportionate effort from the 
listener." Auric became associated with 
Milhaud, Poulenc, Honegger and others in 
the celebrated group "Les Six." He wrote 
music for Diaghilev's Ballets Russes, and 
later for other ballet companies. In 1931 
he composed a highly successful score for 
the film A nous la liberte; another effective 
film score was Moulin Rouge (1952). He 
has also been active as music critic in 'Paris 
Soir' and 'Nouvelles litteraires.' Works: Bal- 
lets: Les Fdcheux (Monte Carlo, Jan. 19, 
1924) ; Les Matelots (Paris, June 17, 1925) ; 
La Pastorale (Paris, May 26, 1926) ; Les En- 
chantements d'Alcine (Paris, May 21, 1929) ; 
Les Imaginaires (Paris, May 31, 1934); Le 
Peintre et son modele (Paris, Nov. 16, 
1949) ; La Pierre enchantee (Paris, June 23, 
1950) ; Chemin de Lumiere (Munich, March 
27, 1952); Coup de feu (Paris, May 7, 
1952). — Bibl. : Boris de Schloezer, Georges 
Auric, in 'La Revue Musicale' (Jan., 1926). 

Aus der Ohe, Adele, German pianist; b. 
Hanover, Dec. 11, 1864; d. Berlin, Dec. 7, 
1937. She studied as a child with Kullak in 
Berlin; at the age of 12 became a pupil of 
Liszt for seven years. She then played con- 
certs in Europe; made her American debut 
with Liszt's 1st piano concerto in New York 
(Dec. 23, 1886) and continued her Amer- 
ican tours for 17 consecutive years. She 
played 51 times with the Boston Symph. 
Orch. between 1887 and 1906. One of the 
highlights of her career was her appearance 
as soloist in Tchaikovsky's 1st piano con- 
certo under Tchaikovsky's own direction at 
his last concert (St. Petersburg, Oct. 28, 
1893). Because of a crippling illness, she 
was forced to abandon her concert career; 
she lost her accumulated earnings in the 
German currency inflation in the 1920's, 
and from 1928 till her death, subsisted on 
a pension from the Bagby Music Lovers 
Foundation of New York. 

Austin, Ernest, English composer, brother 
of Frederick Austin; b. London, Dec. 31, 
1874; d. Wallington, Surrey, July 24, 1947. 
He had no formal musical education; began 
to compose at the age of 33 after a business 
career. His compositions, therefore, acquired 
an experimental air; he was particularly 
interested in a modern treatment of old 
English tunes. — Works (about 90 in all) : 
The Vicar of Bray for string orch. (1910); 
Hymn of Apollo for chorus and orch. (Leeds, 
1918) ; Stella Mary Dances (London, 1918) ; 
Ode on a Grecian Urn, after Keats (1922) ; 
14 Sonatinas on English folk songs for 



children; a cycle of organ works in 12 parts 
(inspired by Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress); 
chamber music and songs. He published a 
book, The Fairyland of Music (1922). 

Austin, Florence, American violinist; b. 
Galesburg, Mich., March 11, 1884; d. (in 
a railroad accident) Fairchild, Wis., Aug., 
1926. She studied with Schradieck in New 
York, and with Musin at Liege Cons., win- 
ning first prize (for the first time by an 
American). Upon her return to New York 
(1901) she appeared in recitals, then 
settled in Newark, N. J., as violin teacher. 

Austin, Frederick, English baritone and 
composer; brother of Ernest Austin; b. 
London, March 30, 1872; d. there, April 
10, 1952. He studied with his uncle, Dr. 
W. H. Hunt; became an organist and also 
taught music at Liverpool. In 1902 he ap- 
peared as a singer in London, and partici- 
pated in many choral festivals in later years. 
He sang in opera at Govent Garden, and 
with the Beecham Opera Co. At the same 
time he became known in England as a 
composer. He wrote a symphony, a symph. 
poem Isabella, a choral work Pervigilium 
Veneris, and an overture The Sea Venturers 
and composed incidental music for the stage. 

Austin, Henry Richter, English-American 
music publisher and editor; b. London, May 
17, 1882. He was organist at the English 
Royal Church in Berlin (1904-06); then 
settled in the U.S., occupying positions as 
church organist in and around Boston until 
1948. He has conducted experiments with 
the acoustical characteristics of non-tempered 
scales and devised a keyboard Novaton, of 
16 keys (8 white, 8 black) providing the 
true seventh partial tone. Became president 
of the Arthur P. Schmidt Co. in 1954 (after 
many years with the firm). 

Austin, John Turnell, English-American 
organist; b. Poddington, Bedfordshire, May 
16, 1869; d. Hartford, Conn., Sept. 17, 
1948. He came to the U.S. in 1889 and 
worked for various organ building firms. 
On March 3, 1899 he founded an organ 
company under his own name at Hartford, 
Conn., retiring in 1935. He patented the 
Austin Universal Air Chest. The Austin 
Organ Co. supplied organs for many concert 
halls in the U.S. 

Austin, Richard, English conductor; son 
of Frederick Austin; b. Birkenhead, Dec. 26, 
1903. He studied conducting with Sir Adrian 
Boult and Sir Malcolm Sargent at the Royal 
College of Music; then conducted the Carl 
Rosa Opera Co. From 1934-40 he led the 
Bournemouth Orch. During World War II 

he was Music Advisor in the British Army. 
In 1946, was appointed prof, at the Royal 
College of Music. In 1947 he established 
in London the New Era Concert Society 
for performances of unusual works. 

Austin, Sumner, English baritone; b. Lon- 
don, Sept. 24, 1888. He studied at Oxford; 
went to Germany in 1914 and was interned 
there during World War I. He was a mem- 
ber of the Carl Rosa Opera Co. in 1919; 
in later years he became an operatic 
producer in London. 

Austral, Florence, Australian soprano 
(real name Florence Wilson) ; b. Melbourne 
April 26, 1894. She studied at the Mel- 
bourne Cons. (1914-18) and in New York 
(1918). She made her operatic debut as 
Briinnhilde at Covent Garden (May 16, 
1922); later she sang the roles of Isolde 
and Aida. She toured in the U.S. between 
1925 and 1931 with her husband, the 
flutist John Amadio. 

Auteri Manzocchi (man-tsoh-ke), Salva- 
tore, Italian opera composer; b. Palermo, 
Dec. 25, 1845; d. Parma, Feb. 22, 1924. 
He studied in Palermo with Platania, and 
with Mabellini in Florence. His first opera 
Marcellina was never performed; his second, 
Dolores (Florence, Feb. 23, 1875) enjoyed 
considerable success, as did Stella (Piacenza, 
May 22, 1880). His other operas are II 
Negriero (Milan, 1878); // Conte de 
Gleichen (Milan, 1887); Graziella (Milan, 
Oct. 23, 1894) and Severo Torelli (Bologna, 
April 25, 1903). 

d'Auvergne, Antoine. See Dauvergne, 

Aventinus, Johannes (real name Turmair), 
German theorist; b. Abensberg (whence 
Aventinus), July 4, 1477; d. there, Jan. 9, 
1534. His treatise Annates Boiorum (1554) 
contains considerable information (not al- 
ways trustworthy) about musical matters. 
He also edited Nicolaus Faber's Musica 
rudimenta admodum brevia (1516). 

Averkamp, Anton, Dutch choral conductor 
and composer; b. Willige Langerak, Feb. 
18, 1861; d. Bussum, June 1, 1934. He 
studied with Daniel de Lange in Amster- 
dam, with Friedrich Kiel in Berlin, and with 
Rheinberger in Munich. In 1890 he founded 
the famous chorus, 'Amsterdam A Cappella 
Coor,' with which he traveled in Europe, 
presenting programs of early polyphonic 
music. He led this group until 1918; then 
was appointed director of the Music School 
of Tonal Art in Utrecht. In 1927 he was 
elected chairman of the 'Vereeniging voor 
Nederlandsche Muziekgeschiedenis.' Aver- 



kamp wrote an opera De Heidebloem (not 
produced) ; a symph. poem Elaine and 
Lancelot; 2 choral works with orch., Decora 
Lux and Die versunkene Burg; a symphony; 
a Te Deum; a violin sonata and songs. He 
contributed numerous historical articles to 
music periodicals, and published a manual 
for singers, Uit mijn practijk (Groningen, 

Avidom, Menahem (real name, Mahler- 
Kalkstein), Israeli composer; b. Stanislawow, 
Poland, Jan. 6, 1908. He studied in Beirut 
and Paris; since 1935 settled in Tel-Aviv 
as teacher and composer. For several years, 
managed the Israeli Philharmonic Orch. 
Among his works are a Folk Symphony 
(Tel-Aviv, March 5, 1947); David Sym- 
phony (Tel-Aviv, Dec. 1, 1949); chamber 
music and songs. 

Avison, Charles, English organist and 
composer; b. Newcastle-on-Tyne 1709 (bap- 
tized Feb. 16) ; d. there, May 9, 1770. After 
studying with Geminiani in London, he be- 
came organist at St. John's Church, New- 
castle (1736). He wrote a large number of 
chamber works, among them 26 concertos 
a 7 (4 violins, viola, cello, bass), 12 piano 
concertos with string quartet, 18 quartets 
for piano with 2 violins and cello, and 3 
volumes of sonatas for harpsichord with 2 
violins. He also published An Essay on 
Musical Expression (London, 1752) and 
(with J. Garth), Marcello's Psalm- 
Paraphrases (1757; with English words). 
Bibl. : A. Milner, C. Avison in the 'Musical 
Times' (Jan., 1954). 

Avshalomov (ahv-shah-loh'-mov), Aaron, 
Russian-American composer; b. Nikolayevsk, 
Siberia, Nov. 11, 1894. He studied at the 
Zurich Cons.; in 1914 went to China; there 
he made a profound study of native music, 
and wrote a number of works based on Chi- 
nese subjects, often utilizing authentic Chi- 
nese melodies. On April 24, 1925, he con- 
ducted his first opera Kuan Yin in Peking. 
His 2nd opera, The Great Wall, was staged 
in Shanghai on Nov. 26, 1945, and also suc- 
cessfully presented in Nanking under the 
sponsorship of Madame Chiang Kai-Shek. 
His other works written in China (all per- 
formed in Shanghai) are: Peiping Hutungs, 
symph. sketch (Feb. 7, 1933; also perf. by 
Stokowski in Philadelphia, Nov. 8, 1935) ; 
The Soul of the Ch'in, ballet (May 21, 
1933) ; Incense Shadows, pantomime (March 
13, 1935); piano concerto (Jan. 19, 1936); 
violin concerto (Jan. 16, 1938) ; 1st Symph- 
ony (March 17, 1940, composer conducting) ; 
(March 17, 1940, composer conducting) ; 

Buddha and the Five Planetary Deities, 
choreographic tableau (April 18, 1942). 
Avshalomov came to America in 1947, and 
settled in New York; works composed since 
then are: 2nd Symphony (Cincinnati, Dec. 
30, 1949) ; 3rd Symphony (1950) ; 4th Sym- 
phony (1951). 

Avshalomov, Jacob, American composer, 
son of Aaron Avshalomov; b. Tsingtao, 
China, March 28, 1919; his mother was 
American; his father, Russian. He studied 
music in Peking; in 1936 he was in Shang- 
hai, where material circumstances forced 
him to work for a time in a slaughterhouse. 
In 1937 he came to U.S.; studied with 
Ernst Toch in Los Angeles; then with Ber- 
nard Rogers in Rochester, N.Y. From 1943- 
45 he was in the U.S. Army as interpreter. 
From 1947-54 he was instructor at Columbia 
Univ.; received a Guggenheim Fellowship 
in 1952; in 1954 he was appointed per- 
manent conductor of the Portland Junior 
Symphony. His music reflects the many 
cultures with which he was in contact; 
while the form is cohesive, the materi- 
als are multifarious, with tense chrom- 
atic harmonies and quasi-oriental in- 
flections. — Compositions: Sinfonietta 
(1946); Evocations for clarinet and cham- 
ber orch. (1947); Sonatina for viola and 
piano (1947); Prophecy for chorus, tenor 
and organ (1948); Taking of T'ung Kuan 
for orch. (1948) ; Tom o' Bedlam for chorus 
(N.Y., Dec. 15, 1953; received the N.Y. 
Music Critics Award) ; The Plywood Age 
for orch., commissioned for the 50th anni- 
versary of the Fir Plywood Corp. (Portland, 
June 20, 1955) ; Psalm 100 for chorus and 
wind instruments ( 1 956 ) ; Inscriptions at 
the City of Brass for chorus, narrator, and 
large orch., to a text from the Arabian 
Nights (1956). 

Axman, Emil, Czech composer; b. Rataje, 
June 3, 1887; d. Prague, Jan. 5, 1949. 
Of a musical family, he began to compose 
at an early age. He later studied with 
Nejedly at the Prague Univ., obtaining his 
Ph. D. in 1912; he also took private lessons 
with Novak. In 1913 he was appointed 
keeper of the musical archives at the Na- 
tional Museum in Prague. He participated 
in the modern musical movement but was 
not attracted by the spirit of experimenta- 
tion. Axman was a prolific composer; he 
wrote 6 symphonies between 1920 and 1942 
(his 2nd symphony was performed at the 
Frankfurt Festival, July 3, 1927); the 
cantatas My Mother (1926) and The 
Cemetery of Sobotka (1933); symph. poem 
Mourning and Hope; violin concerto (1936) ; 



piano concerto (1939); cello concerto 
(1944); 4 string quartets, wind quintet, 
violin sonata, piano sonata; several song 

Ayala, Daniel, Mexican (Indian) com- 
poser; b. Abala, Yucatan, July 21, 1908. 
He studied violin with Revueltas; played 
at night clubs in Mexico City. In 1940 he 
became conductor of the band (later sym- 
phony orch.) in Merida. His music, inspired 
by Mayan legends, has a strong rhythmic 
undercurrent. Among his works are the 
symphonic suites Un Antiguo Cemeterio 
(Mexico City, Oct. 13, 1933); Tribu (ibid., 
Oct. 18, 1935); Paisaje (ibid., June 2, 
1936); El Hombre Maya (ibid., Nov. 21, 
1940) ; Panoramas de Mexico (Dallas, Dec. 
1, 1940). They have also been used for 
ballet productions in Mexico. 

Ayestaran, Lauro, Uruguayan musicolo- 
gist; b. Montevideo, July 9, 1913. He 
studied voice and music history; became 
instructor of choral music in municipal 
schools in Montevideo. He is the author of 
the important monograph Domenico Zipoli, 
el gran compositor y organista romano en 
el Rio de la Plata (Montevideo, 1941). 

Ayres, Frederic (real name, Frederick 
Ayres Johnson), American composer; b. 
Binghamton, N. Y., March 17, 1876; d. 
Colorado Springs, Nov. 23, 1926. He studied 
with Edgar S. Kelley (1897-1901) and 
Arthur Foote (1899). His works include 
an overture From the Plains; 2 string quar- 
tets, 2 piano trios, 2 violin sonatas, a cello 
sonata and numerous songs. In his later 
music he showed a tendency towards im- 
pressionism, and used moderately complex 
harmonic combinations. Bibl. : Wm. T. 
Upton, Frederic Ayres, in the 'Mus. 
Quarterly' (1932). 

Ayrton, Edmund, English organist and 
composer; father of William Ayrton; b. 
Ripon, Yorkshire, 1734; d. London, May 
22, 1808. He studied organ with Nares; 
from 1754 he was organist in various 
churches; in 1764 was appointed a Gentle- 
man of the Chapel Royal in London; in 
1780 became Master of the Children. His 
anthem Begin unto my God with Timbrels 
was presented in St. Paul's Cathedral (July 
28, 1784); he also wrote 2 morning and 
evening services. 

Ayrton, William, English organist; son of 
Edmund Ayrton; b. London, Feb. 24, 1777; 
d. there, March 8, 1858. He received a fine 
education; was one of the original founders 
of the London Philharmonic Soc. in 1813; 
wrote music criticism for 'The Morning 

Chronicle' (1813-26) and for 'The Exam- 
iner' (1837-51). In 1823 he started the 
publication of the historically important 
London music periodical 'The Harmonicon,' 
and was its editor; from 1834-37 edited 
'The Musical Library,' which published 
vocal and instrumental music. He also com- 
piled a practical collection, 'Sacred Min- 
strelsy' (2 vols., 1835). 

Azantchevsky, Mikhail Pavlovitch, Russian 
music scholar and composer; b. Moscow, 
1838; d. there, Jan. 24, 1881. He studied 
music with Hauptmann and Richter at the 
Leipzig Cons. (1861-62) and took some les- 
sons with Liszt in Rome. During his sojourn 
in Paris (1866-70) he purchased the im- 
portant music library of Anders; later he 
presented it, together with other acquisitions, 
to the St. Petersburg Cons, of which he was 
director (1870-76). He wrote a concert 
overture, 2 string quartets, a piano trio, a 
cello sonata, some choral works and a 
Festival Polonaise for 2 pianos, as well as 
solo piano pieces. 

Azevedo (ah-ze-ve-doh'), Alexis- Jacob, 

French writer on music; b. Bordeaux, March 
18, 1813; d. Paris, Dec. 21, 1875. He was 
a prolific contributor to 'Le Menestrel' and 
other French music magazines; published 
monographs on Felicien David (1863) and 
Rossini ( 1 864 ) ; a pamphlet, La verite sur 
Rouget de Lisle et la Marseillaise (Dieppe, 
1864); La transposition par les nombres 
(Paris, 1874) ; a collection of articles Les 
doubles-croches malades (1874), etc. 

Azkue, Resurreccion Maria, Spanish com- 
poser and musicologist; b. Lequeitio, Aug. 
5, 1864; d. Bilbao, Nov. 9, 1951. He studied 
theology in Spain, then went to Paris and 
studied music at the Schola Cantorum. He 
wrote 2 operas: Ortzuri (Bilbao, 1911) and 
Urlo (Bilbao, 1913) to Basque texts; an 
oratorio Daniel and a Te Deum; also sev- 
eral zarzuelas. He published a valuable col- 
lection Cancionero Vasco (11 vols.) and 
Literatura popular del pais Vasco (4 vols., 
the last containing musical examples). 

Azzopardi, Francesco, Italian (Maltese) 
music theorist and composer; b. Rabat, 
Malta, May 5, 1748; d. there, Feb. 6, 1809. 
His fame rests on the school manual II mu- 
sico prattico (1760), published by Framery 
in French translation (Paris, 1786) and 
quoted by Cherubini in his course on 
counterpoint and fugue, and by Gretry. He 
also composed sacred music, including an 
oratorio La Passione di Cristo. Cf. P. 
Pullicino, Notizia biografica di Francesco 
Azzopardi (1876). 




Babbitt, Milton, American composer; b. 
Philadelphia, May 10, 1916. He studied at 
Princeton Univ. and in 1938 became an in- 
structor there; also taught mathematics. His 
music is couched in an abstract style; the 
titles of his works are indicative of this 
tendency: Composition for 4 instruments 
(1948); Composition for Viola and Piano 
(1950); Composition for 4 wood wind in- 
struments (1953), etc. In 1948 he adopted 
the 12-tone method of composition, expand- 
ing it into the domain of rhythm (12 basic 
rhythmic values in a theme) and into in- 
strumentation (themes of 12 notes played 
successively by 12 different instruments). 

Babin, Victor, pianist and composer; b. 
Moscow, Dec. 13, 1908; studied at the Riga 
Cons.; then with Schnabel in Berlin (1928- 
31). He married Vitya Vronsky (q.v.) on 
Aug. 31, 1933; they came to the U.S. in 
1937; have toured widely as a two-piano 
team. Babin has written a concerto for 2 
pianos and orch. and etudes for 2 pianos. 

Babini, Matteo, famous Italian tenor; b. 
Bologna, Feb. 19, 1754; d. there, Sept. 22, 
1816. He studied with Cortoni; made his 
debut in 1780; then toured England, Russia, 
Germany and Austria with great acclaim. 
He settled in Paris as a court favorite until 
the Revolution forced him to leave France; 
he was in Berlin in 1792 and in Trieste in 
1796. Brighenti published an 'Elogio' in his 
memory (Bologna, 1821). 

Babitz, Sol, American violinist; b. Brook- 
lyn, Oct. 11, 1911. He studied in Los An- 
geles; then in Berlin with Paul Juon and 
Carl Flesch. Returning to America he be- 
came violinist in the Los Angeles Philh. 
Orch. (1933-37). Since 1947 on the staff 
of the 20th Century-Fox Studios in Holly- 
wood; also teaching at the Los Angeles 
Cons. He has written numerous articles 
dealing with violin technique and edited 
many violin works by contemporary com- 

Bacarisse, Salvador, Spanish composer; b. 
Madrid, Sept. 12, 1898. He studied with 
Conrado del Campo at the Madrid Cons, 
and won three national prizes for music 
(1923, 1930, 1934). He was associated 
with the Loyalist Government during the 
Spanish Civil War, and after its defeat in 
1939, settled in France. He has written La 
Tragedia de Donna Ajada for orch. (1929) ; 
piano concerto (1933); Tres Movimientos 
Concertantes for string trio and orch. 
(1934); cantata, Por la Paz y Felicidad de 

las Naciones (1950); concerto for guitar 
and orch. (Paris, Oct. 22, 1953); 2 string 
quartets, piano pieces and songs. 

Baccaloni, Salvatore, Italian bass; b. 
Rome, April 14, 1900. He first studied to 
be an architect; then turned to singing; was 
engaged by Toscanini to sing at La Scala 
in Milan (1926); sang with the Chicago 
Opera during the season of 1930-31; be- 
came a member of the Metropolitan Opera 
in 1940, producing a fine impression as Bar- 
tolo in The Marriage of Figaro at his debut 
in Philadelphia (Dec. 3, 1940). He has 
specialized in comic roles, and his appear- 
ances in the Barber of Seville (as Bartolo) 
and in Falstaff were highly successful. His 
repertory is very large, comprising some 150 
roles in several languages. 

Bacchius (Senior), Greek theorist who 
flourished c. 350 A. D. His treatise, Isagoge 
musicae artis, was publ. by Mersenne 
(1623); with Latin translation and com- 
mentary by Morellus (1623); also by Mei- 
bom (1652) and Carl von Jan (with Ger- 
man translation and analysis in the Program 
of the Strasbourg Lyceum, 1890; Greek text 
alone in Jan's 'Scriptores,' 1895). French 
translations have been publ. by Mersenne 
(in Book I of his Harmonie universelle, 
1627) and Ruelle (1896). The work is a 
musical catechism in dialogue form. Another 
treatise attributed to Bacchius, having no 
dialogue, and edited by Bellermann (in Ger- 
man, 1841) and Vincent (in French, 1847) 
is not by Bacchius, but by his contemporary, 

Baccusi, Ippolito, Italian composer; b. 
Mantua, c. 1530; d. Verona, 1609. He 
served as maestro di cappella at Mantua 
cathedral (1587-92) and then at Verona 
cathedral. He publ. 3 masses (with instru- 
mental accompaniment in unison) in Ven- 
ice (1596) and several collections of other 
sacred works and madrigals. His music 
shows the influence of the Venetian school; 
his motets have considerable expressive 

Bacewicz, Grazyna, Polish composer, b. 
Lodz, Feb. 5, 1913. She studied violin and 
theory at the Warsaw Cons., and composi- 
tion with Nadia Boulanger in Paris. She 
gave concerts in France, Spain and Russia; 
taught at the Lodz Cons. (1934-35). She 
was in Paris again in 1939; after 1945 re- 
turned to her post in Poland at the Lodz 
Cons. In 1951 she received first prize for 
her 4th string quartet at the International 
Competition in Liege. A prolific composer, 
she writes in a neo-classical style, with a 



firm rhythmic pulse, in crisp dissonant 
harmonies (based on fourths and fifths). 
Her compositions include 4 symphonies; 4 
violin concertos; cello concerto; Overture 
(1946); piano concerto (1949; received 
Chopin Centennial award) ; concerto for 
string orch. (1950); piano quintet (1952); 
4 string quartets, 6 violin sonatas; many 
solo violin pieces. 

Bacfarc (or Bakfark, Bekwark, etc.), Val- 
entin, celebrated Hungarian lutenist; b. 
Kronstadt, 1507; d. Padua, Aug. 13, 1576. 
He was brought up by the family of his 
brother's wife, Greff (or Graew), and used 
that name in conjunction with his own. As 
a youth he was in the service of the King 
of Hungary in Buda, where he studied lute; 
evidence does not support the belief that he 
was a pupil of Antonio Rotta of Padua. He 
was later at the court of Sigismund Augus- 
tus of Poland (1549-66); traveled in Ger- 
many, France and Italy, eventually settling 
in Padua, where he died of the plague. He 
published works for the lute in tablature: 
Intabulatura (Lyons, 1552; reprinted as 
Premier Livre de Tablature de Luth, Paris 
1564); Harmonicarum Musicarum . . . 
Tomus Primus (Cracow, 1565) ; some of his 
works are printed in 'Denkmaler der Ton- 
kunst in Osterreich,' (vol. XVIII, 2). Bibl.: 
H. Opienski, Bekwark lutinista (Warsaw, 
1906; also in German as Valentin Greff- 
Bekwark, Leipzig, 1914) ; Otto Gombosi, 
Walenty Bakfark a Pologne in 'Muzyka' 
(Warsaw, Oct. 1929); id., Der Lautenist 
Valentin Bakfark, Leben und Werke (Buda- 
pest, 1935). 

Bach, Albert (real family name Bak), 
Hungarian singer; b. Gyula, March 24, 
1844; d. Edinburgh, Nov. 19, 1912. He 
studied at the Vienna Cons. ; gave^ his first 
concert there in 1871; continued his studies 
in Italy. He sang opera in Italy, Russia, 
Germany and England. In his recitals he 
always performed Loewe's songs. He was a 
member of the Loewe-Verein in Berlin and 
edited three volumes of Loewe's ballades 
with English translations; also published 
several papers on music. 

Bach, August Wilhelm, German organist; 
b. Berlin, Oct. 4, 1796; d. there April 15, 
1869. After a period of organ playing in 
churches and in concert, he became teacher 
and later director (1832) of the Royal 
Institute for Church Music in Berlin. Men- 
delssohn was his pupil in organ playing. 

Bach, Leonhard Emil, German pianist and 
composer; b. Posen, March 11, 1849; d. 
London, Feb. 15, 1902. He studied with 

Th. Kullak (piano) and with Kiel (theory) ; 
in 1869 became teacher at Kullak' s Acad- 
emy in Berlin. He settled in London; from 
1882 taught at the Guildhall School of 
Music. He wrote several short operas: 
Irmengard (London, 1892); The Lady of 
Longford (London, 1894) ; Des Konigs 
Garde (Cologne, 1895) which were fairly 
successful at their first productions. 

Bach is the name of the illustrious family 
which, during two centuries, supplied the 
world with a number of musicians and com- 
posers of distinction. History possesses few 
records of such remarkable examples of 
hereditary art, which culminated in Johann 

The genealogy of the family is traced 
to Johannes or Hans Bach, mentioned 
in 1561 as one of the guardians of the 
municipality of Wechmar, a little town near 
Gotha. Veit Bach (d. March 8, 1619), 
the presumed son of this Hans, and Caspar, 
a town-musician ('Stadtpfeifer') at Gotha, 
are the first of the family concerning whose 
musical tendencies we have any informa- 
tion. Veit was a baker by trade, and emi- 
grated to Hungary; returning to Wechmar, 
he settled there as a miller and baker. His 
chief recreation consisted in playing the 
zither. His son, Hans (b. c. 1580, d. Dec. 
26, 1626), was known as 'the minstrel' ('der 
Spielmann'), although he followed the sup- 
plementary occupation of carpet-weaver. He 
received instruction from the above-men- 
tioned Caspar, possibly his uncle. On num- 
erous occasions he was called to various 
places in Thuringia to assist the town-mu- 
sicians. His three sons Hans, Christoph 
and Heinrich, inherited his ability. (See 
W. Wolffheim, Hans Bach, der Spielmann, 
in 'Bach-Jahrbuch,' 1910.) The Bach gene- 
alogy mentions a second son of Veit, pre- 
sumably Lips Bach (d. Oct. 10, 1620), 
who had three sons, who were sent to Italy, 
by the Count of Schwarzburg-Arnstadt, to I 
study music. From Hans and Lips, the two 
sons of Veit, sprang the main branches of 
the Bach family, whose male members filled 
so many positions as 'Stadtpfeifer' through- 
out Thuringia, that, in some instances, even 
after there had ceased to be any member of 
the family among them, the town-musicians 
were known as 'the Bachs.' When the family 
became numerous and widely dispersed, they 
agreed to assemble on a fixed date each 
year. Erfurt, Eisenach and Arnstadt were 
the places chosen for these meetings, which 
are said to have continued until the middle 
of the 18th century, as many as 120 per- 
sons of the name of Bach then assembling. 
At these meetings, a cherished pastime was 



the singing of 'quodlibets,' comic poly- 
phonic potpourris of popular songs. An 
amusing example attributed to J. S. Bach, is 
publ. in ' Veroffentlichungen der Neuen 
Bach-Gesellschaft' (vol. XXXII, 2). 

Johann Sebastian was very interested in 
the history of his family. A collection of 
notes on members of the family, entitled 
Ursprung der musikalisch-Bachischen Fa- 
milie, and known as 'the genealogy,' was, ac- 
cording to Karl Philipp Emanuel, who made 
additions to the copy preserved (written in 
1735), started by Johann Sebastian. This 
'genealogy' is reproduced in 'Veroffent- 
lichungen der Neuen Bach-Gesellschaft' 
(vol. XVII, 3). It has also been edited 
and translated by C. S. Terry as The Ori- 
gin of the Family of Bach Musicians (Ox- 
ford, 1929). 

A valuable collection of compositions by 
Hans Bach (1), his sons and grandsons, 
possibly also begun by J. S. Bach, is partly 
preserved. The remainders of this collection 
were edited by M. Schneider as 'Altbach- 
isches Archiv' in Das Erbe deutscher Musik, 
Reichsdenkmale (vols. I and II, Breitkopf 
& Hartel, 1935). See also Die Familie Bach, 
a collection of excerpts from works by 12 
Bachs, edited by Karl Geiringer (Vienna, 
1936); also his books The Bach Family 
(N. Y., 1954) and Music of the Bach Family 
(Cambridge, Mass., 1955). 

The principal members of the Bach fam- 
ily are enumerated below, in alphabetical 
order, with their list numbers according to 
the family tree. 

2. Christoph 

5. Georg Christoph 
1. Hans 

3. Heinrich 

6. Johann Ambrosius 

10. Johann Bernhard 

19. johann Christian 

8. Johann Christoph 

7. Johann Christoph 

11. Johann Christoph 

18. Johann Christoph Friedrich 

4. Johann Egidius 

15. Johann Ernst 
14. johann Ludwig 

9. Johann Michael 
13. johann Nikolaus 

12. johann Sebastian 

17. Karl Philipp Emanuel 

16. Wilhelm Friedemann 

20. Wilhelm Friedrich Ernst 

1. Bach, Hans (eldest son of Hans, the 
'Spielmann'), b. Wechmar, Nov. 26, 1604; 
d. Erfurt, May 13, 1673. Apprentice to an 
organist at Suhl; then organist at Schwein- 
furt. In 1635, director of the 'Raths-Musik- 

anten' of Erfurt; 1647, also organist of an 
Erfurt church. 3 of his works are in the 
Bach Archives. 

2. Bach, Christoph (2nd son of Hans, and 
grandfather of Johann Sebastian), b. Wech- 
mar, April 19, 1613; d. Arnstadt, Sept. 12, 
1661; instrumentalist, serving as town-mu- 
sician at Weimar, Erfurt and Arnstadt. No 
compositions by him seem to be preserved. 

3. Bach, Heinrich (3rd son of Hans), b. 
Wechmar, Sept. 16, 1615; d. Arnstadt, July 
10, 1692. From 1641, organist at Arnstadt 
for 51 years. M. Schneider publ. a thematic 
index of his works in 'Bach-Jahrbuch' (1907, 
pp. 105-9). A cantata of his is found in the 
Bach Archives. 

4. Bach, Johann Egidius (2nd son of 
Hans, 1), b. Erfurt, Feb. 9, 1645; d. there, 
1716. Succeeded his father as municipal mu- 
sic director; was organist of an Erfurt 

5. Bach, Georg Christoph (eldest son of 
Christoph, 2), b. Eisenach, Sept. 6, 1642; d. 
April 24, 1697, at Schweinfurt, where he 
was cantor. A cantata is in the Bach Archives. 

6. Bach, Johann Ambrosius (2nd son of 
Christoph, 2), father of Johann Sebastian, 
b. Erfurt, Feb. 22, 1645; d. Eisenach, Feb. 
20, 1695. (Exact date of death is found in 
his widow's petition for support, 'Bach 
Jahrbuch,' 1927.) At the age of nine, he 
was taken to Arnstadt where he was trained 
as a town piper ( 'Stadtpfeifer' ) . In 1667 he 
was engaged at Erfurt to play the viola 
('Altgeige') in the town band; in 1671, he 
moved to Eisenach, where he was active 
as town-musician. He was married twice: 
on April 8, 1668, to Elisabeth Lammerhirt 
(b. Feb. 24, 1644; d. May 3, 1694), who 
was the mother of Johann Sebastian; and 
on Nov. 27, 1694 to the widow of his cousin, 
Johann Giinther Bach. Bibl.: F. Rollberg, 
/. A. Bach in 'Bach Jahrbuch' (1927). 

7. Bach, Johann Christoph, twin brother 
of Johann Ambrosius; b. Erfurt, Feb. 22, 
1645; d. Arnstadt, Aug. 25, 1693. He en- 
tered the town service at Arnstadt as 'Stadt- 
pfeifer' in 1671. The physical resemblance 
between him and his twin brother (father 
of Johann Sebastian) was such that, ac- 
cording to the testimony of Ph. Emanuel 
Bach, even their wives had difficulty disting- 
uishing between them. 

8. Bach, Johann Christoph (eldest son of 
Heinrich, 3), organist and instrumental 
and vocal composer of the highest rank 
among the earlier Bachs; b. Arnstadt, Dec. 
8, 1642; d. Eisenach, March 31, 1703. 



From 1665, town organist of Eisenach; from 
1700, court musician. A thematic catalogue 
of his compositions was publ. by M. Schnei- 
der in 'Bach-Jahrbuch' (1907, pp. 132-77). 
K. Ph. E. Bach described him as a 'great 
and expressive composer'; his works are 
printed in the Bach Archives and separate 
editions; several of his motets were publ. 
by V. Junk (Breitkopf & Hartel, 1922) ; his 
Chorale zum Praeambulieren by M. Fischer 
('Barenreiter-Verlag,' 1929). Cf. F. Roll- 
berg, Johann Christoph Bach, in 'Zeitschrift 
fur Musikwissenschaft' (vol. XI, pp. 549- 
61); M. Fischer, Die organistische Improvi- 
sation . . ., in 'Konigsberger Studien zur 
Musikwissenschaft' (1919). 

9. Bach, Johann Michael, brother of the 
preceding Bach, and father of Maria Bar- 
bara, first wife of Johann Sebastian; b. Arn- 
stadt, Aug. 9, 1648; d. Gehren, May 1694. 
Organist and town clerk of Gehren from 
1673; also maker of clavichords, violins, etc. 
His works are listed in 'Bach-Jahrbuch' 
(1907, pp. 109-32); many of them are in- 
cluded in the Bach Archives; also repre- 
sented by motets publ. in 'Denkmaler 
deutscher Tonkunst' (vols. 49-50). Organ 
compositions are found in Das Erbe deutsch- 
er Musik, Reichsdenkmale (vol. IX). A pub- 
lished work consisting of sonatas for 2 
groups of instruments is not preserved. 

10. Bach, Johann Bernhard (son of 
Johann Egidius, 4), organist and organ com- 
poser, one of the best of his generation; b. 
Erfurt, Nov. 23, 1676; d. Eisenach, June 11, 

1749. Organist at Erfurt, Magdeburg, and 
the successor of Johann Christoph (8), at 
Eisenach (1703); also served the Duke of 
Saxe-Eisenach. He wrote harpsichord pieces; 
several organ-chorales, a few of which are 
published; and 4 orchestral suites, one of 
which was published by A. Fareanu (1920). 

11. Bach, Johann Christoph (brother of 
Johann Sebastian, and eldest son of Johann 
Ambrosius, 6), b. Erfurt, June 16, 1671; d. 
Ohrdruf, Feb. 22, 1721. He was a pupil of 
Pachelbel; then organist at Erfurt, for a 
short time at Arnstadt, and finally at Ohr- 
druf, where Johann Sebastian stayed with 
him for almost five years. 

12. Bach, Johann Sebastian, the most 
famous of the family, and one of the great 
masters of music; b. Eisenach, March 21 
(bapt. March 23), 1685; d. Leipzig, July 28, 

1750. He first learned the violin from his 
father (Joh. Ambrosius [6]). His mother, 
Elisabeth, nee Lammerhirt, was a native of 
Erfurt. Both parents dying in his tenth year, 
he went to Ohrdruf to live with his brother, 

Johann Christoph [11], who taught him to 
play on keyboard instruments; but the boy's 
genius soon outstripped his brother's skill, 
and, if we may trust the somewhat fanciful 
tale first appearing in the 'Nekrolog', led to 
somewhat harsh treatment by the latter. Un- 
able to obtain the loan of a MS. volume of 
works by composers of the day, Sebastian 
secretly obtained possession of the work, and, 
by the light of the moon, painfully and la- 
boriously copied the music within six 
months, only to have it taken from him, 
when his brother accidentally found him 
practicing from it. He recovered it only after 
his brother's death. 

In 1700 J. S. went to Liineburg with a fel- 
low-student named Erdmann, and both were 
admitted as choristers at St. Michael's 
Church, also receiving gratuitous scholastic 
education. The fame of the family had pre- 
ceded Sebastian, for in the choice collec- 
tions of printed and MS. music of the 
church were to be found the compositions of 
Heinrich [3] and J. Christoph Bach [8]. A 
fellow-Thuringian, Georg B6hm, was the or- 
ganist of St. John's Church, and Bach at- 
tentively studied his compositions. He also 
went, occasionally, on foot to Hamburg to 
hear the famous old organist, J. A. Reinken, 
and to Celle, where the court music adhered 
completely to the French style. 

In 1703 Bach became violinist in the orch. 
of a brother of the Duke of Saxe-Weimar, 
but the following year left the post for the 
more congenial one of organist of the new 
church at Arnstadt. In 1705 he obtained , 
leave of absence, and walked to Liibeck, to 
make the acquaintance of the famous organ- 
ist Dietrich Buxtehude. He was so impressed 
with this master's work that he trebled his 
leave of absence, and returned only after a ; 
peremptory summons from the church con- 
sistory of Arnstadt. In 1707, Bach accepted 
the appointment as organist of St. Blasius' 
Church at Muhlhausen. On Oct. 17 he mar- 
ried his cousin Maria Barbara Bach, daughter 
of Johann Michael [9]. The following year 
he went to Weimar, played before the reign- \ 
ing duke, and was offered the post of court 
organist and 'Kammermusicus'. In 1714 he 
was made 'Concertmeister'. A considerable 
series of compositions and arrangements, es- li 
pecially for organ, date from his Weimar 
period. Almost annually he made tours as an 
organ inspector and virtuoso. In 1714 he 
visited Kassel, Halle and Leipzig (where he 
furnished the music for a service in the 
Thomaskirche, including a cantata), Halle 
again in 1716, and Dresden in 1717. In [j 
this town his challenge to J. L. Marchand, a 
French clavecinist and organist of high repu- 



tation, was evaded by the latter's failure to 
appear. In 1717 Bach was app. Kapell- 
meister and director of the 'Kammermusik' 
to Prince Leopold of Anhalt, at Cothen, and 
this period is especially rich in the produc- 
tion of orchestral and chamber music. In 
1718 he revisited Halle, hoping to meet 
Handel; but the latter had just left for Eng- 
land. In 1720, during his absence at Carls- 
bad, his wife died suddenly. In November 
of the same year he applied, though (owing 
to bribery) without success, for the organist- 
ship of the Jacobikirche, Hamburg. Here he 
again met the aged Reinken, whose admir- 
ation he excited by his brilliant playing. In 
1721 he married his second wife Anna 
Magdalena Wiilken, a daughter of a court 
trumpeter at Weissenfels. Thirteen children 
were born to them. Of highly-cultured musi- 
cal taste, she participated in his labors, and 
wrote out the parts of many of his cantatas. 
She also left 2 books of music in which her 
own hand appears as well as her husband's. 
In May, 1723 Bach succeeded Johann 
Kuhnau. as cantor at the Thomasschule, 
Leipzig, becoming also organist and director 
of music at the two principal churches, the 
Thomaskirche and the Nicolaikirche, and 
continuing in the service of Prince Leopold 
of Anhalt as 'Kapellmeister von Haus aus.' 
He further received the appointment of 
honorary Kapellmeister to the Duke of Weis- 
senfels, and in 1736, that of court composer 
to the King of Poland, Elector of Saxony. 
He remained in his post at Leipzig for 27 
years, and there composed most of his re- 
ligious music. Several times, he visited Dres- 
den, where his eldest son, Wilhelm Friede- 
mann, was appointed in 1733 organist of the 
Sophienkirche. On these occasions he at- 
tended the Italian opera, then conducted by 
Hasse. His second son, Karl Philipp Emanuel, 
was appointed in 1740 chamber musician to 
Frederick II of Prussia. He communicated 
to his father the king's oft-expressed wish 
to see and hear him; and on May 7, 1747, 
with his son Wilhelm Friedemann, Bach 
arrived at Potsdam. Here at the king's 
request, he improvised upon the various 
Silbermann pianos in the different rooms of 
the palace, to the admiration of his royal 
host, and of the musicians who followed 
them from room to room. Among Bach's 
improvisations was a fugue, presumably in 3 
parts, on a theme proposed by the king, and 
a fugue in 6 parts on a theme by Bach him- 
self. The next day Bach tried also the prin- 
cipal organs in Potsdam. On his return to 
Leipzig he used the king's theme for a 
Ricercare in 3 parts, a Ricercare in 6 parts, 
a series of ten canons and a Trio for flute, 

violin and basso continuo, dedicating the 
whole to Frederick as a Musikalisches Opfer. 
Bach was nearsighted from childhood, and 
later his eyes showed symptoms of weakness; 
in 1749 an unsuccessful operation resulted 
in total blindness, and his hitherto robust 
health also declined. His sight was suddenly 
restored on July 18, 1750; but immediately 
afterwards he was stricken by apoplexy, and 
ten days later he died. He worked to the 
end, dictating the chorale prelude Vor 
deinen Thron tret' ich hiermit, his last com- 
position, a few days before his death. 

Clearness and acuteness of intellect, 
strength of will, a love of order, and a high 
sense of duty, were Bach's leading charac- 
teristics. His home life was always of the 
happiest. Among the long list of his disting- 
uished pupils were Johann Friedrich Agri- 
cola, Johann Christoph Altnikol, Heinrich 
Nikolaus Gerber, Johann Theophilus Gold- 
berg, Gottfried August Homilius, Philipp 
Kirnberger, Johann Christian Kittel, Johann 
Tobias Krebs and his son Johann Ludwig; 
also his own sons Wilhelm Friedemann, Karl 
Philipp Emanuel and Johann Christoph 
Friedrich, and his nephew Bernhard, son of 
Johann Christoph [11]. Many of Bach's 
works were written with educational intent, 
among them the 2- and 3 -part inventions 
which first appear in the Clavierbuchlein fiir 
Wilhelm Friedemann Bach (now at Yale 
Univ.). Only a small number of works were 
publ. during Bach's life; among them are 
4 parts of the Clavieriibung, including 6 
Partitas, Overture in the French manner 
and the Italian Concerto; music for organ; 
the Goldberg Variations; Musical Offering; 
Canonic Variations upon Vom Himmel hoch; 
and six chorale preludes. A few pages of 
these publications were evidently engraved 
by Bach himself. (See G. Kinsky, Die Origi- 
nalausgaben der Werke J. S. Bachs, 1937.) 

Bach invented the 'viola pomposa' (a vi- 
ola, or rather violoncello with 5 strings 
tuned C G D A E) and a certain type of 
'Lauten-Clavicymbel' (a harpsichord, mostly 
with catgut strings). He promoted the adop- 
tion of the tempered system of tuning key- 
board instruments; and introduced the style 
of fingering which, with comparatively few 
modifications, is still in use. 

Bach's compositions mark an epoch. His 
originality and fecundity of thematic inven- 
tion are astounding; the mastery of his poly- 
phonic art remains a marvel of the ages. His 
style is elevated, and of sustained harmony; 
the momentum of his grand fugues is inex- 
orable as the march of Fate. Bach's import- 
ance was but meagerly appreciated by his 
contemporaries, and for half a century after 



his death he was practically ignored. Some 
works were then occasionally performed, or 
even published; but Mendelssohn, by a per- 
formance of the St. Matthew Passion at Ber- 
lin, in 1829, first drew general attention to 
the great value of Bach's music. The centen- 
ary of Bach's death (1850) was marked by 
the formation, at Leipzig, of the 'Bach- 
Gesellschaft,' a society founded by K. F. 
Becker, M. Hauptmann, O. Jahn, R. Schu- 
mann and the publishers Hartel, in order 
to publish a complete edition of Bach's 
works. When the purpose of this society had 
been fulfilled, a 'Neue Bach-Gesellschaft' was 
founded in 1900. It seeks to popularize 
Bach's works through Bach festivals, the 
'Bach-Jahrbuch' (begun 1904) and practical 
editions. A 'Bach-Society' was active in Lon- 
don from 1849 to 1870; numerous 'Bach 
Vereine' and similar institutions aiming at 
the cultivation and production of Bach's 
music existed, or exist, in many European 
and American cities. The most famous of 
such societies in the U. S. is the 'Bach 
Choir' at Bethlehem, Pa. (See R. Walters, 
Bach at Bethlehem, Pa., in the 'Mus. Quart.' 
April 1935). 

WORKS: Vocal: Bach wrote 5 sets of 
sacred compositions for every Sunday and 
feast-day of the year, and not less than 5 
Passions. Many of these works are lost. We 
have approximately 190 sacred 'concertos' or 
'cantatas' (now all called cantatas) ; the St. 
Matthew and St. John Passions (the St. 
Luke is probably spurious) ; 'oratorios' for 
Christmas, Easter and Ascension (the latter 
known as Cantata No. 11) ; 2 Magnificats; a 
Grand Mass in B m. ; several short masses; 
5 Sanctus; motets; vocal works written for 
special occasions, e.g., the 'motetto' Gott ist 
mein Konig (written for the inauguration 
of the new council members of Miihlhausen 
in 1708; the only one among the works now 
called cantatas which was printed during 
Bach's life) and the Tombeau de S. M., la 
Reine de Pologne; many secular cantatas, 
including the Dramma per musica, Der 
Streit zwischen Phoebus und Pan, the 'Cof- 
fee' Cantata and the Cantate en burlesque, 
known as the 'Peasant' Cantata. — Instru- 
mental: Numerous pieces for organ, includ- 
ing a collection of chorale settings entitled 
Orgelbuchlein; many other chorale fantasias, 
preludes and fugues, toccatas; a set of 6 
'trios' ; Passacaglia, Canzona and Pastorale ; 
numerous pieces for keyboard instruments, 
(mostly for harpsichord or clavichord; a few 
definitely require a harpsichord with 2 key- 
boards), including the 2 collections of 24 
Preludes and Fugues in all keys entitled Das 
Wohltemperierte Klavier (i.e., the well- 

tempered keyboard; the common translation, 
'clavichord', is wrong), the series of 15 In- 
ventions and 15 'Sinfonias' (now known as 
3-part inventions), the 6 English suites, the 
secular works contained in the Clavieriibung, 
a number of suites, S of which became 
known as French suites, toccatas and various 
other works. — Among Bach's chamber-music 
works are a number for obbligato harpsichord 
and another instrument (violin, flute, or vi- 
ola da gamba) ; a set of 6 suites for cello 
alone; a set of 3 sonatas and 3 partitas for 
violin alone. He dedicated a set of 6 'Con- 
certos pour plusieurs instruments' to a Mar- 
grave of Brandenburg, whence they became 
known as Brandenburg Concertos. He wrote 
4 'overtures' or orchestral suites, concertos 
for 1 and 2 violins, violin and oboe, violin, 
flute and harpsichord, and for from 1 to 3 
harpsichords; also a concerto for 4 harpsi- 
chords which is an arrangement of a work 
by Vivaldi. 

The monumental edition of Bach's works, 
published by the 'Bach-Gesellschaft', is in 47 
volumes, including a volume of facsimile re- 
productions of original MS. pages. Bach's 
instrumental works were also completely 
publ. by C. F. Peters. There are innumer- 
able reprints of many of his works. Deserv- 
ing of special mention are the following: the 
edition of organ works, by C. M. Widor 
and A. Schweitzer with voluminous notes 
and directions for playing (G. Schirmer) ; 
that of the Well-tempered Clavier, in score, 
annotated by F. Stade (Steingraber) ; the 
Kunst der Fuge by H. T. David (Peters, 
1928); the same work by Roy Harris and 
M. D. Herter Norton (G. Schirmer, N. Y., 
1936) ; and Bach's 4-part chorales by C. S. 
Terry (5 vols., London, 1929). The 'Gold- 
berg Variations' have been published in an 
edition by Ralph Kirkpatrick (G. Schirmer, 
NY., 1938). 

Several works, including the St. Matthew 
Passion, the cantatas Ach Herr, mich armen 
Sunder, Ich will den Kreuzstab gerne tragen, 
the 'Coffee' Cantata, and Prelude and Fugue 
in B m, for organ, are publ. in facsimile re- 
production of the original MSS. 

A thematic catalogue of Bach's instru- 
mental works was publ. by A. Dorffel in 
1882, one of his vocal works by C. Tamme 
in 1890. A thematic index to 120 cantatas 
is included in vol. 27 of the 'Bach-Gesell- 
schaft' ed., such an index to Bach's other 
works in vol. 46 of the same edition. A val- 
uable systematic Melodic Index to the Works 
of J. S. Bach was publ. by May de Forest 
Payne (N. Y., 1938). A complete thematic 
catalogue of Bach's works was drawn up by 
W. Schmieder : Thematisch - systematisch 



Verzeichnis der musikalischen Werke von 
Johann Sebastian Bach (Leipzig, 1950). 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. — A. Biographical: 
Bach's earliest biographers were his son, K. P. 
E. Bach, and J. F. Agricola in Mizler's 'Mu- 
sikalische Bibliothek' (Leipzig, 1754; reprint 
in 'Bach-Tahrbuch,' 1920, pp. 13-29); J. N. 
Forkel, Uber J. S. Bachs Leben, Kunst und 
Kunstwerke (a very lively account of Bach's 
career, and an invaluable source; Leipzig, 
1802; Engl, transl., London, 1820; transl. 
with notes by C. S. Terry, 1920); C. L. 
Hilgenfeldt, Bachs Leben, Wirken und 
Werke (Leipzig, 1850) ; C. H. Bitter, /. S. 
Bach (2 vols., Berlin, 1865; 2nd ed., 4 vols., 
1880); Ph. Spitta, /. S. Bach (the standard 
work on Bach's life and work, and one of 
the masterpieces of musical biography; 2 
vols., Leipzig, 1873-80; rigidly shortened ed. 
in 1 vol., ib., 1935; Engl, transl. by C. Bell 
and J. A. Fuller Maitland, 3 vols., with 
many additions, London, 1884-5; 2nd ed., 
1899; reissued, N. Y., 1951). There are 
numerous other biographies of Bach, all 
based on Spitta. Most widely known is A. 
Schweitzer's book, originally publ. as /. S. 
Bach, le musicien-poete (Paris, 1905; augm. 
German editions, 1908, 1915; English transl. 
by E. Newman, 2 vols., London, 1911; new 
Engl, ed., 1923). Other biographies in Eng- 
lish: R. L. Poole, /. S. Bach (London, 1882; 
2nd ed., 1890); C. F. Abdy Williams, 
Bach (ib., 1900; rev. ed., 1934); C. H. H. 
Parry, /. S. Bach: The Story of the Devel- 
opment of a Great Personality (N. Y. and 
London, 1909; new ed., 1934); Rutland 
Boughton, Bach, the Master. A New Inter- 
pretation of His Genius (N. Y. and Lon- 
don, 1930) ; T. Scott Buhrmann, Bach's Life 
Chronologically as he lived it (illustr. 
chronological tables; N. Y., 1935); H. T. 
David and A. Mendel, The Bach Reader, a 
life of Bach in letters and documents (N. Y., 
1945); K. Geiringer, The Bach Family, 
(N. Y., 1954). A work based on original re- 
search is G. S. Terry's Bach, a Biography 
(the finest and most thorough description 
of Bach's life; London, 1928; new ed., 1933; 
Ger. ed., prefaced by K. Straube, Leipzig, 
1929). Of German biographies the following 
deserve mention: Ph. Wolfrum, /. S. Bach, 
(2 vols., Leipzig, 1910); H. Kretzschmar, 
Bach-Kolleg (ib., 1922; Ital. transl., 1935); 
R. Steglich, /. S. Bach (Potsdam, 1935; 
richly illustr.) ; H. J. Moser, Bach (Berlin, 
1935) ; W. Gurlitt, Bach (ib., 1935) ; H. and 
E. H. Miiller von Asow, /. S. Bachs Briefe 
(Regensburg, 1950). Biographies in French: 
A. Pirro, Bach (Paris, 1906); T. Gerold, 
Bach (ib., 1925); J. Tiersot, Bach (ib., 
1934); P. Collaer, Bach (Brussels, 1936); 

W. Cart, /. S. Bach (Lausanne, 1946). Of 
special interest are W. Dahms, /. S. Bach, 
Ein Bild seines Lebens (a collection of 
original documents; Munich, 1924) and W. 
Hitzig's /. S. Bach, Sein Leben in Bildern 
(Leipzig, 1935). See also W. His, /. S. 
Bach, Forschungen uber dessen Grabstdtte, 
Gebeine und Antlitz (Leipzig, 1895; deal- 
ing with the state of Bach's remains and 
his grave, including striking photographs of 
Bach's skull at the time of his exhumation 
and reinterment). 

B. Critical, Analytical: F. Rochlitz, 
Wege zu Bach (ed. from 'Fur Freunde der 
Tonkunst', Leipzig, 1824-37, by J. M. Miil- 
ler-Blattau, Augsburg, 1926); A. Pirro, 
L'esthetique de J. S. Bach (Paris, 1907); 
E. Kurth, Grundlagen des linearen Kontra- 
punkts. Einfiihrung in Stil und Technik von 
Bachs melodischer Polyphonie (Berlin, 
1917); C. S. Terry, Bach: The Historical 
Approach (London, 1930) ; id., The Music 
of Bach (ib., 1933); A. E. F. Dickinson, 
The Art of J. S. Bach (ib., 1936).— M. 
Hauptmann, Erlduterungen in J. S. Bachs 
Kunst der Fuge (Leipzig, 1841); H. Rie- 
mann, Handbuch der Fugenkomposition 
(vols. I and II, analysis of Das wohltemper- 
ierte Klavier [Berlin, 1890-91; 3rd ed., 
1914; Engl, transl. by J. S. Shedlock, 2 vols., 
London, 1893, several eds.]; vol. Ill, analy- 
sis of the Kunst der Fuge [Berlin, 1894; 3rd 
ed., 1921]); F. Iliffe, The 48 Preludes and 
Fugues of J. S. Bach (London, 1897); W. 
Werker, Bachstudien (2 vols., Leipzig, 
1922); D. F. Tovey, A Companion to the 
Art of Fugue (London, 1931); also various 
vols, of the 'Musical Pilgrim Series'. — R. 
Wustmann, /. S. Bachs Kantatentexte 
(Leipzig, 1913) ; C. S. Terry, Bach's Chorals 
(3 vols., Cambridge, 1915, 1917, 1921) ; id.,/. 
S. Bach's Original Hymn-Tunes for Congre- 
gational Use (1922) ; id., Bach's Mass in B 
minor; id., A Bach Hymnbook of 16th-cen- 
tury Melodies ( 1923) ; W.G. Whittaker, Fugi- 
tive Notes on Certain Cantatas and the Mo- 
tets ofJ.S. Bach (London, 1924) ; C. S. Terry, 
/. S. Bach's Cantata Texts, Sacred and Sec- 
ular (ib., 1926) ; id., Bach's Four-Part Chor- 
als (complete ed., with German and English 
words, 1928) ; A. Eaglefield Hull, Bach's Or- 
gan Works (London, 1929); C. S. Terry, 
Bach's Orchestra (London, 1932); Cecil 
Gray, Bach's 'Forty-Eight' (ib., 1937) ; H. T. 
David, Zu Bachs Kunst der Fuge (Peters 
Jahrbuch, 1928) ; H. T. David, Zur Gesamt- 
gestalt von Bachs H-moll Messe ('Festschrift 
fiir Johannes Wolf, 1929); J. Schreyer, 
Beitrdge zur Bach-Kritik (2 vols., Leipzig, 
1911-13); H. E. Huggler, /. S. Bachs Or- 
gelbuchlein (Bern, 1930) ; L. Landshoff, 



Urtextausgabe der Inventionen und Sin- 
fonien J. S. Backs (Leipzig, 1933; with 
Revisionsbericht) ; G. Herz, /. S. Bach im 
Zeitalter des Rationalismus und der Fruhro- 
mantik (Wiirzburg, 1935) ; L. Landshoff, 
Musikalisches Opfer (Leipzig, 1936); A. 
Schering, /. S. Backs Leipziger Kirchenmusik 
(ib. 1936); E. Thiele, Die Chorfugen J. S. 
Backs (Bern, 1936); A. Schering, Das Zeit- 
alter J. S. Backs und Johann Adam Hillers 
(Leipzig, 1940); H. Rutters, /. S. Bach en 
onze tijd (Amsterdam, 1941); H. T. David, 
/. S. Bach's Musical Offering (N. Y., 1945) ; 
Marie M. Meyer, /. P. Rameau; J. S. Bach 
(Chambery, 1946) ; N. Dufourcq, /. S. Bach, 
le maitre de I'orgue (Paris, 1948) ; H. Bes- 
seler and G. Kraft, /. S. Bach in Thuringen 
(Weimar, 1950); A. Diirr, Studien tiber die 
friihen Kantaten J. S. Bachs (Leipzig, 
1951) ; F. Hamel, /. S. Bach: Geistige Welt 
(Gottingen, 1951); Paul Hindemith, /. S. 
Bach (N.Y., 1952); F. Rothschild, The Lost 
Tradition in Music: Rhythm and Tempo 
in J. S. Bach's Time (N. Y., 1953); many 
special studies in the 'Bach-Jahrbuch.' 

13. Bach, Johann Nikolaus (eldest son of 
Johann Christoph, 8), b. Eisenach, Oct. 10, 
1669; d. there, Nov. 4, 1753. In 1695, ap- 
pointed organist of the city and university 
at Jena. He was an expert on organ-build- 
ing and also made keyboard instruments for 
secular use, especially lute-clavicymbals. J. 
Adlung highly praises him. Works: A fine 
Missa (Kyrie and Gloria), edited by A. 
Fareanu and V. Junk (Breitkopf & Hartel, 
1920); a comic cantata, Der Jenaische 
Wein- und Bier-Rufer, a scene from Jena 
college life (ed. by F. Stein, 1920); suites 
for a keyboard instrument, which are not 
preserved, and organ chorales, of which only 
one is known. 

14. Bach, Johann Ludwig (son of Jakob, 
a grandson of Lips, and cantor at Steinbach 
and Ruhle), b. Steinbach, 1677; d. 1741; 
was Court Kapellmeister at Saxe-Meiningen. 

15. Bach, Johann Ernst (only son of 
Johann Bernhard, 10), b. Eisenach, Sept. 1, 
1722; d. there, Jan. 28, 1777. Attended the 
Thomasschule and then the Leipzig Univ. 
He studied law, and, after his return to 
Eisenach, practiced as advocate. In 1748 he 
was appointed assistant, and then successor, 
to his father, organist of St. George's 
Church; 1756, appointed Kapellmeister at 
Weimar. Publ. a 'Sammlung auserlesener 
Fabeln mit Melodeyen' (ed. by H. Kretzsch- 
mar in 'Denkmaler deutscher Tonkunst,' 
vol. 42) and other works; prefaced one of 
J. Adlung's books, and left a number of 
compositions in manuscript. 

16. Bach, Wilhelm Friedemann ('Bach of 
Halle'), eldest son of J. Sebastian; b. Wei- 
mar, Nov. 22, 1710; d. Berlin, July 1, 1784. 
Pupil of his father and, at 15 years of age, 
J. G. Graun at Merseburg. Also studied at 
the Thomasschule, and at the Univ. of Leip- 
zig, taking courses, among others, in math- 
ematics. Organist of the Sophienkirche, 
Dresden (1733-47); and at the Marien- 
kirche, Halle (1747-64). A composer of 
superior gifts, he unfortunately gave way to 
dissipation, lost his positions, and died in 
misery. An edition of selected works was 
started by the Abteilung fur Musik der 
Preussischen Akademie der Kiinste; vol. I 
contains 4 trios (Leipzig, 1934). Among 
other compositions available in modern edi- 
tions are an impressive Sinfonia ('Wunder- 
horn Verlag,' 1910) and a collection of 
fugues and polonaises edited by W. Niemann 
(1914); also, piano compositions in Die 
Sohne Backs, ed. by W. Rehberg (1933); 
three excerpts in Karl Geiringer, Music of 
the Bach Family (Cambridge, Mass., 1955). 
Cf. K. H. Bitter, K. P. E. Bach und W. 
Friedemann Bach und der en Briider (2 
vols., Berlin, 1868); M. Falck, W. F. Bach; 
sein Leben und seine Werke (Leipzig, 1913) ; 
K. Stabenow, /. S. Bachs Sohn (Leipzig, 
1935) ; K. Geiringer, The Bach Family 
(N. Y, 1954). 

17. Bach, Karl Phllipp Emanuel (the Ber- 
lin or Hamburg Bach), 3rd (and 2nd surviv- 
ing) son of J. Sebastian; b. Weimar, March 
8, 1714; d. Hamburg, Dec. 14, 1788. He 
studied philosophy and law at Leipzig and 
Frankfurt-on-the-Oder; but the inherited 
passion for music, and completeness of mu- 
sical study under his father, decided his pro- 
fession. He conducted a singing society at 
Frankfurt, for which he also composed. In 
1738 he went to Berlin, and, in 1740, was 
appointed chamber musician and clavecinist 
to Frederick the Great. In 1767 he went 
to Hamburg, succeeding Telemann as 'Mu- 
sikdirector' of the principal church there, a 
position he held until death. He was one 
of the most brilliant performers of his day, 
creator of the modern expressive school of 
piano writing, and the outstanding master 
of 'Empfindsamkeit' (intimate expressive- 
ness), the North German counterpart of the 
rococo; his work was of great significance in 
the establishment of the style as well as the 
forms of the classical school; Haydn and 
Mozart were indebted to him. His Versuch 
ilber die wahre Art, das Clavier zu spielen 
(2 parts, 1753-62, clumsily reedited by 
Schelling in 1857; new, but not complete, 
ed. by W. Niemann, 1906) is an important 
theoretical work and yields much informa- 



tion about musical practice of the time. An 
English translation of the Versuch . . ., en- 
titled Essay on the True Art of Playing Key- 
board Instruments, was made by W. J. 
Mitchell (N. Y., 1948). His compositions 
are voluminous (thematic list by A. Wot- 
quenne, Leipzig, 1905); for clavier they 
comprise 210 solo pieces; 52 concertos with 
orch. ; quartets; trios, duets; also 18 orches- 
tral symphonies; 34 miscellaneous pieces for 
wind instruments; trios for flute, violin and 
bass; flute, oboe, cello concertos; soli for 
flute, viola da gamba, oboe, cello, harp; 
duets for flute and violin; for 2 violins; 
also for clarinets. Vocal works: 2 oratorios, 
Die Israeliten in der Wiiste, and Die Aufer- 
stehung und Himmelfahrt Jesu; 22 Passions; 
cantatas; etc. Reprints of sonatas for clavier 
have been edited by Bulow, C. F. Baumgart 
('fur Kenner und Liebhaber', 6 vols.), H. 
Schenker (9 sonatas), R. Steglich and others. 
There are also reprints of concertos and 
chamber music works. Bibl.: K. H. Bitter, 
K. P. E. Bach und W. Friedemann Bach 
und der en Briider (2 vols., Berlin, 1868); 
M. Fleuler, Die norddeutsche Symphonie zur 
Zeit Friedrichs des Grossen, und besonders 
die Werke Ph. E. Bachs (Berlin, 1908); O. 
Vrieslander, K. P. E. Bach (Munich, 1923) ; 
H. Wien-Claudi, Zum Liedschaffen K. P. E. 
Bachs (Reichenberg, 1928); H. Miesner, P. 
E. Bach in Hamburg (Leipzig, 1929) ; E. F. 
Schmid, K. P. E. Bach und seine Kammer- 
musik (Kassel, 1931). See also H. Schenker, 
Ein Beitrag zur Ornamentik; Als Einfiihrung 
zu P. E. Bachs Klavierwerke (Vienna, 
1904); Karl Geiringer, The Bach Family 
(N.Y., 1954). K. P. E. Bach's Autobiog- 
raphy was reprinted by Willi Kahl in Selbst- 
Biographien Deutscher Musiker (Cologne, 

18. Bach, Johann Christoph Friedrich 
('the Buckeburg Bach'), 9th son of J. 
Sebastian; b. Leipzig, June 21, 1732; d. 
Buckeburg, Jan. 26, 1795. He studied law 
at Leipzig, but adopted the profession of 
music, and, presumably in 1750, was ap- 
pointed 'Kammermusicus' at Buckeburg. 
Although less brilliant in composition than 
his brothers, he was an excellent musician 
and thorough composer. An exhaustive bio- 
graphical study was publ. by G. Schiine- 
mann in the 'Bach-Jahrbuch (1914, pp. 
45-165). The same author also prepared an 
edition of selected works by Johann Christ- 
oph Friedrich Bach, sponsored by the Furst- 
liches Institut fur musikwissenschaftliche 
Forschung, in 1920, but abandoned after 
the publication of 2 motets, 4 piano son- 
atas and 4 chamber-music works. Schune- 
mann also edited 3 oratorios by J. C. F. 

Bach in the 'Denkmaler deutscher Ton- 
kunst' (vol. 56; contains a thematic index 
of his compositions). G. A. Walter edited 
the cantata Die Amerikanerin (1920) and L. 
Duttenhofer a set of 6 quartets (Paris, 

19. Bach, Johann (John) Christian (the 
'London Bach'), 11th and youngest surviving 
son of Sebastian; b. Leipzig, Sept. 5, 1735 
(bapt. Sept. 7) ; d. London, Jan. 1, 1782. He 
went to Berlin to study with his brother, 
Karl Philipp Emanuel Bach, after the death 
of his father in 1750. He became music di- 
rector to Count Antonio Litta in Milan in 
1754; was organist at the cathedral there 
(1760-62); studied with Padre Martini in 
Bologna. He traveled through Italy; his 
opera Alessandro nell'Indie was produced 
at Naples (Jan. 20, 1762). In 1762 he went 
to England; and in London, produced his 
most successful opera Orione (Feb. 19, 
1763); shortly afterwards he was appointed 
music master to the Queen. Beginning in 
1764 he gave, together with K. F. Abel, a 
famous series of London concerts. Christian 
Bach was a prolific composer, and immensely 
popular in his day; he was master of the 
light and charming 'rococo' style; his music 
was an important source of the classical 
idiom, and influenced Mozart's development. 
His surviving works, many of them reprinted, 
include symphonies, concertos, operas, piano 
compositions and chamber music. Among his 
13 operas are Lucio Silla (Mannheim, Nov. 
20, 1776) ; La Clemenza di Scipione (Lon- 
don, April 4, 1778) ; Amadis des Gaules 
(Paris, Dec. 14, 1779), etc. His quintets for 
flute, oboe, violin, viola, and thoroughbass 
are reprinted in Das Erbe deutscher Musik, 
Reichsdenkmale (vol. I). Bibl.: C. S. Terry, 
Johann Christian Bach (London, 1929); H. 
P. Schokel, Johann Christian Bach und die 
Instrumentalmusik seiner Zeit (Wolfen- 
biittel, 1926) ; F. Tutenberg, Die Sinfonik 
Johann Christian Bachs (Kiel, 1926) ; G. 
de Saint-Foix, A propos de J. Ch. Bach in 
the 'Revue de Musicologie' (1926); A. 
Wenk, Beitrage zur Kenntnis des Opern- 
schaffens von Johann Christian Bach 
(Frankfurt, 1932); see also Karl Geiringer, 
The Bach Family (N. Y., 1954). 

20. Bach, Wilhelm Friedrich Ernst (son 
of Johann Christoph Friedrich, 18, and 
grandson and last male descendant of J. 
Sebastian), b. Buckeburg, May 23, 1759; d. 
Berlin, Dec. 25, 1845. Studied with his fa- 
ther, and his uncle Johann Christian (19), 
in London. After his uncle's death, he 
traveled giving concerts. In 1787 he is men- 
tioned as music director at Minden; later, 
became Kapellmeister to the Queen of Prus- 



sia, consort of Friedrich Wilhelm III, and 
also music master to the royal princes. He 
was pensioned after the Queen's death. Few 
of his compositions have been published. 

Bachauer, Gina, Greek pianist; b. Athens, 
May 21, 1913, of Austrian parents. She 
studied at the Athens Cons.; then in Paris 
with Cortot. In 1933 she won the medal of 
honor at the International Contest in Vi- 
enna; from 1933-35, received occasional 
instruction from Rachmaninoff in France 
and Switzerland. In 1935 she made her pro- 
fessional debut with the Athens Symph. 
Orch., under Mitropoulos. She played with 
Monteux in Paris in 1937; during World 
War II she lived in Alexandria, Egypt and 
gave over 600 concerts for the Allied forces 
in the Middle East. On Jan. 21, 1946 she 
made her London debut playing with the 
New London Orch. under the direction of 
Alec Sherman, who became her second hus- 
band (Nov. 21, 1951). Her first American 
appearance was in New York on Oct. 29, 
1950. The vigor of her technique has sug- 
gested comparisons with Teresa Carreno; 
her repertoire ranges from Mozart to Stra- 

Bache (batch), Constance, English writer 
and musician; b. Birmingham, March 11, 
1846; d. Montreux, Switzerland, June 28, 
1903. She was the sister of the English pian- 
ists Francis Edward Bache (1833-1858) and 
Walter Bache (1842-1888). She studied at 
the Munich Cons, and later with Klind- 
worth; planned a piano career, but was 
forced to abandon it owing to an accident to 
her hand. In 1883 she settled in London. 
She published a vivid book of memoirs 
Brother Musicians (London, 1901), describ- 
ing the lives of her brothers; translated the 
letters of Hans von Bulow and Heintz's 
analyses of Wagner's operas; also translated 
the libretto of Humperdinck's Hansel und 

Bachelet (bah-sha-la'), Alfred, French 
composer; b. Paris, Feb. 26, 1864; d. Nancy, 
Feb. 10, 1944. He studied at the Paris 
Cons.; received the Grand Prix de Rome 
for his cantata, Cleopatre (1890). From his 
earliest works, Bachelet devoted himself 
mainly to opera. In his youth, he was in- 
fluenced by Wagnerian ideas, but later 
adopted a more national French style. Dur- 
ing World War I he conducted at the Paris 
Opera; in 1919 became director of the 
Nancy Cons.; in 1939, elected a member of 
the Academie des Beaux Arts. Works: lyric 
drama Scemo (Paris Opera, May 6, 1914) ; 
Qjuand la cloche sonnera, one-act music 
drama, his most successful work (Opera- 

Comique, Nov. 6, 1922) ; lyric drama Un 
jar din sur VOronte (Paris Opera, Nov. 7, 
1931); Ballets: La fete chez la Poupliniere; 
Castor et Pollux by Rameau (adapted and 
rewritten) ; orchestral works with voices: 
L'amour des Ondines, Joie, Le Songe de la 
Sulamith, Noel; Surya for tenor, chorus and 
orch. (1940); Ballade for violin and orch.; 

Bachmann, Alberto Abraham, violinist; b. 
Geneva, March 20, 1875. He studied violin 
at the Cons, of Lille, then took courses in 
succession with Ysaye, Thomson, Hubay and 
Brodsky. He was in the U.S. from 1916-26; 
since then living near Paris. He is the au- 
thor of three violin concertos (the last of 
which is called 'American Concerto' ) ; 12 
improvisations for solo violin; about 250 
various pieces and as many transcriptions 
for violin. He published Le violon (1906); 
Les grands violonistes du passe (1913); 
Gymnastique a I'usage des violonistes (1914) ; 
Le piano, ses origines et ses maitres; L'icole 
du violoniste (in 4 parts) ; and Encyclo- 
pedia of the Violin (N. Y., 1925). 

Bachner, Louis, American singing teacher; 
b. New York, April 17, 1882; d. there, Dec. 
26, 1945. He studied voice in Boston, Paris 
and Berlin; taught at the Peabody Cons, 
in Baltimore (1908-10), and at various mu- 
sic schools in Berlin (1917-33); returned 
to the U.S. in 1935, and resumed his teach- 
ing activities in New York. He was the 
teacher of many well known singers, among 
them Sigrid Onegin; published a manual, 
Dynamic Singing (1945). 

Bachrich, Sigismund, violinist and compos- 
er; b. Zsambokreth, Hungary, Jan. 23, 1841; 
d. Vienna, July 16, 1913. He studied violin 
with Bohm in Vienna; after several years 
in Paris, played with the Hellmesberger and 
Rose quartets; was first violist of the Vienna 
Philh.; taught at the Vienna Cons, until 
1899. His memoirs were posthumously pub- 
lished under the title Aus verklungenen Zeit- 
en (Vienna, 1914). He wrote the comic op- 
eras Muzzedin (1883); Heini von Steier 
(1884) ; Der Fuchs-Major (1889) ; the ballet 
Sakuntala and other theatrical works. 

Back, Knut, Swedish pianist and com- 
poser; b. Stockholm, April 22, 1868; d. 
Goteborg, Oct. 27, 1953. He studied music 
in Stockholm; later took lessons with Max 
Bruch in Berlin. He eventually settled in 
Goteborg as a music critic and teacher. 
Among his works are songs and piano pieces. 

Back, Sven-Erik, Swedish violinist and 
composer; b. Stockholm, Sept. 16, 1919. He 



entered the Stockholm Cons, where he stud- 
ied with Hilding Rosenberg (1940-44) ; later 
studied in Basel. Returning to Sweden he 
became the viola player in a local quartet. 
He has written several motets, 2 string 
quartets (1945; 1947); string quintet 
(1948); flute sonata, etc. 

Backer-Grondahl, Agathe, Norwegian 
composer and pianist; b. Holmestrand, Dec. 
1, 1847; d. Ormoen, near Oslo, June 4, 
1907. She studied in Norway with Kjerulf 
and Lindemann, in Florence with Hans von 
Bulow, and in Weimar with Liszt; married 
the singing teacher Grondahl (1875). 
Among her piano works, Etudes de Concert, 
Romantische Stiicke, and Trois Morceaux 
became well-known and have been fre- 
quently reprinted. She also wrote a song 
cycle, Des Kindes Fruhlingstag. — Cf. Ole 
M. Sandvik, Agathe Backer-Grsndahl (Oslo, 
1948), a centennial biography. 

_ Backers, Cor, Dutch composer and music 
historian; b. Rotterdam, June 5, 1910. He 
studied at the Rotterdam Cons, with Dirk 
Schafer; later took a course in conducting 
with Weingartner. Returning to Holland, 
he played piano recitals, specializing in duo 
piano concerts; was also active in radio 
broadcasting. He has written several choral 
works; a set of melodeclamations for speak- 
ing voice with piano; songs; etc. His book 
Nederlandse Componisten van 1400 tot op 
onze Tijd (Amsterdam, 1942; 2nd enlarged 
ed., 1949) is a valuable account of music 
history in the Netherlands, with particular 
emphasis on modern Dutch composers. 

Backhaus, Wilhelm, German pianist; b. 
Leipzig, March 26, 1884. He studied with 
A. Reckendorf (1891-98) ; then with Eugene 
d'Albert. He made concert tours with great 
acclaim, in Europe (from 1900) ; the U.S. 
(1912-14), South America, Australia and 
the Far East. Eventually he settled in 
Switzerland as teacher. In 1954, at the age 
of 70, he undertook a return tour in the 
U.S., showing undiminished powers as a 
virtuoso; made another American tour in 
1956. He is particularly distinguished as 
an interpreter of Beethoven. 

Bacon, Ernst, American composer, b. 
Chicago, May 26, 1898. He studied at the 
Univ. of Chicago; later in Vienna; took 
courses with Ernest Bloch and Eugene 
Goossens (conducting) in Rochester, N. Y. ; 
became assistant conductor of the Rochester 
Opera Co.; then held various posts as teach- 
er of piano and theory. He won the Pulitzer 
Prize for music (1932) and a Guggenheim 
Fellowship (1939). Settling in Syracuse, 

N. Y., he became director of the Music 
School at Syracuse Univ. At the age of 19 he 
publ. a brochure Our Musical Idiom (Chi- 
cago, 1917), on new harmonies; developed 
an individual style of composition without 
abandoning tradition; later became inter- 
ested in national American subjects and 
folk songs. Works: Symph. No. 1 for piano 
and orch. (1932); Symph. No. 2 (1937; 
Chicago, Feb. 5, 1940); orchestral suites; 
Ford's Theatre (1943) ; From Emily's Diary 
(1944; to words by Emily Dickinson); a 
musical play, A Tree on the Plains (Spart- 
anburg, S. C, May 2, 1942); a folk opera, 
A Drumlin Legend (N. Y., May 4, 1949); 
chamber music. 

Bacon, Richard Mackenzie, English writer 
on music; b. Norwich, May 1, 1776; d. 
Cossey, Nov. 27, 1844. He publ. Elements 
of Vocal Science (London, 1824) ; Art of 
Improving the Voice and Ear (London, 
1825); was the founder and editor (1812- 
28) of the 'Quarterly Music Magazine and 
Review', the first music periodical in Eng- 
land; and the organizer of the triennial 
Music Festivals at Norwich. 

Badarzewska (bah-dahr-zhev'-skah), Thek- 
la, Polish composer of salon music; b. War- 
saw, 1838; d. there Sept. 29, 1861. At the 
age of 18 she published in Warsaw a piano 
piece, Priere d'une vierge which became 
enormously successful after its publication 
as a supplement to the Paris 'Revue et 
Gazette Musicale' (1859). About 100 edi- 
tions appeared in Europe and America in 
the 19th century, not counting innumer- 
able transcriptions for various instruments. 
She wrote 34 more piano pieces, none of 
which achieved popularity. 

Badings, Henk, eminent Dutch composer; 
b. Bandoeng (Java), Jan. 17, 1907. He 
first studied mining engineering; then took 
a course in composition with Pijper (1919- 
24). In 1937 he was appointed prof, of mu- 
sic at the Rotterdam Cons.; in 1941, became 
director of the Royal Cons, at The Hague. 
After the end of World War II, on charges 
of cultural collaboration with the Germans 
during the occupation, he was temporarily 
barred from professional activities, but re- 
gained his status in 1947. He is married to 
the violinist Oily Folge Fonden. A highly 
prolific composer, Badings has written in 
every genre. His style may be described as 
romantic modernism; his harmonies ap- 
proach polytonality; in his melodic material 
he often uses a scale of alternating whole 
tones and semitones. His works include the 
opera The Night Watch (1942; Antwerp, 



May 13, 1950) ; Orpheus and Eurydice, bal- 
let (1941); Apocalypse, oratorio (Rotter- 
dam, Nov. 25, 1949); 6 symphonies: No. 
1 (1930); No. 2 (1932); No. 3 (1934); 
No. 4 (Rotterdam, Oct. 13, 1947); No. 5 
(Amsterdam, Dec. 7, 1949); No. 6 ('Sym- 
phony of Psalms,' with chorus; Holland 
Festival, Haarlem, June 25, 1953) ; also The 
Louisville Symphony (commissioned work; 
Louisville, Feb. 26, 1955) ; 4 violin con- 
certos (1928, 1935, 1944, 1946); 2 cello 
concertos (1939); piano concerto (1939); 
Tragic Overture (1937); Symphonic Vari- 
ations for orch. (1937); Dance suite for 
small orch.; Ballade for orch. (Maastricht, 
Sept. 22, 1950); incidental music to the 
plays Colportage by Georg Kaiser and Gys- 
breght van Aemstel by Vondel (Amsterdam 
Festival, 1938) ; concertino for violin, cello, 
piano and chamber orch. (1942); wood- 
wind quintet; 2 string quartets (1931, 
1937); brass quartet (1947); piano trio 
(Paris Music Festival, 1937); trio for oboe, 
clarinet and bassoon (1943); trio for 2 
oboes and English horn (1945); string trio 
(1945); piano sonata (1934); 2 suites for 
piano; 2 violin sonatas; 2 cello sonatas; or- 
gan toccata; piano pieces and songs. Ba- 
dings is the author of a book on contem- 
porary Dutch music, De Hedendaagsche 
Nederlandsche Muziek (Amsterdam, 1936). 
Bibl.: Cor Backers, Nederlandse Compon- 
isten (Amsterdam, 1949). 

Badura-Skoda, Paul, Austrian pianist; b. 
Vienna, Oct. 6, 1927. He was brought up 
by his stepfather Skoda, whose name he 
adopted professionally. He studied mathe- 
matics and engineering as well as music; 
his piano teacher in Vienna was Viola 
Therns. He won first prize at the Austrian 
Music Competition in 1947; graduated from 
the Vienna College of Music in 1948; also 
won prizes at the International Music Con- 
test in Budapest (1948) and Paris (1949). 
He married Eva Halfer on Sept. 19, 1951. 
Toured Europe, Australia (1952), Canada 
and the U.S. (1953). He made his New 
.York debut on Jan. 10, 1953. 

Bagby, Albert Morris, American pianist 
and concert manager; b. Rushville, Illinois, 
April 29, 1859; d. New York, Feb. 26, 1941. 
He studied in Berlin, and with Liszt in Wei- 
mar. Returning to America in 1891, he 
organized in New York the Bagby Morn- 
ing Musicales, presenting 428 concerts; di- 
rected them until a few weeks before his 

Bagge, Selmar, composer and music peda- 
gogue; b. Coburg, June 30, 1823; d. Basel, 

July 16, 1896. He studied at the Prague 
Cons, and in Vienna with Sechter; later 
taught at the Vienna Cons. (1851-55); was 
editor of the 'Allgemeine Musikzeitung' in 
Leipzig (1863-66). Became director in 1868 
of the Basel Music School, and retained this 
post until his death. He publ. several books: 
Lehrbuch der Tonkunst (1873); Die gesch- 
ichtliche Entwickelung der Sonate (1880); 
Die Symphonie in ihrer historischen Ent- 
wickelung (1884) ; wrote a symphony, piano 
pieces, and other works. His biographical 
sketch (by Eglinger) was publ. in Basel 

Bagier, Guido, German musicologist; b. 
Berlin, June 20, 1888. He studied at the 
Univ. of Leipzig with Max Reger and Rie- 
mann; taught at the State Academy of Arts 
in Diisseldorf; settled in Berlin, where he 
was connected with a motion picture com- 
pany. He published a biography of Max 
Reger (Stuttgart, 1923). 

Bai (bah-e), Tommaso, Italian musician; 
b. Crevalcore, near Bologna, c. 1660; d. 
Rome, Dec. 22, 1714. He was a tenor at 
the Vatican where he became maestro di 
cappella Nov. 19, 1713. A follower of Pal- 
estrina, Bai's best known composition is a 
five-part Miserere sung during Holy Week 
in the Papal Chapel alternately with those 
by Allegri and Baini. It is reprinted in vari- 
ous collections (Choron, Burney, Peters) ; 
Bai's other compositions are included in C. 
Proske's Musica Divina (1853-63). 

Baif, Jean-Antoine de, French composer 
and poet; b. Venice, Feb. 19, 1532; d. 
Paris, Sept. 19, 1589. He was brought to 
Paris as a child, and formed a friendship 
with Ronsard and other eminent poets. In 
1570 he founded the Academie de Poesie 
et de Musique, with the aim of reviving the 
music and poetry of ancient Greece. He 
developed a system of 'musique mesuree' 
which he believed would possess a moral 
force similar to the Greek ideas of 'ethos'. 
Settings of his poems were composed by 
Jacques Maudit in 26 Chansonettes mesurees 
(1586) for 4 voices; and by Claude Le 
Jeune, in Le Printemps (1603). Both of 
these collections have been reprinted in 
Henri Expert's Maitres Musiciens (1899- 
1901; vols. X, XII, XIII and XIV). Baif's 
musical works comprise 12 sacred songs and 
several works in lute tablature. 

Bailey, Parker, American composer; 
nephew of Horatio Parker; b. Kansas City, 
Mo., March 1, 1902; studied at Yale (1919- 
23) with D. S. Smith; also took courses with 
Ernest Bloch in Cleveland; piano with B. 
Rubinstein; studied law at Cornell Univ. 



(LL.B., 1934) ; was on the legal staff of the 
Securities and Exchange Commission in 
Washington (1939-42); then settled in New 
York as a lawyer; became advisor to the 
Society for the Publication of American 
Music (1947) and to the Edward Mac- 

Dowell Association (1952). Works: 

flute sonata (1929; Soc. for the Publ. of 
Amer. Music award) ; Variations sympho- 
niques on a theme of Chambonnieres ( 1930) ; 
Toccata-Ricer care-Finale on a Bach chorale 
(1933; honorable mention in the World's 
Fair Contest, 1939); several choruses and 
solo songs. 

Baillot (bi-yoh'), Pierre - Marie - Francois 
de Sales, celebrated French violinist, b. 
Passy, near Paris, Oct. 1, 1771; d. Paris, 
Sept. 15, 1842. The son of a schoolmaster, 
he received an excellent education; at the 
age of nine he became a pupil of the French 
violinist, Saint-Marie; he later was sent to 
Rome where he studied under Pollani; re- 
turned to Paris in 1791. He met Viotti who 
obtained for him a position in the orchestra 
of the Theatre Feydeau; later he served 
as a clerk in the Ministry of Finance. In 
1795 he received the important appoint- 
ment as violin teacher at the newly opened 
Paris Cons. ; but continued to study comp. 
with Cherubini, Reicha and Catel. In 1802 
he joined Napoleon's private instrumental 
ensemble; toured Russia with the cellist 
Lamarre (1805-1808). Upon his return to 
Paris, he organized chamber music concerts 
which enjoyed excellent success; also gave 
concerts in Belgium, Holland and England. 
In 1821 he became first violinist at the 
Paris Opera; from 1825 he was also solo 
violinist in the Royal Orch. Baillot's musical 
compositions, rarely performed, comprise 10 
violin concertos, 3 string quartets, 15 trios, 
a symphonie concertante for 2 violins with 
orch.; 6 violin duos, etc. Baillot's name is 
chiefly remembered through his manual 
L'Art du Violon (1834); with Rode and 
Kreutzer he wrote a Methode du Violon, 
adopted by the Paris Cons., and republished 
in numerous editions and languages; he also 
edited the Methode de Violoncelle by Le- 
vasseur, Catel and Baudiot. 

Bailly (bah-ye), Louis, French-American 
violist; b. Valenciennes, June 13, 1882. He 
received the first prize when he graduated 
from the Paris Cons. (1899); played viola 
in the Capet, Flonzaley (1917-24), Elman 
and Curtis quartets; became head of the 
viola and chamber music departments at the 
Curtis Institute of Music in Philadelphia. 

Baines, William, English composer; b. 
Horbury, near Wakefield, Yorkshire, Mar. 
26, 1899; d. York, Nov. 6, 1922. He re- 

ceived a few lessons from Albert Jowctt of 
Leeds, but was mainly self-taught. His un- 
timely death at 23, of a lung ailment con- 
tracted during World War I, deprived 
contemporary British music of a great tal- 
ent. Among Baines' works are several effect- 
ive impressionist piano pieces (Paradise 
Gardens, Tides, Milestones, Silverpoints, 
Colored Leaves, etc.) ; and a symphony. For 
a latter-day appreciation, see R. Carpenter, 
Baines and Britten: Some Affinities in 'The 
Mus. Times' (April, 1956). 

Baini, Giuseppe (also known as Abbate 
Baini), Italian writer on music and com- 
poser; b. Rome, Oct. 21, 1775; d. there, 
May 21, 1844. He received rudimentary 
training from his uncle, Lorenzo Baini; then 
entered the Seminario Romano, where his 
instructor, Stefano Silveyra, indoctrinated 
him with the spirit of Palestrina's music. In 
1795 he became a member of the papal 
choir at St. Peter's; he continued his studies 
there with Bianchini; in 1802 he took 
courses with Jannaconi, whom he succeeded 
as maestro di cappella at St. Peter's (1818). 
In 1821 he wrote his masterpiece, a 10-part 
Miserere, which was accepted for singing at 
the Sistine Chapel during Holy Week, in 
alternation with the Misereres of Allegri and 
Bai. He also wrote many psalms, hymns, 
masses and motets. His great ambition was 
to publish a complete edition of Palestrina's 
works, but he was able to prepare only two 
volumes for publication. The monument of 
his devotion to Palestrina was his exhaustive 
biography Memorie storico-critiche della 
vita e delle opere di Giovanni Pierluigi da 
Palestrina (Rome, 1828; German transla- 
tion by Kandler, with notes by Kiesewetter, 
1834), which remains extremely valuable 
despite its occasional inaccuracies. He also 
wrote a Saggio sopra I'identita de' ritmi 
musicali e poetici (1820). Haberl published 
an essay on Baini in the 'Kirchenmusika- 
lisches Jahrbuch' (1894). 

Bainton, Edgar Leslie, English composer; 
b. London, Feb. 14, 1880. He studied with 
Walford Davies and Stanford; was ap- 
pointed prof, of piano and composition at 
the Cons, of Newcastle-on-Tyne (1901), be- 
came director in 1912. He subsequently ap- 
peared as guest conductor with various 
European orchestras, and in 1934 was 
appointed director of the State Cons, at Syd- 
ney, Australia. Bainton's compositions in- 
clude the operas The Crier by Night and 
Oithona (Glastonbury, Aug. 11, 1915); or- 
chestral pieces Pompilia (1903) and Paracel- 
sus (1921); a symphony; an overture, Pro- 
metheus; Concerto-Fantasia for piano and 



orch. (Carnegie Award, 1917; London, Jan. 
26, 1922); choral works with orch. (The 
Blessed Damozel, Before Sunrise, Sunset at 
Sea, The Vindictive Staircdse, A Song of 
Freedom and Joy, The Tower) ; a string 
quartet; viola sonata; songs. 

Baird, Tadeusz, Polish composer; b. 
Grodzisk, July 26, 1928. During World War 
II he was sent by the Germans to a labor 
camp; returned to Warsaw in 1948. He has 
written a Sinfonietta (1949) ; Piano concerto 
(1949); Symphony No. 1 (1950); Colas 
Breugnon for flute and string orch. (1951) ; 
Ouverture giocosa (1952); Symphony No. 2 

Bairstow, Sir Edward Cuthbert, English 
organist and composer; b. Huddersfield, 
Aug. 22, 1874; d. York, May 1, 1946. He 
received his Mus. B. at Durham Univ. in 
1894; his Mus. D. in 1900; was organist 
at Wigan (1899-1906), Leeds (1906-13) 
and at the York Minster. He composed 
church music, anthems, part songs, and an 
organ sonata (1937); author of Counter- 
point and Harmony (1937) and The Evo- 
lution of Musical Form (1943). See E. 
Bradbury, A Birthday Tribute in the 'Mus. 
Times' (Aug. 1944). 

Bakala, Bfetislav, Czech conductor; b. 
Frystak, Feb. 12, 1897. He studied at the 
Brno Cons, and in Prague with Janacek. 
He was conductor of the Brno radio orch- 
estra (1926-40); since 1940, conductor 
of the Brno Symphony; also conducted 
abroad. He has written a Scherzo for orch. 
(1923); Fantasy for string quartet (1933); 
several choral works and songs. He has done 
much to make Janacek's music known and 
edited his posthumous opera From the House 
of the Dead. 

Bakaleinikov (bah-kah-la'-ne-kov), Vladi- 
mir Romanovitch, Russian viola player and 
conductor; b. Moscow, Oct. 12, 1885; d. 
Pittsburgh, Nov. 5, 1953. He studied with 
Michael Press; graduated from the Moscow 
Cons, in 1907; played the viola in the 
Grand Duke Mecklenburg-Strelitz Quartet 
(1910-20); taught at the Cons, of St. 
Petersburg (1913-20); conducted opera at 
the Music Drama Theater (1914-16). Re- 
turning to Moscow, he taught at the Mos- 
cow Cons. (1920-24); was in charge of 
the opera branch of the Moscow Art 
Theatre (1920-27). He came to America in 
1927; was associate conductor of the Cin- 
cinnati Symph. Orch.; gave conducting 
courses in various American cities; settled 
in Pittsburgh as conductor and teacher. He 
wrote a viola concerto (1937) and 2 ori- 

ental dances for orch.; made arrangements 
of Bach, and a symph. transcription of 
Beethoven's Septet; published a manual 
Elementary Rules of Conducting (1937); 
The Instruments of the Band and Orches- 
tra (with M. Rosen, N. Y., 1940), and an 
autobiography A Musician's Notes (N. Y., 
1943; in Russian). 

Baker, Benjamin Franklin, American mu- 
sic pedagogue; b. Wenham, Mass., July 10, 
1811; died Boston, March 11, 1889. He 
was a singer in various churches in Salem, 
Boston and Portland; in 1841 he succeeded 
Lowell Mason as teacher of music in the 
public schools; sang with the Handel and 
Haydn Society. He founded the Boston 
Music School (1851-68) and edited the 
'Boston Musical Journal'; composed 3 can- 
tatas: The Storm King, The Burning Ship 
and Camillus; also published a text book 
Thorough-Bass and Harmony (1870). 

Baker, George, English organist; b. Exeter 
1768; d. Rugeley, Feb. 19, 1847. He studied 
in Exeter with William Jackson; was organ- 
ist at Stafford (1795), Derby (1810) and 
Rugeley, Staffordshire (1824). The opera 
The Caffres, or Buried Alive (produced at 
Covent Garden in London, June 2, 1802) is 
often listed as a work by Baker but was 
really written by John Davy. Among 
Baker's own works are numerous anthems 
and glees. 

Baker, Theodore, American writer on 
music, and the compiler of the 1st edition 
of the present dictionary; b. New York, 
June 3, 1851; d. Dresden, Germany, Oct. 
13, 1934. As a young man, he was trained 
for business; in 1874, decided to study 
music; went to Leipzig, became a pupil of 
Oskar Paul and received his Dr. phil. there 
in 1882 (thesis: Vber die Musik der nord- 
amerikanischen Wilden, the first serious 
study of American Indian music) ; lived in 
Germany until 1890; returned to the U.S. in 
1891, and became literary editor and 
translator for the publishing house of G. 
Schirmer, Inc. (1892); retired in 1926 and 
returned to Germany. Books: A Dictionary 
of Musical Terms (1895; highly popular: 25 
editions before 1939) ; A Pronouncing Pock- 
et Manual of Musical Terms (1905); The 
Musician's Calendar and Birthday Book 
(1915-17). Baker's Biographical Dictionary 
of Musicians was first published in 1900 by 
C. Schirmer, Inc. It included the names of 
many American musicians, theretofore not 
represented in musical reference works; 2nd 
edition was published in 1905; the 3d edi- 
tion, revised and enlarged by Alfred Remy, 
in 1919; the 4th edition in 1940, under the 



general editorship of Carl Engel; a supple- 
ment (1949) was compiled by Nicolas Slon- 
imsky, the editor of the present edition. 

Bakfark. See Bacfarc. 

Baklanov, George, Russian baritone; b. St. 
Petersburg, Jan. 18, 1882; d. Basel, Dec. 
6, 1938. He made his debut in St. Peters- 
burg ( 1 905 ) ; then sang at various European 
opera houses; was a member of the Boston 
Opera Co. (1909) and the Chicago Opera 
Co. (1917). He was particularly successful 
in dramatic roles (Scarpia, Boris Godunov, 

Balaban, Emanuel, American pianist and 
conductor; b. N. Y., Jan. 27, 1895. He 
studied piano with Stojowski; served as 
Mischa Elman's accompanist; conducted at 
the Dresden Opera; returning to the U.S., 
was conductor of the opera department at 
the Eastman School of Music in Rochester, 
N.Y. (1927-53); then was active as theater 
conductor in New York. 

Balakirev (bah-lah'-ke-rev), Mily Alex- 
eyevitch, celebrated Russian composer; b. 
Nizhny-Novgorod, Jan. 2, 1837 (new style) ; 
d. St. Petersburg, May 29, 1910. He received 
his musical training from his mother; then 
with Alexander Dubuque in Moscow; he 
further studied with a German house mu- 
sician at the estate of Oulibishev (author 
of a book on Mozart). In 1853 Balakirev 
entered the Univ. of Kazan and studied 
mathematics. He accompanied Oulibishev 
to St. Petersburg (1855) and was intro- 
duced to Glinka who encouraged him. He 
made his public debut as composer and 
pianist playing a movement from his piano 
concerto (St. Petersburg, Feb. 24, 1856); 
his Overture on Russian Themes was given 
in 1859. In 1862 he opened a school of 
music with Lomakin; his Second Overture 
on Russian Themes was performed at a 
school concert (April 18, 1865); this Over- 
ture was published as One Thousand Years 
to commemorate the national millennium 
(Russia as a state was formed in 862) ; 
revised in 1882, it was renamed Russia. 
Balakirev became greatly interested in col- 
lecting Russian folksongs; he selected, har- 
monized and published a number of these 
songs in 1866. This coincided with the de- 
velopment of Slavophile tendencies in Rus- 
sia. Balakirev visited Prague in the summer 
of 1866; he invited several Czech musi- 
cians to present their works at a concert in 
St. Petersburg; this Slavic concert took 
place at Balakirev's school on May 24, 1867; 
works of Balakirev, Borodin, Cui, Mussorg- 
sky and Rimsky-Korsakov were presented; 

this event led Stassov to describe the new 
Russian composers as a 'Mighty Heap' 
(usually simplified to 'Mighty Five') which 
went down in history as a descriptive 
phrase. Under the influence of his several 
trips to the Caucasus, Balakirev began to 
exploit oriental musical elements in his 
works; the most brilliant of these is Islamey, 
an oriental fantasy for piano, of transcen- 
dental difficulty in performance. Although 
Balakirev was regarded as a mentor by Bo- 
rodin, Mussorgsky and others, his own ac- 
tivity slackened considerably. His middle 
life was entirely unproductive. It took him 
many years to complete his symph. poem, 
Tamara (perf. St. Petersburg, March 19, 
1883). His symphony in C took 32 years 
to compose (1866-98); he wrote his second 
symphony in D minor at the age of 70 
(1907-08); it was perf. in St. Petersburg 
on April 23, 1909. His first piano concerto 
was written in 1855; he began his 2nd piano 
concerto in 1861, but laid it aside until 
1909. It was completed after his death by 
S. Liapunov. Of smaller works, his Song 
Albums (45 songs in all) are remarkable in 
their expressiveness; he made brilliant piano 
arrangements of works by Berlioz, Chopin 
and others; his transcription of Glinka's song 
The Lark has become a standard piece in 
the piano repertory. He published 40 Rus- 
sian folksongs in 1866, and 30 songs in 

1898. Bibl.; M. D. Calvocoressi and 

Gerald Abraham, Masters of Russian Music 
(1936) ; M. D. Calvocoressi, Mily Balakirev, 
in the 'Mus. Quarterly' (centennial article, 
Jan. 1937); G. Kiselev, Balakirev (Moscow, 
1938), containing a complete bibl. in Rus- 
sian; V. Muzalevsky, Balakirev (Leningrad, 
1938); G. Fedorova, Balakirev (Moscow, 
1951 ) . Balakirev's correspondence with Tchai- 
kovsky was ed. by Liapunov (St. Petersburg, 
1912); that with Stassov, by V. Karenin 
(Moscow, 1935). 

Balantchivadze, Andrey, Georgian-Rus- 
sian composer (brother of the choreographer 
George Balanchine) ; b. St. Petersburg, June 
1, 1906. He studied with his father, the 
Georgian composer Meliton Balantchivadze, 
and with Ippolitov-Ivanov at the Tiflis Cons, 
and at the Leningrad Cons. In 1931 he set- 
tled in Tiflis as prof, at the Cons. In his 
music he utilizes elements of Georgian folk- 
songs. He has written an opera Mzia 
(1950); a ballet The Heart of the Moun- 
tains (1938); a symphony (1946); 2 piano 
concertos (the 2nd of which was awarded 
the Stalin Prize for 1947); several symph. 
poems; choruses and songs. 

Balart, Gabriel, Spanish composer; b. 
Barcelona, June 8, 1824; d. there, July 5, 



1893. He studied at the Paris Cons.; com- 
posed various pieces of salon music, which 
enjoyed some success. In 1849 he went to 
Milan as theater conductor; in 1853 ap- 
pointed musical director of the Teatro del 
Liceo in Barcelona. He wrote 5 symphonies 
in a romantic vein, which he conducted in 
Spain; for a time his light opera Amore y 
Arte enjoyed considerable success. 

Balatka, Hans, conductor and composer; b. 
Hoffnungsthal, Moravia, March 5, 1827; d. 
Chicago, April 17, 1899. He was a choirboy 
in Olmiitz Cathedral; studied in Vienna 
with Proch and Sechter (1846-48). He emi- 
grated to America in 1849, settling in Mil- 
waukee, where he founded a German Mu- 
sikverein (1851), and was its conductor un- 
til 1860. He appeared at the Chicago music 
festival with considerable success (1857); 
was appointed conductor of the Chicago 
Philh. Soc. (1860). His concerts were ex- 
tremely popular for several seasons; in 1869 
his orchestra was superseded by that of 
Theodore Thomas. Balatka subsequently 
made concert tours with Mme. Pappenheim 
(1870); led various choral organizations in 
Milwaukee; in 1873 settled again in Chi- 
cago, where he founded the Liederkranz and 
the Mozart Club. He was an important 
bearer of musical culture in the American 
Midwest; he introduced the public to com- 
plete performances of Beethoven and Schu- 
bert symphonies. He composed The Power 
of Song for double male chorus (1856); 
Festival Cantata for soprano and orch. 
(1869); about 30 songs; many transcrip- 
tions of various works for orch.; also fan- 
tasias and potpourris. 

Balbastre (Balbatre), Claude, French or- 
ganist and composer; b. Dijon, Dec. 8, 
1729; d. Paris, April 9, 1799. He was a 
pupil of Rameau (1760); organist at the 
Church of Saint-Roche in Paris; later alter- 
nated with Couperin, Daquin, and Sejan 
as organist of Notre-Dame. He wrote four 
piano suites of variations on French noels; 
also many pieces for organ and harpsichord. 

Balbi (Latin, Balbus), Lodovico, Italian 
composer; b. probably Venice, 1545; d. there, 
1 604. He was a pupil of Costanzo Porta; 
sang in the choir of San Marco in Venice 
(1570); then was maestro di cappella at 
the Franciscan monastery there (1578), and 
at San Antonio in Padua (1585-91); later 
returned to Venice. He published masses, 
motets, canzoni, madrigals, sacred songs, 
etc. ; compiled a collection of graduals and 
antiphons by celebrated Italian masters, 
publ. by Gardano (Venice, 1591). 

Balbi, Melchiore, Italian theorist and 
composer; b. Venice, June 4, 1796; d. Pa- 
dua, June 21, 1879. He was a pupil of 
Nini, Valeri, and Calegari in Padua; was 
theater conductor there (1818-53); from 
1854 was maestro di cappella at the basilica 
San Antonio. He wrote 3 operas, all pro- 
duced in Padua: La Notte perigliosa 
(1820); L'Abitator del bosco (1821); 
L'Alloggio militare (1825); a requiem (for 
Rossini, 1868) ; masses; psalms; edited Cale- 
gari's Trattato del sistema armonico (Pa- 
dua, 1829); and wrote a Grammatica 
ragionata della musica considerata sotto 
Vaspetto di lingua (Milan, 1845), and 
Nuova scuola basata sul sistema semitonato 
equabile (1872). 

Baldwin, Samuel Atkinson, American or- 
ganist and composer; b. Lake City, Minn., 
Jan. 25, 1862; d. New York, Sept. 15, 1949. 
He studied in Dresden (1880-84); return- 
ed to America, and was organist in churches 
in Chicago (1885-89), New York (1895- 
1902) and Brooklyn (1902-11); taught at 
the College of the City of New York (1907- 
32). He was one of the founders of the 
American Guild of Organists; gave nearly 
1500 organ recitals. Among his compositions 
are a piano trio; 2 string quartets; Psalm 
XVIII for soloists, chorus and orch. 
(1884); a concert overture, A Journey in 
Norway (1887); a cantata, The Triumph 
of Love (1892); a suite for orch., A Sum- 
mer Idyl (1895) ; 2 symphonies; 4 sym- 
phonic rhapsodies; etc. His anthem Tarry 
with Me has attained wide popularity. 

Bales, Richard, American conductor; b. 
Alexandria, Virginia, Feb. 3, 1915. He stud- 
ied at the Eastman School of Music in 
Rochester; then under Koussevitzky (con- 
ducting) at the Berkshire Music Center 
(1940). In 1943 became conductor of the 
National Gallery Orch. in Washington, 
D.C. He has presented many scores by con- 
temporary American composers; compiled 
and arranged an ingenious potpourri of 
Southern songs, The Confederacy (1954; 
very popular). 

Balfe (balf), Michael William, Irish com- 
poser; b. Dublin, May 15, 1808; d. Rowney 
Abbey, Hertfordshire, Oct. 20, 1870. He was 
the son of a dancing-master; at the age of 
six played the violin for his father's dancing 
classes; subsequently studied violin with 
O'Rourke. After his father's death (Jan. 6, 
1823), Balfe went to London where he 
studied with Charles Edward Horn (violin) 
and Carl Friedrich Horn (composition) ; in 
1 824 was violinist at the Drury Lane Thea- 
tre; also sang in London and the provinces. 



His patron, Count Mazzara, took him to 
Italy (1825) ; he studied in Milan with Fed- 
erici (counterpoint) and Filippo Galli (sing- 
ing) ; his ballet, La Perouse, was produced 
there in 1826. Acting on the advice of Ros- 
sini, Balfe further studied singing with Bor- 
dogni; then was engaged as principal bari- 
tone at the Italian Opera, Paris (1828); 
also sang in various Italian theaters until 
1833. In Italy, he married the Hungarian 
vocalist Lina Rosa (b. 1808; d. London, 
June 8, 1888). Returning to England in 
1835, he began his brilliant career as a 
composer of English operas with The Siege 
of Rochelle (Drury Lane Theatre, London, 
Oct. 29, 1835); he was then manager of 
the Lyceum Theatre in London (1841); 
went to Paris, where he composed the operas 
Le Puits d' amour (Opera-Comique, Paris, 
April 20, 1843; in English as Geraldine, 
Princess's Theatre, London, Aug. 8, 1843), 
and Les Quatres Fils Aymon (Opera-Com- 
ique, Paris, July 15, 1844; in English as 
The Castle of Aymon, Princess's Theatre, 
London, Nov. 20, 1844); returned to Eng- 
land in 1843 and produced his most famous 
opera, The Bohemian Girl (Drury Lane 
Theatre, London, Nov. 27, 1843), which 
was subsequently translated into French, 
German and Italian, and performed on the 
chief continental stages with great success. 
Excepting visits to Vienna (1846), Berlin 
(1848), to St. Petersburg and to Trieste 
(1852-6), he stayed in England; retired to 
his country seat at Rowney Abbey in 1864. 
His daughter, Victoire, made her debut as 
a singer in 1857 at the Lyceum Theatre, 
London. The further list of his operas in- 
cludes three in Italian: / rivali di se stesso 
(Palermo, 1829); Un avvertimento ai gelosi 
(Pavia, 1830); Enrico IV al Passo della 
Mama (Milan, Feb. 19, 1833); and one in 
French: L'Etoile de Seville (Opera, Paris, 
Dec. 17, 1845). The following operas were 
produced in London at Drury Lane, Covent 
Garden, and other theaters: The Maid of 
Artois (May 27, 1836); Catherine Grey 
(May 27, 1837); Joan of Arc (Nov. 30, 

1837) ; Diadeste, or The Veiled Lady (May 
17, 1838); Falstaff (in Italian, July 19, 

1838) ; Keolanthe, or The Unearthly Bride 
(March 9, 1841); The Daughter of St. 
Mark (Nov. 27, 1844); The Enchantress 
(May 14, 1845); The Bondman (Dec. 11, 
1846); The Maid of Honour (Dec. 20, 
1847) ; The Sicilian Bride (March 6, 1852) ; 
The Devil's In It (July 26, 1852); Moro, 
the Painter of Antwerp (Jan. 28, 1882; 
originally produced as Pittore e duca, 
Trieste, Nov. 21, 1854); The Rose of Cas- 
tille (Oct. 29, 1857); Satanella, or The 

Power of Love (Dec. 20, 1858) ; Bianca, or 
The Bravo' s Bride (Dec. 6, 1860) ; The 
Puritan's Daughter (Nov. 30, 1861); The 
Armourer of Nantes (Feb. 12, 1863); 
Blanche de Nevers (Nov. 21, 1863); The 
Sleeping Queen, operetta (Sept. 8, 1864); 
The Knight of the Leopard (Liverpool, Jan. 
15, 1891; originally produced in London as 
II Talismano, June 11, 1874) ; also Mazeppa, 
a cantata, and 2 other cantatas; ballads, 
glees, songs, etc. Bibl. : Charles Lamb Ken- 
ney, A Memoir of Michael William Balfe 
(London, 1875); W. A. Barrett, Balfe: His 
Life and Work (London, 1882). 

Balfoort, Dirk Jacobus, Dutch musicolo- 
gist; b. Utrecht, July 19, 1886. He studied 
with Evert Cornelis; played violin in vari- 
ous German orchestras; then held teaching 
posts in Holland; also organized concerts of 
old music by Dutch composers. He pub- 
lished valuable books (in Dutch) on music 
making in Holland: De Hollandsche viool- 
makers (Amsterdam, 1931); Het Muziek- 
leven in Nederland in de 17 e en 18e eeuw 
(Amsterdam, 1938) ; a monograph on Strad- 
ivarius (Amsterdam, 1945; also in German 
and English) ; etc. 

Balfour, Henry Lucas, English organist; 
b. London, Oct. 28, 1859; d. Croydon, Sur- 
rey, Dec. 27, 1946. He studied music in 
London with Arthur Sullivan; later in Leip- 
zig; was organist at Croydon (1872-1902). 
In 1902 he became organist at the Church 
of the Holy Trinity. 

Ball, Ernest R., American composer of 
popular songs; b. Cleveland, July 21, 1878; 
d. Santa Ana, California, May 3, 1927. He 
studied at Cleveland Cons.; moved to N. Y., 
where he earned his living as a vaudeville 
pianist. His first success came with the song 
Will You Love Me in December as You 
Do in May? to the words of James J. Walk- 
er (later, Mayor of N. Y.). No less success- 
ful were his sentimental songs Mother Ma- 
chree, When Irish Eyes are Smiling, Little 
Bit of Heaven, Dear Little Boy of Mine, 
Till the Sands of the Desert Grow Cold, 
Love Me and the World is Mine, etc., sung 
by John McCormack and other famous ar- 
tists. Ball was a charter member of ASCAP 

Ballantine, Edward, American composer; 
b. Oberlin, Ohio, August 6, 1886. He stud- 
ied with Walter Spalding at Harvard Univ.; 
graduated with highest honors in 1907; 
took piano courses with Artur Schnabel and 
Rudolph Ganz in Berlin (1907-09). In 1912 
he was appointed instructor at Harvard; be- 
came assistant prof, in 1926; associate prof. 



in 1932; retired in 1947. His first published 
work was a musical play, The Lotos Eaters 
(1907); three of his orchestral pieces were 
performed by the Boston Symph. Orch. : 
From the Garden of Hellas (Feb. 9, 1923); 
Prelude to The Delectable Forest (Dec. 10, 
1914); The Eve of St. Agnes (Jan. 19, 
1917) ; a piece in lighter vein, By a Lake in 
Russia, was perf. at the Boston Pops (June 
27, 1922). He has also written a violin 
sonata and songs. His most striking work 
is a set of piano variations on Mary Had a 
Little Lamb (1924) in the styles of 10 com- 
posers; a second series of variations on the 
same tune (1943) includes stylizations of 
Stravinsky, Gershwin and others. These sets 
have become highly popular in concert 

Ballard (bah-lahr'), a family of French 
music printers. The establishment was 
founded by Robert Ballard in 1552, whose 
patent from Henri II made him "Seul im- 
primeur de la musique de la chambre, cha- 
pelle, et menus plaisirs du roy"; the patent 
was renewed to various members of the 
family until 1776, when it expired. The 
firm enjoyed a virtual monopoly on French 
music printing, and continued under the 
management of the Ballard family until 
1788. Until c. 1750, the movable types in- 
vented in 1540 by Guillaume le Be were 
used; the Ballards printed Lully's operas in 
this style (from 1700) ; later printings were 
from engraved copper-plates. 

Balling (bahl'-ling), Michael, German 
conductor; b. Heidingsfeld, near Wiirzburg, 
Aug. 28, 1866; d. Darmstadt, Sept. 1, 1925. 
He won a scholarship to the Konigliche 
Musikschule in Wiirzburg, where he studied 
viola under Hermann Ritter; began his 
career as violist in the Municipal Orch. at 
Mainz; then played in the court orchestra 
at Schwerin; in 1886 was appointed first 
violist in the Festival Theater Orch. at 
Bayreuth; on various occasions played cham- 
ber music with Rubinstein and Brahms. He 
went to Nelson, New Zealand and estab- 
lished the first music school there (1892), 
organized an orchestra and a choral society; 
toured England as music director for F. R. 
Benson's production of A Midsummer 
Night's Dream (1895) ; was appointed assist- 
ant conductor at Bayreuth (1896). He was 
chorusmaster at the Stadttheater in Ham- 
burg for a year; then at Liibeck, where he 
gave Wagner's Nibelungen Ring (complete) 
and later at Breslau; in 1903 succeeded 
Mottl as chorusmaster at the Karlsruhe 
opera and conductor of symphony concerts. 
He visited Spain in 1906 and conducted the 

first performances of Die Meistersinger in 
Barcelona; directed Tristan and the Ring at 
Bayreuth; in 1910 toured England as princi- 
pal conductor of Denhof's Opera Company, 
and conducted the first performance of the 
Ring in English, at Edinburgh, Scotland; 
succeeded Richter (1911) as conductor of 
the Halle Orch. in Manchester; settled in 
Darmstadt (1919) as general music director; 
from 1912 until his death was editor of the 
monumental edition of Wagner's works be- 
gun by Breitkopf & Hartel in 1912. 

Balmer, Luc, Swiss conductor and com- 
poser; b. Munich, July 13, 1898. He studied 
with Hans Huber at the Basel Cons, and 
later in Berlin with Busoni. Returning to 
Switzerland in 1923, he occupied various 
posts as theater conductor. In 1941 he be- 
came conductor at the Musical Society of 
Berne. He has written two symphonies; 
violin concerto; piano concerto; variations 
for oboe, bassoon and strings (1951). His 
musical fairy tale Die Verzauberte Blume 
was performed in Berne in 1926. 

Balogh, Erno, Hungarian pianist and 
composer; b. Budapest, April 4, 1897. A 
precocious musician, he played in public as 
an infant; at seven entered the Royal Aca- 
demy of Music in Budapest; at twelve took 
courses with Bartok (piano) and Kodaly 
(comp.); graduated with honors at 17. He 
was 15 when he received the Liszt prize. 
He continued his studies in Berlin with 
Leonid Kreutzer; made his Berlin debut, 
Sept. 13, 1920. He then traveled as accom- 
panist with celebrated artists; emigrated to 
America in 1924; became a U.S. citizen in 
1929. His first orchestral works, written 
when he was 17, Reverie and Danse du 
Mi-Careme, were performed by the Buda- 
pest Philharmonic (1915); he also wrote 
Divertissement for string orch.; violin pieces 
Caprice Antique and Arabesque (played by 
Kreisler) and numerous piano compositions. 

Balokovic (bah-loh'-koh-vitch), Zlatko, 
eminent violinist; b. Zagreb, Yugoslavia, 
March 21, 1895. He was a pupil of Vaclav 
Huml at the Zagreb Cons. (1905); then of 
Sevcik at the Meisterschule in Vienna; won 
the Australian State Prize (which included 
a Guarnerius violin) in 1913; has toured 
Europe and the U.S. many times as soloist 
with all the major orchestras, and in recital; 
gave the first performance of John Alden 
Carpenter's violin concerto in Chicago (Chi- 
cago Symph. Orch., Nov. 18, 1937); also 
performed it in Cleveland, Los Angeles, 
Boston and New York; since 1939 has been 
living mainly in N. Y. 



Baltzell, Winton James, American music 
editor j b. Shiremanstown, Pa., Dec. 18, 
1864; d. New York, Jan. 10, 1928. He was 
educated at Lebanon College (A.B., 1884) ; 
New England Cons. (1888-9) ; Univ. of Penn- 
sylvania (Mus. Bac, 1896) ; also studied 
in London (1890) with Sir John Frederick 
Bridge (composition) and William Shakes- 
peare (singing) ; was assistant editor of 
'The Etude' in Philadelphia (1887); taught 
theory and the history of music at Wesleyan 
Univ. (1900-07); from 1907-18 was secre- 
tary of the National Academy of Music in 
New York. He published A Complete His- 
tory of Music for Schools (1905), and a 
Dictionary of Musicians (1912); also edited 
the 'University Course of Music Study' at 
Wesleyan; composed choral and orchestral 
works, chamber music, numerous songs and 

Bal y Gay, Jesus, Spanish composer and 
musicologist; b. Lugo, June 23, 1905. He 
studied at the Madrid Cons. From 1935-38 
he lived in Cambridge, England, where he 
taught Spanish; then settled in Mexico City. 
In 1947 he became chief of the Section of 
Musical Research at the Instituto Nacional 
de Bellas Artes. He married the Spanish 
pianist, Rosita Garcia Ascot. Bal y Gay 
has written mostly in small forms; several of 
his piano pieces and songs have been pub- 
lished; he has made transcriptions of old 
Spanish romances; edited collections of 
Spanish lute music. 

Bamberger, Carl, conductor; b. Vienna, 
Feb. 21, 1902. He studied theory and piano 
with Schenker; musicology at the Univ. of 
Vienna. He conducted opera at Danzig and 
Darmstadt (1924-30); in Russia (1931-35) 
and Egypt (1937). In 1937 he came to the 
U. S.; in 1939 was appointed director of the 
Orchestral and Opera Depts. at the Mannes 
Music School, N. Y. He founded and con- 
ducted the New Choral Group of Manhattan 
and the Brooklyn Oratorio Society (1940- 
45) ; guest conductor of the NBC Symph. 
Orch., CBS Symph. Orch., N. Y. Philh. 
Orch., Detroit Symph. Orch., Havana Philh. 
Orch. and at the Lewisohn Stadium Con- 

Bamboschek, Giuseppe, conductor; b. 
Trieste, June 12, 1890. A precocious musi- 
cian, he was organist at the San Giacomo 
Church in Trieste at the age of thirteen; 
studied piano, theory, and conducting at the 
Trieste Cons, (graduated 1907); made op- 
eratic debut as a conductor in Trieste 
(1908); came to the U. S. as accompanist 
for Pasquale Amato (1913); in 1916 was 

appointed conductor and music secretary at 
the Metropolitan Opera; conducted there 
for thirteen years, specializing in Italian 
repertory; has also conducted at various 
European cities, in New York, Philadel- 
phia, and St. Louis. Since 1929, in addition 
to guest appearances as opera conductor, 
Bamboschek has been conducting for radio 
and motion pictures. 

Bampton, Rose, American opera singer; 
b. Cleveland, Nov. 28, 1909. She studied at 
the Curtis Institute in Philadelphia (B.A.) ; 
made her operatic debut with the New 
York Chautauqua Opera as Siebel, under 
Albert Stoessel (1929); subsequently sang 
Schoenberg's Gurre-Lieder, with the Phila- 
delphia Orch., under Stokowski's direction; 
also sang in the Bach Festival, Bethlehem, 
Pa., and was soloist with many major Amer- 
ican orchestras; made her debut at the Met- 
ropolitan Opera as Laura in La Gioconda 
(Nov. 28, 1932). She first appeared as a 
mezzo-soprano; then retrained voice as a so- 
prano; made her debut as a soprano at the 
Metropolitan Opera House in 1937, as Leo- 
nore in II Trovatore; has sung dramatic so- 
prano roles in Norma and Don Giovanni; 
in 1939 sang the role of Sieglinde in Chi- 

Banchieri (ban-kya'-re), Adriano, Italian 
organist and composer; b. Bologna, Sept. 3, 
1568; d. there, 1634. He studied with Lucio 
Barbieri and Giuseppe Guami. On Sept. 8, 
1589 he took holy orders and entered the 
monastery of Monte Oliveto. In 1592 he 
was at the Monastery of S. Bartolomeo in 
Lucca; 1593, in Siena; was organist at 
Santa Maria in Regola di Imola in 1600. 
In 1608 he returned to Bologna, remaining 
there until his death. Despite his clerical 
rank (he became abbot in 1620) Banchieri 
never abandoned music, and was active at 
the Accademia Filarmonica in Bologna 
(where he was known as 'II dissonante' ) . 
He wrote numerous stage works, historically 
important in the evolution of early opera. 
Among these dramatic works were La Pazzia 
senile (1598) ; II zabaione musicale (1604) ; 
La barca da Venezia per Padova (1605); 
La prudenza giovanile (1607); Tirsi, Filli 
e Clori (1614). He wrote a number of 
masses for 3 to 8 voices, and other sacred 
vocal works; also several groups of instru- 
mental works: I canzoni alia francese a 4 
voci per sonar (1595); Dialoghi, concentus 
e sinfonie (1625); II virtuoso ritrovato 
accademico (1626), etc. As a theorist, he 
advocated the extension of the hexachord 
and proposed to name the 7th degree of 
the scale by the syllables ba and bi (cor- 



responding to B flat and B). Banchieri's 
theoretical work L'organo suonarino (Ven- 
ice, 1605) gives instructions for accompani- 
ment with figured bass; his Moderna prat- 
tica musicale (Venice, 1613) contains fur- 
ther elaborations of the subject. Banchieri 
was the first to use the signs / and p for 
loudness and softness (in his Libro III di 
nuovi pensieri ecclesiastici, 1613). He also 
wrote dramatic plays under the name of 
Camillo Scaliggeri della Fratta. A reprint 
of his Sinfonia d'istromenti (1607) is found 
in A. Schering's Geschichte der Musik in 
Beispielen (No. 151) ; the organ pieces from 
L'organo suonarino are reprinted in Torchi's 
Arte musicale in Italia (vol. III). Banchieri 
further publ. : the treatises Cartella musicale 
del canto figurato, fermo e contrappunto 
(Venice, 1614); Direttorio monastico di 
canto fermo (Bologna, 1615); and Lettere 
armoniche (Bologna, 1628). Bibl. : Max 
Schneider, Die Anf tinge des Basso continuo 
(1918); F. Vatielli, II Madrigale dram- 
matico e Adriano Banchieri, in Arte e vita 
musicale a Bologna (1927); F. T. Arnold, 
The Art of Accompaniment from a Thor- 
ough Bass (London, 1931); Gustave Reese, 
Music in the Renaissance (N. Y., 1954). 
See also E. Capaccioli, Precisazioni bio- 
grafiche su Adriano Banchieri in 'Rivista 
Musicale' (Oct.-Dec, 1954). 

Band, Erich, German conductor; b. Berlin, 
May 10, 1876; d. Waidhofen, May 13, 1945. 
He studied at the Hochschule fur Musik in 
Berlin; was conductor at the Stuttgart Hof- 
theater ( 1 905 ) ; chief of the opera at Halle 
(1924-32), and later at Berlin. He adapted 
Auber's Le Domino noir for the German 
stage; also wrote a manual, Zur Entwicke- 
lungs geschichte des modernen Orchesters 
(1910); composed chamber music and songs. 

Bang, Maia (Mrs. Hohn), Norwegian- 
American violinist and teacher; b. Tromso, 
April 24, 1879; d. New York, Jan. 3, 1940. 
She was graduated from the Leipzig Cons. 
(1897) ; then studied with Leopold Auer in 
St. Petersburg. She came to the U. S. in 
1919 and became Auer's assistant in New 
York. She was the author of several violin 
methods; at the time of her death, she was 
engaged in writing a biography of Paganini. 
Her collection of Paganini materials was 
given to the Library of Congress. 

Banister, Henry Charles, English music 
theorist and teacher: b. London, June 13, 
1831; d. Streatham, near London, Nov. 20, 
1897. He studied music with his father, a 
cellist; then with Cipriani Potter at the 
Royal Academy of Music, where he twice 
gained the King's scholarship (1846-48); 

was appointed assistant prof. (1853) of har- 
mony and composition at the Royal Acad- 
emy; taught harmony at Guildhall School 
(from 1880) and at the Royal Normal Col- 
lege for the Blind (from 1881). He pub- 
lished a Textbook of Music (London, 1872, 
and 1 5 editions since ) ; Some Musical Ethics 
and Analogies (1884); Lectures on Musical 
Analysis (1887); Musical Art and Study 
(1888); George Alexander Macfarren 
(1892); Helpful Papers for Harmony Stu- 
dents, (1895); The Harmonising of Melo- 
dies (1897); and The Art of Modulating 
(1901). A collection of his lectures, Inter- 
ludes, edited by Macpherson, appeared in 
1898. Banister composed 4 symphonies and 
5 overtures, chamber music, cantatas, piano 
pieces, and songs. 

Banister, Henry Joshua, English cellist; b. 
London, 1803; d. there, 1847. He was a 
skilled performer, and the author of several 
books on cello technique. His father, 
Charles William Banister (1768-1831), was 
a composer who published a Collection of 
Vocal Music (London, 1803). 

Banister, John, English violinist and com- 
poser; b. London, 1630; d. there, Oct. 3, 
1679. After he had received some musical 
instruction from his father, his skill earned 
him the patronage of King Charles II, who 
sent him to France for further study; was 
later a member of Charles' band, until an 
outspoken preference for the English over 
the French musicians playing in it caused 
his expulsion. Banister was director of a 
music school, and established the first pub- 
lic concerts in London (1672-78); was a 
prominent figure in the English musical life 
of his day. He wrote music for Davenant's 
Circe and Shakespeare's The Tempest (both 
1676); composed New Ayres and Dialogues 
for voices and viols (London, 1678); con- 
tributed to Playford's Courtly Masquing 
Ayres (1662), and to Lock's Melothesia 
(1673) ; also wrote music for plays by Dry- 
den, Shadwell and Wycherley. Cf. J. Pulver, 
A Biographical Dictionary of Old English 
Music (1927). 

Banister, John (Jr.), English violinist, 
son of preceding; b. London, c. 1663; d. 
there, 1735. He studied violin with his 
father; was a member of the private band 
under Charles II, James II and Queen 
Anne; was concert master at the Italian Op- 
era in London. He composed some music 
for the theater; contributed to Playford's 
Division Violin (1685), the first violin man- 
ual published in England. 

Bannister, Rev. Henry Marriott, English 



music editor and bibliographer; b. Oxford, 
March 18, 1854; d. there Feb. 16, 1919. 
He studied theology; was ordained priest in 
1878; publ. the valuable editions, Monu- 
menti Vaticani di Paleografia Musicale 
Latina (Leipzig, 1913; also in Italian transl. 
by R. Baralli), a catalogue of the music 
MSS. in the Vatican Library, including 141 
plates; Anglo-French Sequelae (ed. by Dom 
Anselm Hughes and publ. by The Plainsong 
and Medieval Music Society in 1934) ; co- 
editor of vols. 47, 49, 53 and 54 of Analecta 
Hymnica Medii Aevi (1886-1922); also 
publ. some MSS. of the Abbey of Coupar- 
Angus in Scotland, with a brief description 
(Rome, 1910); ed. a Gallican sacramentary, 
Missale Gothicum, with introduction and 
liturgical notes (London, 1917-19). He was 
for many years librarian of the Bodleian 
Library in Oxford. 

Banti-Giorgi, Brigida, famous Italian so- 
prano; b. Monticelli d'Ongina (Piacenza), 
1759; d. Bologna, Feb. 18, 1806. She sang in 
Parisian cafes where she was heard by de 
Vismes, the director of the Opera. Her en- 
gagement by him was the beginning of a 
brilliant career which took her to England, 
Italy and Germany. She studied with Sacchi- 
ni, Piozzi and Abel; her abilities were 
greatly appreciated by composers; Paisiello 
wrote for her his opera Giuochi di Agrigento, 
and she sang at its premiere (Venice, May 
16, 1792). She married the dancer, Zaccaria 
Banti; her son wrote her biography. Bibl. : 
Giuseppe Banti, Vita di B. Banti-Giorgi 
(Bologna, 1869) ; Carlo Lozzi, Brigida 
Banti ('Rivista Musicale Italiana', 1904). 

Bantock, Sir Granville, eminent English 
composer; b. London, Aug. 7, 1868; d. 
there, Oct. 16, 1946. He studied at the 
Royal Academy of Music, graduating in 
1892; was the first holder of the Macfarren 
Scholarship. His earliest works were pre- 
sented at the Academy concerts: an Egyp- 
tian ballet suite Rameses II; overture The 
Fire Worshippers; and a short opera Caed- 
mar, which was later presented at the Crys- 
tal Palace (Oct. 18, 1893). He then devel- 
oped varied activities; he was founder and 
editor of 'The New Quarterly Mus. Review' 
(1893-96) ; toured as a musical comedy con- 
ductor (1894-95); organized and conducted 
concerts devoted to works by young Brit- 
ish composers; conducted a military band 
and later a full orchestra at New Brighton 
(1897-1901). At the same time he was 
engaged in teaching activities; in 1907 he 
succeeded Sir Edward Elgar as prof, of 
music at Birmingham Univ., a post which 
he retained until 1934, when he became 

Chairman of the Board of Trinity College 
of Music. In 1938, at the age of 70, he 
undertook a journey to India and Australia, 
returning to England on the eve of World 
War II. He was married in 1898 to Helen 
von Schweitzer, daughter of the poet, Her- 
mann von Schweitzer. Bantock was knighted 
in 1930. As a composer, Bantock was at- 
tracted to exotic subjects with mystical over- 
tones; his interests were cosmopolitan and 
embraced all civilizations, with particular 
predilection for the Celtic and oriental cul- 
tures; however, his music was set in western 
terms. He was a strong believer in the 
programmatic significance of musical 
images, and most of his works bear titles 
relating to literature, mythology or legend. 
Yet he was a typically British composer in 
the treatment of his materials. His works are 
brilliantly scored and effective in perform- 
ance, but few of them have been retained in 
the repertory of musical organizations. He 
wrote 3 Celtic operas: Caedmar (1892); 
The Pearl of Iran (1894); and The Seal- 
Woman (Birmingham, Sept. 27, 1924) ; bal- 
lets: Egypt (1892); Lalla Rookh (1902); 
The Great God Pan (1902); 6 tone poems: 
Thalaba the Destroyer (1900); Dante 
(1901; revised, 1910); Fifine at the Fair 
(1901); Hudibras (1902); The Witch of 
Atlas (1902); Lalla Rookh (from the ballet 
of that name, 1902) ; overture, The Pierrot of 
the Minute (1908); Hebridean Symphony 
(Glasgow, Jan. 17, 1916); Pagan Symphony 
(1923-28) ; Celtic Symphony for strings and 
6 harps (1940); 2 Heroic Ballads (1944); 
The Funeral (1946); choral works with 
orch.: The Time Spirit (1902); Sea Wan- 
derers (1906); Omar Khayyam (in 3 parts; 
1906-09; Bantock's most ambitious work); 
The Pilgrim's Progress (1928); Prometheus 
Unbound (1936); numerous works for un- 
accompanied chorus, among them 3 'choral 
symphonies': Atalanta in Calydon (1911); 
Vanity of Vanities (1913); A Pageant of 
Human Life (1913); also The Golden 
Journey to Samarkand (1922) ; choral suites 
to words from the Chinese; children's songs 
to the poems of Helen Bantock; works for 
brass band, cello and orch., voice and orch. ; 
2 string quartets; 3 violin sonatas; viola 
sonatas; cello sonatas; several sets of piano 
pieces; Songs of the East (6 cycles of 6 
songs each) ; several sets of Songs from the 
Chinese Poets; sets of Celtic songs, etc. Ban- 
tock also edited albums of keyboard pieces 
by Byrd, Bull, etc. Bibl.: H. O. Anderton, 
Granville Bantock (London, 1915) ; H. Ant- 
cliffe, A Brief Survey of the Works of Gran- 
ville Bantock, in the 'Mus. Quarterly' (July, 



Baranovic (bah-rah'-no-vitch), Kresimir, 
Croatian composer and conductor; b. Sib- 
enik, July 25, 1894. He studied music in 
Vienna; then conducted opera in Zagreb and 
Belgrade. He conducted Anna Pavlova's 
ballet group (1927-28); became professor 
at the Belgrade Academy of Music (1945); 
was appointed conductor of the Serbian 
State Symph. ^ Orch. (1951). He wrote 2 
operas: Strizeno-Koseno (Clipped and 
Mowed) and The Turks are Coming, and 
several ballets of which The Gingerbread 
Heart was produced at the Edinburgh Fes- 
tival in 1951. Baranovic employs native 
folk melodies and rhythms in his music; he 
is regarded as the foremost ballet composer 
of Yugoslavia. 

Barati, George, Hungarian-American cel- 
list composer and conductor; b. Gy6r, 
Hungary, April 3, 1913. He studied at the 
Budapest Cons. ; was first cellist at the Buda- 
pest Opera (1936-38) ; then came to Amer- 
ica. He taught at Princeton (1939-43); 
served as band leader with the U. S. Army 
(1943-46); was cellist in the San Francisco 
Symph. Orch. (1946-49). In 1950 he was 
appointed conductor of the Honolulu 
Symph. Orch., Hawaii. Works: String 
quartet (1944); Scherzo for orch. (1946) 
Cantabile e ritmico for viola and piano 
(1947); The Love of Don Perlimplin, bal 
let (1947); Configurations for orch. (1947) 

Barbaja (bahr-bah'-yah), Domenico, cele 
brated Italian impresario; b. Naples, c 
1775; d. Posillipo, near Naples, Oct. 16 
1841. He was a waiter; then became a 
financial speculator; had a concession for 
gambling in Naples (1808-21); became so 
powerful that he was nicknamed 'Viceroy 
of Naples.' Under the influence of his 
mistress, the singer Isabella Colbran, he 
entered the theatrical business, and obtained 
enormous success with his undertakings in 
opera. He was impresario of San Carlo and 
other theaters in Naples (1809-24), two 
theaters in Vienna (1821-28); also man- 
aged La Scala (1829-32). He was a friend 
of Rossini, Bellini and Donizetti, from whom 
he commissioned operas. Emil Lucka wrote 
a novel Der Impresario (Vienna, 1937) on 
his life. See G. Monaldi, Impresari celebri 
del Secolo XIX (Milan, 1918). 

Barber, Samuel, eminent American com- 
poser; b. West Chester, Pa., March 9, 1910. 
He came of a musical family; his mother's 
sister was the well known singer, Louise 
Homer. Barber began studying piano at the 
age of six; at ten he attempted to write an 
opera, The Rose Tree. He played the organ 

in a local church for a time, until, in 1924, 
he entered the newly founded Curtis Insti- 
tute of Music in Philadelphia where he 
studied piano with Isabelle Vengerova and 
composition with Rosario Scalero. In 1928 
he won a prize of $1200 for his violin son- 
ata. His first work to attract general atten- 
tion was the Overture to The School for 
Scandal, after Sheridan (Philadelphia, Aug. 
30, 1933), which earned him another prize 
of $1200. His Music for a Scene from Shel- 
ley was performed by the N. Y. Philhar- 
monic (March 23, 1935). He traveled ex- 
tensively in Europe from 1928 on; received 
a Pulitzer Traveling Scholarship for 1935- 
6 and went to Rome; also won the Amer- 
ican Prix de Rome (1935) for his cello son- 
ata and Music for a Scene from Shelley. In 
Rome he wrote a Symphony in One Move- 
ment, which was performed there by Molin- 
ari (Dec. 13, 1936) ; Rodzinski conducted 
its American premiere in Cleveland (Jan. 
21, 1937), and also at the Salzburg Festival 
(July 25, 1937) where it was the first 
American work to be given a performance. 
On Nov. 5, 1938, Toscanini, with the NBC 
Symphony Orch., gave two new works by 
Barber in New York: Essay for Orchestra 
No. I and Adagio for Strings. The Adagio 
(arranged from Barber's string quartet) has 
become one of the most popular American 
works for a string ensemble. From 1939-42 
Barber was on the faculty of the Curtis In- 
stitute, teaching orchestration and conduct- 
ing a chorus. In the autumn of 1942 he 
joined the Army Air Forces, by whom he 
was commissioned to write a symphony, his 
second. It was performed in Boston by Kous- 
sevitzky (March 3, 1944); the original 
score included a special electronic instrument 
to imitate radio signals. Another wartime 
work was Commando March for band 
(1943). In 1945, Barber was discharged 
from the Air Forces, and settled at Mt. Kisco, 
N. Y., in a house which he had purchased 
with Gian-Carlo Menotti in 1943. In 1947 
he received a Guggenheim fellowship. Bar- 
ber has written a ballet The Serpent Heart 
for Martha Graham, performed by her 
group in New York ( May 10, 1 946 ) ; it 
was later revised and produced under the 
title Cave of the Heart (N. Y., Feb. 27, 
1947); an orchestral suite Medea, drawn 
from this ballet, was first played by the 
Philadelphia Orch. (Dec. 5, 1947). In his 
Prayers of Kierkegaard for soprano, chorus 
and orch. (Boston Symph., Dec. 3, 1954) 
Barber essayed the style of modern oratorio 
with impressive results. In 1956 he under- 
took the composition of an opera, Vanessa, 
to a libretto by Gian-Carlo Menotti. For 



piano he wrote an effective suite Excursions 
(1945) and a highly elaborate sonata 
(1949), making full use of the resources of 
modern piano technique and reaching a 
high degree of rhapsodic eloquence. His 
other works are: violin concerto (Phila- 
delphia, Feb. 7, 1941); Essay No. 2 for 
orch. (N. Y., April 16, 1942); Capricorn 
Concerto for flute, oboe, trumpet, and strings 
(N. Y., Oct. 8, 1944); cello concerto 
(Boston, April 5, 1946); Knoxville: Sum- 
mer of 1915 for soprano and orch. (Boston, 
April 9, 1948) ; Souvenirs, ballet suite (Chi- 
cago, Nov. 13, 1953). Vocal works: Dover 
Beach for voice and string quartet (1931); 
3 Songs to poems by James Joyce (1936); 
A Stopwatch and an Ordnance Map for 
chorus (1940) ; MSlodies passageres (5 songs 
to Rilke's words; 1951); Hermit Songs to 
texts translated from the Irish (1953), etc. 
Chamber music: Serenade for string quar- 
tet (1929); cello sonata (1932); string 
quartet (1936); Summer Music for wood- 
wind quintet (Detroit, March 20, 1956). 
Barber's style is distinguished by striking 
lyricism; his melodies are basically tonal, 
but he makes free use of chromatic tech- 
niques verging on atonality in his later 
works. His harmonic textures are often poly- 
tonal while his contrapuntal writing con- 
tains strong canonic and fugal elements; his 
orchestration is rich and full; his treatment 
of solo instruments is idiomatic but requires 
virtuoso performance. Bibl. : N. Broder, 
Samuel Barber (N. Y., 1954), containing a 
detailed biography and musical analysis. 

Barbera, Jose, Catalan music theorist; b. 
Barcelona, Jan. 27, 1874; d. there, Feb. 19, 

1947. He studied in Barcelona with Pedrell; 
in 1924 was appointed prof, at the Cons, 
there. He publ. several textbooks, among 
them Curso de Melodica; his pedagogical 
work 4 Lecciones de Alta Teoria Musica 
was publ. posthumously (1948). He also 
composed several symph. pieces and arrange- 
ments of folk songs. 

Barbi, Alice, Italian mezzo-soprano; b. 
Modena, June 1, 1862; d. Rome, Sept. 4, 

1948. She studied with Zamboni and Van- 
nuccini; made her debut in Milan (April 
2, 1882). She sang in London in 1884, and 
also appeared in Germany and Russia. At 
her concert in Vienna on Dec. 21, 1893, 
Brahms played the accompaniments to his 
songs. She married Pietro Delia Torretta in 
1920, and spent her last years in Rome. 

Barbier, Jules Paul, French librettist and 
dramatist; b. Paris, March 8, 1822; d. 
there Jan. 16, 1901. Joint author (with 
Carre) of several librettos for famous operas, 

among them Gounod's Faust and Romeo et 
Juliette, Hamlet by Ambroise Thomas, etc. 

Barbier, Rene (Auguste-Ernest), Belgian 
composer; b. Namur, July 12, 1890. He 
studied with Dupuis at the Liege Cons. He 
received the Premier Prix de Rome for his 
cantata Legende de sozur Beatrice (1920). 
He has also written 2 operas: Yvette (1910) 
and La fete du vieux Tilleul (1912); an 
oratorio La Tour de Babel (1932); symph. 
poem La musique de perdition (1947); a 
violin concerto; clarinet concerto and cham- 
ber music. 

Barbieri, Carlo Emmanuele di, conductor 
and composer; b. Genoa, Oct. 22, 1822; 
d. Budapest, Sept. 28, 1867. He was a 
pupil of Mercadante and Crescentini; was 
orchestra conductor in numerous Italian 
theaters; then in Vienna (1845), Berlin 
(1847), Hamburg (1851) and Rio de Ja- 
neiro (1853); from 1856-62 he again con- 
ducted in Vienna; then settled in Budapest 
as director of the National Theater. He 
wrote 5 operas: Cristoforo Colombo (Ber- 
lin, 1848) ; Nisida, la Per la di Procida 
(1851); Carlo und Carlin (1859); Ara- 
bella (Budapest, 1862); and Perdita, ein 
Winter mar chen (Leipzig, 1865) ; church 
music; German and Italian songs. 

Barbieri, Francisco Asenjo, Spanish com- 
poser; b. Madrid, Aug. 3, 1823; d. there, 
Feb. 17, 1894. After academic study at the 
Madrid Cons, with Carnicer, he played clar- 
inet in military bands; also appeared as 
pianist and singer in various theaters. He 
developed a flair for writing zarzuelas, and 
wrote 77 of them. The following were par- 
ticularly successful (all produced in Ma- 
drid) : Gloria y peluca (March 9, 1850) ; 
Jugar con fuego (Oct. 6, 1851); Los 
diamantes de la corona (Sept. 15, 1854) ; 
Pan y Toros (Dec. 22, 1864) and El Bar- 
berillo de LavapUs (Dec. 18, 1874). Bar- 
bieri was also a scholar; he published the 
music essays: Ultimos Amores de Lope de 
Vega Carpio (1876); Sobre el Canto de 
Ultreja (1883) ; La Musica religiosa (1889) ; 
he also edited a valuable collection Can- 
cionero musical de los siglos XV y XVI 
(1890), and a MS. novel by Eximeneo, Don 
Lazaro Viscardi (1872). Bibl.: A. Pena y 
Goni, La Opera Espanola en el siglo XlX 
(Madrid, 1881); A. Salazar, La Musica 
contempordnea en Espana (Madrid, 1930) ; 
J. Subira, Manuscritos de Barbieri, exist- 
entes en la Biblioteca Nacional (Madrid, 
1936); G. Chase, Barbieri and the Spanish 
Zarzuela, in 'Music & Letters' (Jan., 1939) ; 
A. Martinez Olmedilla, El maestro Barbieri 
y su tiempo (Madrid, 1950). 



Barbireau (or Barbirau, Barbarieu, 
Barbyrianus, Barberau, Barbingaut, Barba- 
cola), Jacques, Flemish composer; b. Mons, 
c. 1408; d. Antwerp, Aug. 8, 1491. He was 
choirmaster at the Antwerp Cathedral from 
1447 until his death; Okeghem was one 
of his pupils. Barbireau enjoyed a great 
reputation in his time; his opinions are 
copiously cited by Tinctoris. Works: Mass 
for 5 voices, Virgo parens Christi; for 4 
voices: Missa Pascale; Faulx perverse; anti- 
phons, psalms, etc. Cf. H. du Saar, Het 
Leven en de composities van Jacobus Bar- 
bireau (Utrecht, 1946). See also G. Reese, 
Music in the Renaissance (N. Y., 1954). 

Barbirolli, Sir John, eminent English con- 
ductor; b. London, Dec. 2, 1899, of Italian- 
French parentage. He studied at Trinity 
College (1911-12) and at the Royal Acad- 
emy of Music (1912-17); made his concert 
debut in Queen's Hall as a cellist at the 
age of eleven; became cellist in the Queen's 
Hall Orch. (1915). He then held various 
positions as a conductor: with the Chenil 
Orch., Chelsea (1925); British National 
Opera Co. (1926); achieved recognition 
when he substituted for Beecham with 
the London Symph. (1926); in 1933 was 
appointed conductor of the Scottish Orch., 
Glasgow, and Leeds Symph. Orch. He made 
his American debut with the New York 
Philh. (Nov. 5, 1936) and produced such an 
excellent impression that he was selected to 
succeed Toscanini in 1937. He was chief 
conductor of the N. Y. Philh. until 1943, 
when he went back to England and was 
appointed conductor of the Halle Orch., 
Manchester. He was knighted in 1949. As a 
conductor, Barbirolli shows a fine pragmatic 
sense of shaping the music according to its 
inward style, without projecting his own 
personality upon it; however, this lack of 
subjective interpretation was responsible for 
the somewhat lukewarm reception he ob- 
tained with the New York audiences ac- 
customed to virtuoso conductors. While not 
by temperament a propagandist of modern 
music, he introduced several contempo- 
rary works during his conductorship with 
the N. Y. Philh., among them Benjamin 
Britten's Sinfonia da Requiem. He made 
transcriptions for string orch. and French 
horns of 5 pieces from the Fitzwilliam 
Virginal Book (performed by him under 
the title Elizabethan Suite, Los Angeles, 
Dec. 4, 1941); wrote an oboe concerto on 
themes by Pergolesi (dedicated to his wife, 
Evelyn Rothwell, the oboist). See Charles 
Rigby, John Barbirolli (Altrincham, 1948), 

Barblan (bar-blahn), Otto, Swiss organ- 
ist and composer; b. Scanfs, Switzerland, 
March 22, 1860; d. Geneva, Dec. 19, 1943. 
He studied at the Stuttgart Cons. (1878- 
84) ; made his debut as organist at Augs- 
burg (1885); taught at Chur (1885-87); 
then became organist at the Cathedral of 
Geneva; prof, at the Cons, and conductor 
of the 'Societe de Chant Sacre' (1887). He 
wrote an Ode Patriotique (1896); a Fest- 
spiel (Chur, May 28, 1899) commemorating 
the 400th anniversary of the battle of Cal- 
ven, and containing the chorus Terre des 
Monts which has attained great popularity, 
placing it next to the national anthem as a 
patriotic song; Post Tenebras Lux, cantata 
for the Calvin jubilee (1909); string quar- 
tet; variations and triple fugue on B-A-C-H; 
Passion according to St. Luke (Geneva, 
April 9, 1919). Bibl.: A.-E. Cherbuliez in 
the 'Schweizerische Musikzeitung' (1925, 
and on Barblan's 70th birthday, 1930) ; see 
also his autobiographical note (ibidem, 

Barbot (bahr-boh'), Joseph-Theodore- 
Desire, French tenor; b. Toulouse, April 12, 
1824; d. Paris, Jan v 1, 1897. He studied 
with Garcia at the Paris Cons.; was engaged 
to sing at the Paris Opera in 1848; sang 
Faust at the premiere of Gounod's opera 
(March 19, 1859). In 1875 he became 
prof, at the Paris Cons, succeeding Mme. 

Barbour, Florence Newell, American com- 
poser and pianist; b. Providence, Aug. 4, 
1866; d. there, July 24, 1946. She received 
her education in the U. S.; then traveled 
through Europe and the Far East. Her 
works include the piano suites Holland, 
Venice, Forest Sketches, A Day in Arcady, 
At Chamonix (orch. version was performed 
at a Boston Pops Concert); piano duets; 
children's piano pieces and songs; compo- 
sitions for women's chorus; etc. She wrote 
Childland in Song and Rhythm (1921). 

Barbour, J. Murray, American composer 
and musicologist; b. Chambersburg, Pa., 
March 3l, 1897; studied musicology with 
Kinkeldey at Cornell Univ.; Ph.D., 1932 
(first doctorate in musicology awarded by 
an American univ.). From 1932-39 taught 
English and music at Ithaca College; in 
1939 appointed Prof, of Musicology at 
Michigan State College. He publ. a book 
Tuning and Temperament (1951); con- 
tributed various learned essays to music mag- 
azines; has composed a symph. poem, Childe 
Rowland (1928); a Requiem; chamber 
music; also incidental music to Shakespeare's 



Barclay, Arthur (real name, Arthur Bar- 
clay Jones); English choral conductor; b. 
London, Dec. 16, 1869; d. Purley, Surrey, 
Oct. 12, 1943. He studied at the Guildhall 
School of Music, where he later taught 
piano; served as musical director of the 
Brompton Oratory Choir (1893-1935). He 
changed his name from Arthur Barclay 
Jones to Arthur Barclay about 1900. He 
wrote a symphony (1896); violin sonata; 
hymns for children and miscellaneous 
pieces for organ. 

Bardi, Benno, conductor and composer; b. 
Konigsberg, April 16, 1890; later settled in 
England. He studied in Berlin with Hump- 
erdinck and Stumpf; was active as an opera 
coach and later became a conductor at the 
State Opera. In 1933 he left Germany; 
spent some time in the U. S., eventually 
settling in London. He has written inci- 
dental music to several of Shakespeare's 
plays, 3 sinfoniettas and 2 oratorios. 

Bardi, Giovanni de', Count of Vernio, 
Italian nobleman, patron of music and art 
and composer; b. Florence, Feb. 5, 1534; d. 
Rome, c. 1612. He was the founder of the 
Florentine Camerata, a group of musicians 
who met at his home (1576 — c. 1582) to 
discuss the music of Greek antiquity; this 
led to the beginnings of opera. Count Bardi 
was descended from an old Guelph banking 
family; he was a philologist, mathematician, 
neo-Platonic philosopher and lover of Dante. 
He was a member of the Crusca Academy, 
a literary group founded in 1583 whose 
ideas had great influence on the Camerata. 
Bardi is known to have been in Rome in 
1567; he lent support to Vincenzo Galilei, 
a member of the Camerata. In 1580 Bardi 
married Lucrezia Salvati. The masques of 
1589, commemorating the marriage of 
Grand Duke Ferdinand, were conceived 
largely by Bardi. In 1592 he left for Rome 
to become chamberlain at the court of Pope 
Clement VIII. Caccini was his secretary in 
1592. Bardi's writings are: Discorso sopra il 
giuoco del calzio fiorentino (Florence, 
1580); Ristretto delle grandezze di Roma 
(Rome, 1600); Discorso mandato a Caccini 
sopra la musica antica in Doni's Lyra Bar- 
berina (Florence, 1763). Among his compo- 
sitions are a madrigal in 4 voices Misere 
habitator in Malvezzi's Intermedi e concerti 
. . . (Venice, 1591); the madrigal Lauro 
ohime Lauro in II Lauro secco, lib. I . . . 
(Ferrara, 1582). Among contemporary doc- 
uments which refer to him are Vincenzo 
Galilei's Dialogo della musica antica e della 
moderna (translated in part in O. Strunk's 
Source Readings in Music History, N. Y., 

1951; also included is a letter from Bardi's 
son to G. B. Doni commenting on Bardi's 
ideas). Bibl. : G. Gaspcrini, Intorno alle 
origini del melodramma (Rome, 1902) ; Hen- 
riette Martin, La Camerata du comte Bardi 
et la musique florentine du XVIe siecle in 
the 'Revue de musicologie' (Nov., 1932); 
Nino Pirrotta, Temperaments and Tenden- 
cies in the Florentine Camerata in the 'Mus. 
Quarterly' (April, 1954). 

Barge, Wilhelm, German flute player and 
composer; b. Wulfsahl, Nov. 23, 1836; d. 
there July 16, 1925. He played in a mili- 
tary band before his appointment as first 
flutist at the Gewandhaus Orch. in Leipzig; 
retired on pension in 1895. He publ. a 
method for flute, 4 sets of orch. flute studies 
based on passages in classical symph. works; 
also publ. flute arrangements of various fam- 
ous works (Sammlung beliebter Stiicke); 
edited the flute concertos of Frederick the 

Bargiel (bar'-ge-el), Woldemar, German 
composer; b. Berlin, Oct. 3, 1828; d. there 
Feb. 23, 1897. He was a half-brother of 
Clara Schumann. As a boy, he sang at the 
Berlin Cathedral and studied counterpoint 
with Dehn; and at the Leipzig Cons. (1846- 
50) with Hauptmann, Moscheles and Gade. 
He was teacher and conductor in Rotterdam 
from 1865-74; then returned to Berlin. He 
was greatly admired by Schumann and 
Brahms, and his works, in a romantic vein, 
were frequently performed; almost all of his 
music was publ. during his lifetime. He 
wrote a symphony; 3 overtures; string oc- 
tet; 4 string quartets; 3 piano trios; violin 
sonatas; numerous piano pieces and songs. 
Cf. E. Rudorff, Aus den Tagen der Roman- 
tik; Bildnis einer deutschen Familie (Leip- 
zig, 1938). 

Barilli, Bruno, Italian writer on music; b. 
Fano, Dec. 14, 1880; d. Rome, April 15, 
1952. He studied in Parma and later in 
Munich; his collections of essays are pub- 
lished under the titles II sorcio nel violino 
and II paese del melodramma. He also wrote 
2 operas; Medusa (1914; first performed, 
Bergamo, Sept. 11, 1938) and Emiral 
(Rome, March 11, 1924). 

Barini, Giorgio, Italian musicologist; b. 
Turin, Aug. 23, 1864; d. Rome, Sept. 22, 
1944. He is noted for his editions of operas 
by Paisiello and Cimarosa; was also music 
critic of various newspapers in Rome. He 
published La Donna e L'Artista: Musicisti 
innamorati (Rome, 1927) and several es- 
says on Wagner's operas. 



Barlow, Harold, American composer of 
popular songs, bandleader and musical lexi- 
cographer; b. Boston, May 15, 1915. He 
studied violin at Boston Univ., and later 
played in various orchestras; also led a 
U. S. Army band. He has compiled two val- 
uable reference works for which he designed 
an original method of indexing melodic 
themes by numbers: A Dictionary of Musi- 
cal Themes (with Sam Morgenstern; N. Y., 
1948) ; and A Dictionary of Vocal Themes 
(N. Y., 1950). 

Barlow, Howard, American conductor; b. 
Plain City, Ohio, May 1, 1892. He studied 
at the Univ. of Colorado and at Columbia 
Univ. He conducted the American National 
Orch., N. Y. (1923-25), at the Neighbor- 
hood Playhouse (1925-27); was conductor 
of the C.B.S. Symph. Orch. (1927-43), with 
which he presented numerous new works. In 
1943 he became conductor of the Firestone 
Hour on NBC Radio. 

Barlow, Samuel, American composer; b. 
N. Y., June 1, 1892; studied music at Har- 
vard Univ. (B.A., 1914) ; then took lessons 
with Respighi in Rome. His one-act opera, 
Mon ami Pierrot, was the first by an Amer- 
ican composer to be given at the Opera- 
Comique in Paris (Jan. 11, 1935) ; he wrote 
also 2 more operas, Eugenie and Amanda. 
His 'symphonic concerto' Babar (1935) em- 
ploys magic lantern slides. Other works: 
piano concerto (Rochester, Jan. 23, 1931, 
composer-soloist) ; a suite of Biedermeier 
Waltzes for orch. (Rome, 1935); Sousa ad 
Parnassum for orch. (1939); several songs 
and choruses. A believer in mass education, 
Barlow has been active in various civic 
groups formed to promote music; has organ- 
ized rural festivals; also has lectured and 
written about music and politics. 

Barlow, Wayne, American composer; b. 
Elyria, Ohio, Sept. 6, 1912. He studied with 
Hanson and Rogers at the Eastman School 
of Music, Rochester, N. Y. ; later with 
Schoenberg in Los Angeles; teaching compo- 
sition at the Eastman School since 1937. He 
has written a ballet The Black Madonna 
(1941); The Winter's Passed for oboe and 
strings (Rochester, Oct. 18, 1938); Three 
Moods for orch. (1940); Lyrical Piece for 
clarinet and strings (1945); Nocturne for 
18 instruments (1946) ; Sinfonia in C 
(1950); mass in G (1951) and a piano 
quintet (1951). Also publ. an appreciation 
book, Foundations of Music (N. Y., 1953). 

Barmann, Heinrich Joseph, German clari- 
netist; b. Potsdam, Feb. 14, 1784; d. Mun- 
ich, June 11, 1847. He was a renowned 
performer; made extensive tours, and finally 

settled in Munich as first clarinetist of the 
court orchestra; his friends, Weber and 
Mendelssohn, wrote clarinet works for him. 
He composed concertos, fantasias, quintets, 
quartets, sonatas, etc. for his instrument, 
about 90 works in all; 38 have been pub- 
lished, and are still favorites with clari- 

Barmann, Carl, German clarinetist, son 
of Heinrich Joseph Barmann; b. Munich, 
Oct. 24, 1811; d. there, May 23, 1885. He 
was a pupil of his father, whom he ac- 
companied on his tours; later succeeded 
him at the Munich court orchestra. He 
wrote a method for clarinet, with a supple- 
ment entitled Materalien zur weiteren tech- 
nischen Ausbildung. 

Barmann (Baermann), Karl (Jr.), pianist 
and music pedagogue, son of the preced- 
ing; b. Munich, July 9, 1839; d. Boston, 
Jan. 17, 1913. He studied piano with Wan- 
ner, Wohlmuth and Liszt; and composition 
with Franz Lachner; was appointed teacher 
at the Munich Cons., but emigrated to the 
U. S. in 1881. He settled in Boston. 

Barmas, Issaye, Russian violinist and ped- 
agogue; b. Odessa, May 1, 1872; d. London, 
July 3, 1946. He studied in Moscow and 
with Joachim in Berlin; toured in Europe; 
settled in London. Among his publications 
are Die Losung des Geigentechnischen Prob- 
lems (1913); Tonleiter-Spezialstudien; Dop- 
pelgriff Spezialstudien; and many editions of 
classical works. 

Barnard, Charlotte (nee Alington), Eng- 
lish song writer (pen name Claribel) ; b. 
Dec. 23, 1830; d. Dover, Jan. 30, 1869. Her 
ballad Come Back to Erin and numerous 
others in a similar vein were once extremely 
popular. She also published verses. 

Barnby, Sir Joseph, English conductor, 
organist, and composer; b. York, Aug. 12, 
1838; d. London, Jan. 28, 1896. He came . 
from a musical family; sang in the choir of 
the York Minster at the age of seven; was 
organist and chorusmaster there at the age 
of twelve; then studied at the Royal Acad- 
emy in London with Cipriani Potter (1854) ; 
held the post of organist at St. Michael's, St. 
James the Less, the Sacred Harmonic So- 
ciety, at St. Andrews (1863-71), and St. 
Anne's (1871). In 1864 he organized Barn- 
by's Choir, which gave five annual series of 
oratorio concerts in London; then became 
director of the Royal Albert Hall Choral 
Society; conducted at the Cardiff Festival 
(1892; 1895), and at the South Wales Fes- 
tival. In 1874 he inaugurated a series of 



daily concerts at Albert Hall; conducted 
the London Music Society (1878-86), and 
with it performed Dvorak's Stabat Mater for 
the first time in England (March 10, 1883). 
In 1875 he was appointed precentor and 
director of music at Eton; in 1892 suc- 
ceeded Thomas Weist-Hill as Principal of 
the Guildhall School of Music. He was 
knighted on Aug. 5, 1892. Barnby com- 
posed the sacred works Rebekah, an or- 
atorio (1870); Psalm 97 (1883); a service 
in 3 parts (morning, noon, and evening) ; 
a Magnificat and Nunc dimittis for chorus, 
organ, and orch. (1881); King all-glorious 
(motet for soli, chorus, organ and orch.) ; 45 
anthems; 246 hymn-tunes (complete collec- 
tion, 1897); organ pieces; piano pieces. 

Barnekow, Christian, composer; b. St. 
Sauveur, France, July 28, 1837; d. Copen- 
hagen, March 20, 1913. He adapted many 
songs by K. Ph. E. Bach, J. Chr. Fr. Bach, 
Schulz, etc.; also composed chamber music, 
organ works and much sacred music. 

Barnes, Edward Shippen, American or- 
ganist and composer; b. Seabright, N. J., 
Sept. 14, 1887. He studied at Yale Univ. 
with David Stanley Smith and Horatio 
Parker (comp.) and with Harry B. Jepson 
(organ) ; later took lessons with Louis 
Vierne in Paris. He was organist and choir- 
master at Rutgers Presbyterian Church, 
N. Y., at St. Stephen's Episcopal Church in 
Santa Monica, Cal. ; retired in 1954, after 
45 years of service as organist. He wrote 
2 organ symphonies; the cantatas The Com- 
forter, Remember Now Thy Creator and 
Christmas; an Episcopal Service; several 
sacred songs, and the manuals: School of 
Organ Playing; Modulation in Theory and 
Practice, and Bach for Beginners in Organ 
Playing. He also published several collections 
of choral works for schools. 

Barnett, Alice, American song composer; 
b. Lewiston, 111., May 26, 1886; studied with 
Borowski and Ganz in Chicago and with 
Hugo Kaun in Berlin; in 1917 settled in 
San Diego. She wrote a number of agreeable 

songs in a romantic manner. Cf. W. T. 

Upton, Art-Song in America (N. Y., 1930; 
pp. 214-224). 

Barnett, John, English composer; b. Bed- 
ford, July 1, 1802; d. Cheltenham, April 
17, 1890. He was a pupil of Charles Edward 
Horn and Ferdinand Ries; brought out an 
operetta, Before Breakfast (London, 1825) ; 
then many small pieces. His most successful 
opera was The Mountain Sylph (Lyceum 
Theatre, London, Aug. 25, 1834) ; he sub- 

sequently produced the operas Fair Rosa- 
mond (London, Feb. 28, 1837) and Fari- 
nelli (London, Feb. 8, 1839). In 1841 he 
settled in Cheltenham as a singing teacher. 
Among his other works are a symphony, 2 
string quartets, and nearly 4,000 songs; he 
also published a School for the Voice (1844). 

Barnett, John Francis, English composer; 
nephew of the preceding; b. London, Oct. 
16, 1837; d. there, Nov. 24, 1916. He 
studied piano with Dr. Wylde (1849) ; twice 
won the Queen's Scholarship at the Royal 
Academy of Music (1850; 1852); gave his 
first piano recital at the New Philharmonic 
Concerts in London (July 4, 1853); later 
studied at the Leipzig Cons. (1856-9) with 
Moscheles, Plaidy and Hauptmann; then 
settled in London as teacher, concert pian- 
ist, and conductor; was appointed prof, at 
the Royal College of Music (1883). Works: 
a symphony (1864); Ouverture sympho- 
nique (London, 1868) ; overture to Shake- 
speare's A Winter's Tale (1873); The Lay 
of the Last Minstrel for orch. (after Scott; 
Liverpool, 1874) ; orchestral suite, The Har- 
vest Festival (Norwich, 1881); 4 sketches 
for orch.: Ebbing Tide and Elfland (Crystal 
Palace, London, 1883); Flowing Tide and 
Fairyland (Crystal Palace, London, 1891); 
also for orch. Pastoral Suite (1892); Lieb- 
eslied and Im alten Styl (1895); Pensee 
melodique and Gavotte (1899); the can- 
tatas The Ancient Mariner, after Coleridge 
(Birmingham, 1867) ; Paradise and the 
Peri, after Moore (Birmingham, 1870) ; 
The Building of the Ship (Leeds, 1880) ; 
The Wishing-Bell (Norwich, 1881); The 
Triumph of Labour (Crystal Palace, Lon- 
don, 1888); The Eve of St. Agnes, after 
Keats (London, 1913) ; oratorios, The Rais- 
ing of Lazarus (Hereford, 1876) ; The Good 
Shepherd, (Brighton, 1876) ; The Golden 
Gate, scena for contralto; a piano concerto; 
flute concerto; chamber music; piano pieces; 
songs; published Musical Reminiscences and 
Impressions (London, 1906). 

Barnett, John Manley, American con- 
ductor; b. N. Y., Sept. 3, 1917. He studied 
piano, violin and trumpet at the Manhattan 
School of Music (1930-36) ; conducting with 
Leon Barzin in New York, and with Bruno 
Walter, Weingartner, Enesco and Malko in 
Europe (1936-37). Returning to America, 
he became conductor of the Stamford 
Symph. Orch (1939-42) and of the N. Y. 
City Symphony (1940-42); then a U. S. 
Army bandleader (1942-46). Since 1946, 
assistant conductor of the Los Angeles 
Philh.; since 1952 has directed the summer 
concerts at the Hollywood Bowl. 



Barns, Ethel, English violinist and com- 
poser; b. London, 1880; d. Maidenhead, 
Dec. 31, 1948. She studied at the Royal 
Academy in London; made her debut at 
the Crystal Palace (1896); toured Eng- 
land (1897) and America (1913). Her 
compositions include a Concertstuck for 
violin and orch. ; 2 trios; Phantasy for 2 
violins and piano; 5 violin sonatas. 

Baron (bah-rohn'), Ernst Gottlieb, Ger- 
man lutenist; b. Breslau, Feb. 17, 1696; d. 
Berlin, April 12, 1760. He was a court 
musician in Gotha (1727); theorbist to the 
Prussian Crown Prince (later Frederick II) 
in 1734; wrote Historisch-theoretische und 
praktische Untersuchung des Instruments 
der Laute (1727); an Appendix (on the 
lute) to Marpurg's Historisch-kritische Bei- 
trage, vol. II; an Abhandlung von dem No- 
tensystem der Laute und der Theorbe; other 
theoretical pamphlets ; composed many works 
for the lute, which remain in MS. 

Baron (bah-rohn'), Maurice, composer 
and conductor; b. Lille, France, Jan. 1, 
1889. He studied in France; emigrated to 
the U. S. and conducted stage shows in 
New York. He has published numerous 
pieces of light music under his own name 
and the whimsical noms de plume: Francis 
Delille (i.e., "de Lille," a native of Lille) ; 
Morris Aborn (anagram of Baron) ; also 
used the name of his wife Alice Tremblay. 
Also wrote : choreographic suite Susan at the 
Zoo; symphonic paean Blood, Sweat and 
Tears; Ode to Democracy for narrator, 
chorus and orch. (N. Y. Philh., Jan. 23, 
1949); etc., totalling more than 300 works. 
From 1933-43 he was arranger and staff 
composer at Radio City Music Hall, N. Y. 

Baronius. See Baron, Ernst Gottlieb. 

Barraine, Elsa, French composer; b. Paris, 
Feb. 13, 1910. Her father was a cellist, her 
mother a singer. She studied at the Paris 
Cons, with Dukas and Vidal; received 2nd 
Prix de Rome (1928) and then 1st Prix de 
Rome (1929). She has written Symphony 
No. 1 (1931); Trois esquisses for orch. 
(1931); Pogromes, symph. poem (1933; 
Paris, March 11, 1939); Fantaisie concert- 
ante for piano and orch. (1933); Fete des 
Colonies (1937); Symphony No. 2 (1938); 
he Fleuve Rouge, symph. variations (1945) ; 
Symphony No. 3 (1947); Suite astrologique 
for orch. (1947); chamber music; piano 
pieces and songs. 

Barraud, Henry, French composer; b. 
Bordeaux, April 23, 1900. He taught him- 
self music while engaged in the family wine 
business in Bordeaux; in 1926, entered the 

Paris Cons, and studied composition with 
Aubert. In 1937 Barraud was in charge of 
the music for the International Exposition 
in Paris. He served in the French Army dur- 
ing World War II; after demobilization he 
lived in Marseilles, returning to Paris in 
1943. In 1945 he was appointed musical 
director of Radiodiffusion Franchise, Paris. 
Works: Finale dans le mode rustique (Paris, 
1932); Poeme for orch. (1934); Concerto 
da Camera for 30 instruments (1936); Le 
Diable a la Kermesse, ballet (1943; a 
symph. suite from it was broadcast by Paris 
Radio, April 26, 1945) ; piano concerto 
(N. Y. Philh., Dec. 5, 1946); Offrande 
a une ombre (in memory of a brother 
killed by the Germans as a member of the 
Resistance; first U. S. performance, St. 
Louis, Jan. 10, 1947); La Farce du Maitre 
Pathelin (Paris, June 24, 1948); Symphonie 
de Numance (Baden-Baden, Dec. 3, 1950) ; 
trio for oboe, clarinet and bassoon; Preludes 
for piano (2 series) and songs. He also wrote 
a book on Berlioz (Paris, 1955). 

Barrere (bah-rar'), Georges, French flute 
virtuoso; b. Bordeaux, Oct. 31, 1876; d. 
Kingston, N. Y., June 14, 1944. He studied 
at the Paris Cons. (1889-95), graduating 
with first prize; was solo flutist at Colonne 
Concerts and at the Paris Opera (1897- 
1905). He came to America in 1905; played 
flute with the N. Y. Symph. Orch. (1905- 
28) ; taught at the Institute of Musical Art, 
N. Y., and at the Juilliard School of Music. 
He was the founder of the 'Barrere Little 
Symphony' (1914); composed a Nocturne 
for flute; Chanson d'automne for voice; also 
edited classical works for flute. 

Barret (bah-ra'), Apollon (Marie-Rose), 
French oboist; b. Paris, 1803; d. London, 
March 8, 1879. He studied at the Paris 
Cons. ; played in the orchestras at opera 
houses; in 1874 went to London with the 
Italian Opera. Barret is the author of a 
standard manual, 'Complete Method for the 
Oboe Comprising All The New Fingerings, 
New Tables of Shakes, Scales, Exercises'. 

Barrett, Reginald, English organist; b. 
London, Jan. 12, 1861; d. St. Petersburg, 
Florida, Feb. 7, 1940. He studied at the 
Guildhall School of Music and at Darmstadt 
Cons.; came to the U. S. in 1888; was 
organist in Kansas City until 1898, when 
he settled in New York City as organist at 
St. James Church, Fordham. From 1917 
until 1925 he played the organ in motion 
picture theaters. He composed some 100 
preludes and interludes for organ, sacred 
songs, choruses, etc. 



Barrett, William Alexander, English 
writer on music; b. London, Oct. 15, 1834; 
d. there Oct. 17, 1891. As a boy, he was a 
chorister in St. Paul's Cathedral; then 
studied at Oxford (B. Mus., 1871). From 
1881 he occupied various positions as in- 
spector of music; was music critic of 'The 
Morning Post' from 1867 until his death; 
was editor of 'The Monthly Musical Record' 
(1877) and of 'The Musical Times.' He 
publ. English Glee and Madrigal Writers 
(1877); English Church Composers (1882); 
Balfe: His Life and Work (1882); etc.; 
was co-editor with Sir John Stainer of the 
Dictionary of Musical Terms (1875; new 
edition, 1898). His son, Francis Barrett 
(b. London, Nov. 14, 1869; d there Jan. 
19, 1925), was also a music critic. 

Barrientos, Maria, celebrated Spanish 
coloratura soprano; b. Barcelona, March 10, 
1884; d. Ciboure, France, Aug. 8, 1946. She 
studied voice with Bonet; made her operatic 
debut at the age of 15 as Selika in the 
Teatro de las Novedades, Barcelona (March 
4, 1899) ; toured Europe and South Amer- 
ica (1899-1913). She made her first appear- 
ance at the Metropolitan Opera House as 
Lucia (Jan. 31, 1916), and remained with 
it until 1920; then settled in France, where 
she gave song recitals. 

Barrington, Daines, English lawyer; b. 
London, 1727; d. there, March 14, 1800. He 
was the author of the famous account of 
Mozart as a child prodigy ('Philosophical 
Transactions', 1770), reprinted in his 
Miscellanies (1781); also wrote essays on 
Crotch, Mornington, the Wesleys (father and 
son) ; Experiments and Observations on the 
Singing of Birds (London, 1773) ; a descrip- 
tion of the ancient Welsh crwth and pib- 
corn; etc. 

Barrows, John, American composer and 
horn player; b. Glendale, Calif., February 
12, 1913. He studied at the Eastman School 
in Rochester, and later at Yale with Dono- 
van and Smith. Among his works are 2 string 
quartets, a wind trio, several sonatas for 
various instruments with piano, etc. 

Barrozo Netto, Joaquim Antonio, Brazil- 
ian composer; b. Rio de Janeiro, Jan. 30, 
1881; d. there, Sept. 1, 1941. He studied 
with Braga, Nepomuceno and others; ap- 
peared as pianist in public at an early age; 
his compositions, in a mildly romantic man- 
ner, are mostly for piano. He enjoyed a 

fine reputation in Brazil as a teacher; was 
prof, at the Instituto Nacional de Musica 
from 1906. 

Barry, Charles Ainslie, English organist, 
and music editor; b. London, June 10, 1830; 
d. there, March 21, 1915. He studied with 
Walmisley; later at the Cologne Cons.; 
also with Moscheles, Plaidy and Richter at 
the Leipzig Cons. Returning to England, he 
wrote for various music magazines; was edi- 
tor of 'The Monthly Musical Record' (1875- 
79); also served as an annotator for 
orchestral programs conducted by Richter 
in England. 

Barsanti, Francesco, Italian flutist and 
composer; b. Lucca, c. 1690; d. c. 1760. He 
was flutist and, later, oboist at the Italian 
Opera in London; lived in Scotland for a 
time, and was engaged (1750) as a viola 
player in London. Works: 6 overtures; 12 
violin concertos; 6 flute solos with bass; 6 
sonatas for 2 violins with bass; 6 antiphons 
in Palestrina style; numerous pieces for vari- 
ous instruments. He published A Collection 
of old Scots Tunes (Edinburgh, 1742). Cf. 
Henry Farmer, A History of Music in Scot- 
land (London, 1947). 

Barsotti, Tommaso Gasparo Fortunate, 

Italian music teacher; b. Florence, Sept. 4, 
1786; d. Marseilles, April, 1868. He founded 
the Free School of Music in Marseilles 
(1821), and was its director until 1852; 
wrote a number of pieces for piano and 
voice; published a Methode de Musique 

Barstow, Vera, American violinist; b. 
Celina, Ohio, June 3, 1893; studied in 
Pittsburgh with Luigi von Kunits; made her 
debut in Vienna (Jan. 2, 1912) ; returning 
to America, appeared with the Boston 
Symph. Orch., Philadelphia Orch., etc. She 
settled in Los Angeles as a teacher. 

Bartay (bar'-ti), Andreas, Hungarian 
composer; b. Szeplak, 1798; d. Mainz, Oct. 
4, 1856. He was director of the National 
Theater in Budapest (1838); gave concerts 
in Paris (1848); then settled in Hamburg. 
He wrote three operas: Aurelia; Csel; and 
The Hungarians in Naples; oratorios; mass- 
es; ballets. 

Bartay, Ede, Hungarian composer, son of 
Andreas Bartay; b. Oct. 6, 1825; d. Buda- 
pest, Aug. 31, 1901. He was director of the 
National Music Academy in Budapest; 
founded the Hungarian pension-fund for 
musicians; wrote an overture, Pericles, and 
other works. 



Bartels, Wolfgang von, German composer; 
b. Hamburg, July 21, 1883; d. Munich, 
April 19, 1938. He studied with Beer-Wal- 
brunn in Munich and with Gedalge in Paris; 
then became a music critic in Munich. His 
early works show impressionist influences; 
later he adopted an eclectic style. Works: 
melodramas, The Little Dream, after Gals- 
worthy (Manchester, 1911); The Spanish 
Lovers, after Rojas (London, 1912); Li-I- 
Lan (Kassel, 1918); song cycles (Li-Tai-Pe, 
Baltic Songs, Minnesdnge) ; violin concerto; 
viola concerto, etc. 

Barth, Christian Samuel, German oboist 
and composer; b. Glauchau, Jan. 13, 1735; 
d. Copenhagen, July 8, 1809. He was a stu- 
dent at the Thomasschule in Leipzig at the 
time of Bach; played the oboe in various 
court orchestras: in Rudolfstadt (1753); 
Weimar (1762); Hanover (1768) and Kas- 
sel (1772). In 1786 he joined the court 
chapel at Copenhagen where he remained 
until his death. Although he wrote a great 
number of instrumental works, particularly 
for the oboe, most of them remain in manu- 

Barth, Hans, pianist and composer; b. 
Leipzig, June 25, 1897. When a small child, 
he won a scholarship at the Leipzig Cons, 
and studied under Carl Reinecke; came 
to the U. S. in 1907, but made frequent 
trips to Germany. His meeting with Busoni 
inspired him to experiment with new scales; 
with the aid of George L. Weitz, he per- 
fected a portable quarter-tone piano (1928), 
on which he played in Carnegie Hall (Feb. 
3, 1930); composed a piano concerto for 
this instrument, with a string orchestra also 
tuned in quarter- tones (perf. by him with 
Stokowski and the Philadelphia Orch., 
March 28, 1930). Other works using quarter- 
tones: suite for strings, brass and kettle- 
drums; piano quintet; also a piano concerto 
for normal tuning (1928) and two piano 
sonatas; an operetta Miragia (1938) ; a piano 
manual, Technic (1935) ; various essays, etc. 
Barth has held numerous teaching positions 
in New York City. 

Barth, Karl Heinrich, German pianist 
and teacher; b. Pillau, near Konigsberg, 
July 12, 1847; d. Berlin, Dec. 23, 1922. He 
was a pupil of Hans von Biilow in Berlin; 
also studied with Bronsart and Tausig. He 
became teacher at Stern Cons., Berlin, in 
1868; then at the Hochschule fur Musik 
(1871); established the Barth Trio with de 
Ahna and Hausmann, which enjoyed con- 
siderable success. 

Barthe (bahrt), Grat-Norbert, French 

composer; b. Bayonne, June 7, 1828; d. 
Asnieres (Seine), Aug. 13, 1898. He was 
a pupil of Leborne at the Paris Cons.; won 
the Grand Prix de Rome (1854) with the 
cantata Francesco da Rimini; wrote the 
operas Don Carlos and La Fiancee d'Abydos; 
an oratorio, Judith; etc. 

Barth, Richard, German left-handed violin 
virtuoso; b. Grosswanzleben, June 5, 1850; 
d. Marburg, Dec. 25, 1923. He studied with 
Joachim in Hanover; attracted considerable 
attention when he gave concerts using the 
left hand for the bow; was also conductor 
in Miinster, Krefeld and Hamburg. He 
wrote chamber music in the style of Brahms ; 
edited the correspondence between Brahms 
and J. O. Grimm (1908); was author of 
Johannes Brahms und seine Musik (1904). 
Bibl.: E. Deggeller-Engelke, Richard Barth 
(Marburg, 1949). 

IJarthelemon (bahr-tal-mohn'), Frangois- 
Hippolyte, French violinist and dramatic 
composer; b. Bordeaux, July 27, 1741; d. 
London, July 20, 1808. His father was 
French and his mother Irish. He held posts 
as violinist in various theater orchestras in 
London; became intimately acquainted with 
Haydn during Haydn's London visit in 
1792. He was greatly praised as a violinist; 
Burney speaks of his tone as being "truly 
vocal." Barthelemon wrote mostly for the 
stage; among his operas, the most notable 
are Pelopida (London, May 24, 1766); 
The Judgement of Paris (London, Aug. 24, 
1768); Le Fleuve Scamandre (Paris, Dec. 
22, 1768) ; The Maid of the Oaks (London, 
Nov. 5, 1774); Belphegor (London, March 
16, 1778). In addition he wrote a violin 
concerto; 2 sets of duos for violins; 6 
string quartets; catches and glees to English 
words (many of them published). He was 
married to Mary Young, a descendant of 
Anthony Young; his daughter contributed a 
biographical memoir as a preface to a 
posthumous edition (London, 1827) of se- 
lections from Barthelemon's oratorio, Jefte 
in Masfa. 

Bartholomew, Marshall, American choral 
conductor; b. Belleville, 111., March 3, 1885. 
He studied at Yale University (B. A. 1907) 
with Horatio Parker and David Stanley 
Smith, and later in Berlin. Returning to 
America, he devoted himself mainly to choral 
conducting and arranging. In 1921 he found- 
ed the Yale Glee Club, which he conducted 
until 1928, and again from 1939-48; also 
during its South American tour in 1940- 
41. He publ. choral arrangements of Amer- 
ican folk music; the Yale Glee Club Series 
for male voices (32 numbers); Songs of 



Yale (a book of 128 college songs); 
Mountain Songs of North Carolina; varioiu 
songs for solo voice and piano; 100 Original 
Songs for Young Voices (educational). 

Bartholomew, William, English violinist, 
writer and painter; b. London, 1793; d. 
there Aug. 18, 1867. A versatile artisan, he 
was proficient in chemistry, painting and 
languages. He was a friend of Mendelssohn 
and translated the texts of his oratorios (in- 
cluding Elijah) into English; also wrote 
the English text for Spohr's Jessonda, etc. 
During the last years of his life he was 
incapacitated by paralysis. 

Bartlett, Ethel, English pianist; b. Lon- 
don, June 6, 1900; studied at the Royal 
Academy of Music with Tobias Matthay, 
and later with Schnabel. She specialized 
as piano duet player with her husband, Rae 
Robertson; made annual tours in Europe 
and the U.S. She edited, with her husband, 
the Two Piano Series (publ. by the Oxford 
Univ. Press). 

Bartlett, Homer Newton, American pian- 
ist, organist and composer; b. Olive, N. Y., 
Dec. 28, 1845; d. Hoboken, N. J., April 3, 
1920. He studied with Max Braun and 
Jacobsen; was organist at the Madison 
Avenue Baptist Church, N. Y., for 31 years. 
He was one of the founders of the Ameri- 
can Guild of Organists. His published works 
include a cantata, The Last Chieftain (Bos- 
ton, Jan. 29, 1891); a sextet for flute and 
strings ; quartets, anthems, carols, etc. ; about 
80 songs and piano pieces. The following 
are in manuscript: opera, La Valliere; un- 
finished Japanese opera Hinotito; oratorio, 
Samuel; symph. poem, Apollo; a violin con- 
certo; a cello concerto; etc. His first opus 
number, a Grand Polka de Concert, was 
very popular. 

Bartmuss, Richard, German organist and 
composer; b. Schleesen, Dec. 23, 1859; d. 
Dessau, Dec. 25, 1910. He studied with 
Grell and Loschhorn; in 1885 became court 
organist in Dessau. He wrote numerous or- 
gan works that enjoyed considerable popu- 
larity, among them 2 organ concertos, 4 son- 
atas, 2 chorale-fantasias, etc.; also an ora- 
torio Der Tag der Pfingsten, a cantata Die 
Apostel in Philippi, motets and songs. His 
sacred work Liturgische Vespern represents 
a partial formulation of his attempt to 
modernize the Lutheran musical service. 

Bartok, Bela, foremost Hungarian com- 
poser; b. Nas^ Szent Miklos, Transylvania, 
March 25, 1881; d. New York, Sept. 26, 
1945. He studied with L. Erkel at Pozsony 
(Bratislava) and with Koessler at the Royal 

Academy of Music in Budapest; in 1907 
he was appointed instructor. After World 
War I he was a member of the Music 
Directorate with Dohnanyi and Kodaly. Al- 
though a brilliant pianist, he confined his 
appearances mostly to his own music; also 
gave concerts with his second wife, Ditta 
Pasztory, playing works for 2 pianos. From 
his earliest steps as composer he was at- 
tracted both by folk music of eastern Eu- 
rope and by modern devices in composition. 
His early works bear the influence of French 
impressionism. As he began to feel the fas- 
cination of primitive rhythms and melodies, 
his style gradually became more terse and 
acrid. The basic texture of his music re- 
mained true to tonality, while freely tolerat- 
ing discordant harmonic combinations; in 
his instrumental works the melodic line is 
often atonal, but he never used the integral 
technique of the 12-tone method. He tra- 
veled widely in Europe; made his first tour 
in the United States in 1927-28, playing 
with orchestras and in concerts from coast 
to coast. Upon his return to Europe he 
continued to teach and compose in Buda- 
pest; in the fall of 1940 he went to America, 
where he remained till his death. The in- 
fluence of Bartok's music on young com- 
posers in Hungary and elsewhere is very 
great, and has continued to increase since 
his death. The dual aspect of his style, 
embodying elements of Hungarian folk music 
and modern devices of polytonality and 
atonality, presents a solution for those mod- 
ernists who are reluctant to abandon na- 
tional melodic expression. Posthumous hon- 
ors were given to Bartok in Hungary by 
naming one of the Budapest streets after 
him. Works: Kossuth, symph. poem (Buda- 
pest, Jan. 13, 1904) ; Scherzo for orch. 
(Budapest, Feb. 29, 1904); Rhapsody for 
piano (1904; also for orch.); Suite No. 
1 for orch. (1905); 20 Hungarian 
folksongs (1906); Suite No. 2 for orch. 
(1907; revised 1943); 2 Portraits for 
orch. (1908); 14 Bagatelles for piano 
(1908); string quartet No. 1 (1910); 2 
Elegies for piano (1908); 7 Sketches for 
piano (1910; revised 1945); 2 Rumanian 
Dances for piano (1909); Deux images for 
orch. (1910; Budapest, Feb. 26, 1913); 3 
Burlesques for piano (1910); The Castle of 
Duke Bluebeard, opera in 1 act (1911: 
Budapest, May 24, 1918) ; Allegro barbaro 
for piano (1911; very popular); 4 Pieces 
for orch. (1912); The Wooden Prince, bal- 
let in 1 act. (Budapest, May 12, 1917); 
string quartet No. 2 (1917); 3 Etudes for 
piano (1918); The Miraculous Mandarin, 
ballet (1919; Cologne, Nov. 27, 1926); 



violin sonata No. 1 (1921); violin sonata 
No. 2 (1922) ; dance suite for orch. (1923) ; 
piano sonata (1926); piano concerto No. 1 
(Frankfurt, July 1, 1927, composer as solo- 
ist) ; string quartet No. 3 (1927); 2 Rhap- 
sodies for violin and piano (1928); string 
quartet No. 4 (1928); Cantata Prof ana 
(BBC, London, May 25, 1934); piano con- 
certo No. 2 (1931); string quartet No. 5 
(1934); Music for String Instruments, Per- 
cussion and Celesta (Basel, Jan. 21, 1937; 
one of Bartok's most successful works) ; 
Sonata for 2 pianos and percussion (Basel, 
Jan. 16, 1938; transcribed as Concerto for 
2 pianos and orch.; perf. in this form by 
Bela and Ditta Bartok with the N. Y. Philh., 
Jan. 21, 1943; also an enduring work); 
Mikrokosmos, 153 progressive pieces for 
piano (1926-37; publ. in 6 vols.; a unique 
attempt to write simply in a modern idiom 
with varying meters and dissonant counter- 
point) ; Contrasts for violin, clarinet and 
piano (1938); violin concerto (Amsterdam, 
April 23, 1939; has become a standard 
piece in the modern repertory) ; Diverti- 
mento for string orch. (Basel, June 11, 
1940); string quartet No. 6 (1939); 
Concerto for orch. (commissioned by 
Koussevitzky ; perf. by him, Boston, Dec. 1, 
1 944 ; highly successful ) ; sonata for solo 
violin (1944); piano concerto No. 3 (1945; 
unfinished); viola concerto (1945; unfin- 
ished; orchestrated by Tibor Serly; first 
perf., Minneapolis, Dec. 2, 1949). In addi- 
tion to these Bartok made numerous ar- 
rangements of folksongs and dances, of 
which a set of Rumanian dances, available 
in various instrumental transcriptions, is 
particularly popular; further to be noted 
are: 40 Hungarian folksongs; 15 Hungarian 
peasant songs; 9 Slovak folksongs; 8 impro- 
visations on Hungarian peasant songs for 
piano; also arrangements for orch. of many 
of these songs. Scholarly editions and re- 
search publications; Rumanian Folksongs 
from the Bihor District (Bucharest, 1913); 
Transylvanian Folksongs (Budapest, 1923; 
in Hungarian, French and English; with 
Kodaly) ; A magyar nepdal (Budapest, 
1924; in German as Das ungarische V oiks- 
lied, Berlin, 1925; in English as Hungarian 
Folk Music, London, 1931); Our Folk 
Music (Budapest, 1934; in Hungarian, Ger- 
man and French) ; Die Melodien der ruma- 
nischen Colinde (Vienna, 1935) ; Serbo-Croa- 
tian Folk Songs (with Albert B. Lord; N. Y., 
1951) ; articles in various musical magazines, 
among them Hungarian Peasant Music, in the 
'Mus. Quarterly' (July, 1933). An entire liter- 
ature exists dealing with Bartok's life and 
music; the most comprehensive biography is by 

Halsey Stevens, The Life and Music of Bela 
Bartok (N. Y., 1953). See also E. Haraszti, 
Bela Bartok (Budapest, 1930; in English, 
1938) ; A. Molnar, The Art of Bartok (Buda- 
pest, 1948, in Hungarian); S. Moreux, Bela 
Bartok, sa vie, ses oeuvres, son langage 
(Paris, 1949; in German, Zurich, 1950; in 
English, London, 1953); B. Rondi, Bartok 
(Rome, 1950) ; M. Seiber, The String Quar- 
tets of Bela Bartok (London, 1945). A mem- 
orial collection of articles on Bartok was 
issued by his publishers, Boosey & Hawkes 
(N. Y., 1950); a special Bartok number of 
'La Revue Musicale' appeared in 1955. 

Bartos (bahr-tosh), Frantisek, Moravian 
music editor; b. Mlatcova, March 16, 1837; 
d. there, June 11, 1906. He was a school 
teacher; published important collections of 
Moravian folk songs between 1873 and 
1901; also wrote essays on Moravian folk- 

Bartos (bahr-tosh), Jan Zdenek, Czech 
composer; b. Kralove Dvur nad Labem, 
June 4, 1908. He began to study music 
rather late; took courses with Jirak and 
Kricka in Pragu6; in 1945 he entered gov- 
ernment service. He has written 2 operas, a 
ballet, 2 cantatas, many choral works, 3 
string quartets; and a quintet for flute, 
violin, viola, cello and guitar. 

Bartos (bahr-tosh), Josef, Czech writer on 
music; b. Vysoke Mfto, March 4, 1887. He 
studied with Hostinsky at the Univ. of 
Prague (1905-9); was active as a teacher 
and writer; published monographs on 
Dvorak (1913), Fibich (1914), J. B. Foer- 
ster (1922), and Otakar Ostrcil (1936) ; also 
an important work on the National Opera 
of Prague (1938). 

Barvik, Miroslav, Czech composer; b. 
Luzica, Sept. 14, 1919. He studied with V. 
Kapral at the Brno Cons., and with Novak 
in Prague. Since 1948, instructor in com- 
position at the Prague Cons. Among his 
works are a Symphony ( 1 944 ) ; 2 string 
quartets (1940, 1944); and the patriotic 
and political cantatas: Song of the Father- 
land (1944); Thanks to the Soviet Union 
(1946); Hands Off Korea (1950). 

Bary, Alfred Erwin von, opera singer; b. 
La Valetta, Malta, Jan. 18, 1873; d. Mun- 
ich, Sept. 13, 1926. He studied medicine at 
Munich Univ. (Dr. med., 1898) ; later de- 
veloped his dramatic tenor voice, and was 
engaged at the Dresden Court Opera (1902- 
12); then at the Court Opera in Munich; 
sang the roles of Parsifal, Siegmund and 
Tristan at Bayreuth. 



Barzin (bahr-zahn'), Leon, conductor; b. 
Brussels, Nov. 27, 1900. He was brought to 
the U.S. in 1902; his father was first viola 
player in the orchestra of the Metropolitan 
Opera; his mother was a ballerina. He 
studied violin with his father, and later 
with Henrotte, Deru and Eugene Ysaye. He 
settled in New York; played the violin in 
various orchestras there; in 1925 he was ap- 
pointed first viola player of the New York 
Philharmonic, retaining this position until 
1929, when he was engaged as assistant con- 
ductor of the American Orchestral Society; 
it was reorganized the following year as the 
National Orchestral Association, with Barzin 
as principal conductor and musical director. 
He has appeared as guest conductor with the 
N. Y. Philh. at the Lewisohn Stadium; was 
conductor of the Hartford Symph. Orch. 
(1938-40); also conducted in Europe. He is 
particularly successful in training semi-profes- 
sional orchestral ensembles. 

Barzun, Jacques, French-American educa- 
tor and author of books on music; b. Paris, 
Nov. 30, 1907. He came to the U.S. in 
1919; studied at Columbia Univ. (A.B., 
1927; Ph.D., 1932); became lecturer in 
history there in 1927; professor in 1945. 
Among his writings concerned with music 
are Darwin, Marx, Wagner (Boston, 1941); 
and Berlioz and the Romantic Century 
(Boston, 1950; 2 vols, with exhaustive docu- 
mentation). He is also editor and trans- 
lator of New Letters of Berlioz (N.Y., 
1954) ; publ. a new translation of Berlioz's 
Evenings with the Orchestra (N. Y., 1956) ; 
also wrote a survey, Music in American Life 
(N. Y., 1956). 

Bas, Giulio, Italian organist and music 
editor; b. Venice, April 21, 1874; d. Vob- 
bia, near Genoa, July 27, 1929. He studied 
in Munich with Rheinberger and in Venice 
with Bossi; was organist and conductor at 
churches in Venice, Calvi, Teano and Rome 
(S. Luigi de' Francesi) ; after 1908 taught 
at the Milan Cons.; composed church music 
and many pieces for organ. He contributed 
to musical publications, and was editor of 
'Musica d'oggi'; wrote textbooks on formal 
analysis, harmony and counterpoint, includ- 
ing Metodo per I'accompagnamento del canto 
gregoriano e per la composizione negli otto 
modi (translated into French and Dutch) ; 
Manuale di canto gregoriano (also in Span- 
ish) ; Trattato di forma musicale, etc. 

Baselt, Fritz (Friedrich Gustav Otto), 
composer; b. Oels, Silesia, May 26, 1863; d. 
there, Nov. 12, 1931. He studied with Emil 
Kohler in Breslau and with Ludwig Bussler 

in Berlin; was musician, music-dealer, com- 
poser, teacher and conductor in Breslau, 
Essen and Nuremberg; after 1894 he settled 
in Frankfurt-on-Main, where he conducted 
the Philharmonischer Vercin and the Frank- 
furt Sangervereinigung. He wrote many 
light operas: Der Fiirst von Sevilla (Nurem- 
berg, 1888); Don Alvaro (Ansbach, 1892); 
Der Sohn des Peliden (Kassel, 1893); Die 
Annaliese (Kassel, 1896) ; Die Musketiere 
im Damenstift (Kassel, 1896) ; Die Circusfee 
(Berlin, 1897); also 2 ballets: Die Altweib- 
ermuhle (Frankfurt, 1906), and Rokoko 
(Frankfurt, 1907) ; some 100 male choruses; 
many instrumental pieces; songs. 

Basevi, Abramo, Italian composer and 
writer on music; b. Leghorn, Dec. 29, 1818; 
d. Florence, Nov. 25, 1885. His 2 operas, 
Romilda ed Ezzelino (Florence, Aug. 11, 
1840) and Enrico Odoardo (Florence, 
1847), were unsuccessful, and he turned to 
musical journalism; founded the periodical 
'Harmonia'; publ. a Studio sulle opere di G. 
Verdi (1859); Studi sul armonia (1865); 
Compendio della storia della musica 
(1866); etc. 

Basil (Saint) the Great; b. 329 at 
Caesarea, Cappadocia; d. there in 379. He 
was a bishop in Caesarea; is reputed to have 
introduced congregational (antiphonal) sing- 
ing into the Eastern Church, thus being 
the forerunner of St. Ambrose in the West- 

Basili, Francesco, Italian composer; b. 
Loreto, Feb., 1767; d. Rome, March 25, 
1850. He was a pupil of his father, An- 
drea Basili (1720-1777); later of Janna- 
coni at Rome; was conductor at Foligno, 
Macerata and Loreto; produced 14 operas 
and several 'dramatic oratorios' in Rome, 
Naples, Florence, Milan and Venice; ap- 
pointed to the faculty of the Milan Cons. 
(1827); in 1837 became conductor at St. 
Peter's in Rome. He wrote a Requiem (for 
Jannaconi, 1816); several symphonies ; much 
sacred music; piano sonatas; songs; etc. 

Bassani, Geronimo, Italian singer and 
composer; b. Padua, late in the 17th cen- 
tury. He studied with Lotti; was a fine 
contrapuntist, singer and singing teacher; 
produced 2 operas at Venice: Bertoldo 
(1718) and Amor per forza (1721); also 
wrote masses, motets and vespers. 

Bassani (Bassano), Giovanni, Italian com- 
poser, singer and violinist. He was a singer 
at San Marco, Venice, in 1585; singing 
teacher at the Seminary of San Marco 
(1595); first violin soloist at the Chapel of 



the Basilica (1615). The following instru- 
mental works by him are extant: Fantasie 
a tre voci per cantar e sonar (1585) ; II fiore 
dei capricci musicali a 4 voci (1588); Mot- 
etti, madrigali e canzoni francesi di diversi 
auttori . . . diminuiti per sonar con ogni 
sorti di stromenti (1591; reprinted in 1602 
in an arrangement for one voice with organ 
ad lib.; containing works of Clemens non 
Papa, Crequillon, Palestrina and others; the 
term diminuiti refers to ornamentation of 
the original vocal compositions) ; 2 volumes 
of Motetti per concerti ecclesiastici for 5-12 
voices (1598-99); a volume of Canzonette 
for 4 voices (1587); etc. 

Bassani (Bassano; Bassiani), Giovanni 
Battista, Italian composer, organist and 
violinist; b. Padua c. 1657; d. Bergamo, 
Oct. 1, 1716. He studied in Venice with 
Castrovillari; was maestro di cappella to 
the Duke of Mirandola (1678); at the 
chapel of the Accademia della Morte in 
Ferrara (1684) ; at the cathedral of Ferrara 
(1688) and at the Basilica Maria in Ber- 
gamo (1712), where he remained until his 
death. He was also a member of the Acca- 
demia dei Filarmonici in Bologna from 1677. 
His extant works include the following 
operas: Amorosa Freda di Paride (Bologna, 
1683); Falaride tiranno d Agrigento 
(1684) ; Alarico re de Goti (Ferrara, 1685) ; 
Ginevra, infante di Scozia (Ferrara, 1690) ; 
oratorios: La morte delusa (1686); Giona 
(1689); Nella luna celestiale (1687); II 
Conte di Bacheville (1696); Mose risorto 
dalle acque (1698); Gl'Impegni del divino 
amore (1703); II trionfo della fede (1707). 
He also wrote numerous masses, and other 
sacred music. Of his instrumental works, 
several suites and trio-sonatas are reprinted 
in Torchi's L'Arte musicale in Italia (vol. 
VII) and in J. W. Wasielewski's Instru- 
mentalsatze vom Ende des XVI. bis Ende 
des XVII. Jahrhunderts (1874). A cantata 
is included in Riemann's Kantaten-Fruhling 
(vol. II); some vocal works are published 
by G. F. Malipiero in Classici della musica 
italiana. Bibl. : J. W. Wasielewski, Die Vio- 
line und ihre Meister (1883); A. Moser, 
Geschichte des Violinspiels (1923) ; A. Scher- 
ing, Geschichte des Oratoriums (1911). See 
also F. Pasini, Notes sur la vie de G. B. 
Bassani in 'Sammelbande der Internatio- 
nal Musik-Gesellschaft' (vol. VII, 1906); 
R. Haselbach, G. B. Bassani (Kassel, 1955). 

Bassford, William Kipp, American pian- 
ist, b. New York, April 23, 1839; d. there, 
Dec. 22, 1902. He was a church organist 
in New York; also gave piano concerts; 
composed an opera Cassilda. He completed 
Vincent Wallace's unfinished opera, Estrella. 

Bassevi, Giacomo. See Cervetto. 

Bassi, Amadeo (Vittorio), Italian operatic 
tenor; b. Florence, July 20, 1874; d. there, 
January 14, 1949. His sole teacher was the 
Marchese Pavese Negri in Florence, where 
he made his debut in Ruy Bias (1899). He 
toured South America (1902-7) ; sang at the 
Manhattan Opera House, N. Y. (1906-8) 
and at the Chicago Opera Co. (1910-12). 
His repertoire included more than 50 operas, 
mostly Italian; he created the following 
roles: Angel Clare in d'Erlanger's Tess; 
Federico in Franchetti's Germania; Giorgio 
in Mascagni's L'Amica; and Lionello in 
Cilea's Gloria. 

Bassi, Luigi, Italian opera baritone; b. 
Pesaro, Sept. 4, 1766; d. Dresden, Sept. 13, 
1825. He studied with Pietro Morandi of 
Bologna; made his debut in Pesaro at the 
age of thirteen; he then sang in Florence; 
went to Prague in 1784, where he soon be- 
came greatly appreciated. Mozart wrote the 
part of Don Giovanni for him and heeded 
his advice in matters of detail. Bassi was in 
Vienna from 1806-14; then briefly in 
Prague; in 1815 he joined an Italian opera 
company in Dresden. 

Bastiaans, Johannes Gijsbertus, Dutch or- 
ganist; b. Wilp, Oct. 31, 1812; d. Haarlem, 
Feb. 16, 1875. He was a pupil of Schneider 
at Dessau, and Mendelssohn at Leipzig; was 
organist at the Zuiderkerk, Amsterdam, and 
at St. Bavo's, Haarlem (1868); succeeded 
at St. Bavo's by his son, Johann (1854- 
1885). Bastiaans published a book of chor- 
ales and numerous songs. 

Baston, Josquin, Flemish composer of the 
mid- 16th century. It is known that from 
May 1552 to Oct. 1553 he was at the Polish 
Court of Sigismond Augustus at Cracow. 
Motets and chansons by Baston appeared 
between 1542 and 1559 in various collec- 
tions: Susato's Het ierste musyck boexken 
(Antwerp, 1551); Salbinger's Concertus 
(Augsburg, 1545); also in Louvain (pub- 
lished by Phalese). His Lament has 2 middle 
voices singing the Requiem aeternam in 
canon 6 times while the other voices have 
fresh parts. See R. van Maldeghem (ed.), 
Tresor musical (1865-93; vol. XII). 

Bate, Stanley Richard, English composer; 
b. Plymouth, Dec. 12, 1911. He studied at 
the Royal College of Music ( 1931-35) with 
Vaughan Williams (composition) and Ar- 
thur Benjamin (piano) ; won a travelling 
scholarship enabling him to go to Paris 
where he studied with Nadia Boulanger, 
and to Berlin where he took some lessons 



with Hindemith. Returning to England in 

1937, he was commissioned to write a con- 
certino for piano and chamber orch., which 
he performed at the Eastbourne Festival of 
Music (Feb. 8, 1938). He also wrote several 
ballets: Goyescas (1937), Perseus (1938), 
Cap Over Mill (1938), etc. On Nov. 7, 

1938, he married Peggy Glanville-Hicks 
(divorced 1948). During World War II he 
toured Australia as pianist, composer and 
lecturer (1940-41). In 1942 he went to the 
U.S. and played the solo part in his 2nd 
piano concerto with the New York Philh., 
under Beecham (Feb. 8, 1942); in 1945 he 
was in Brazil where he gave several con- 
certs of his works on the radio. In 1946 
he was in New York; then returned to Lon- 
don in 1950. He has written 4 symphonies; 
the 3rd symphony (1940) was first per- 
formed fourteen years after its composition 
(Cheltenham Festival, July 14, 1954), ob- 
taining remarkable success. His 4th sym- 
phony was given in London, on Nov. 20, 
1955. Other works: 2 sinfoniettas, 3 violin 
concertos, a viola concerto, 3 piano con- 
certos, a cello concerto, a harpsichord con- 
certo, 2 string quartets, sonata for recorder 
and piano, violin sonata, oboe sonata, 9 
piano sonatinas; music for the films. 

Bates, Joah, British conductor; b. Halifax, 
March (baptized March 8), 1741; d. Lon- 
don, June 8, 1799. He studied organ in 
Manchester; was a tutor of King's College 
in Cambridge (1760); received his B.A. in 
1764, and M.A. in 1767. He then went to 
London, and established and conducted the 
series known as 'Concerts of Ancient Music' 
(1776); also conducted the famous Handel 
Commemoration Festivals (1784-87; 1791). 

Bates, William, English composer who 
flourished in the second half of the 18th 
century. He wrote popular ballad operas 
for the Marylebone and Vauxhall Gardens, 
London: The Jovial Crew (1760, altered to 
The Ladies Frolick in 1770) ; Flora, or Hob 
in the Well (1767); The Theatrical Candi- 
dates (1775) ; The Device, or The Marriage 
Officer (1777); Second Thought Is Best 
(1778); also a grand opera, Pharnaces 
(London, Nov. 15, 1765). 

Bateson, Thomas, English composer; b. 
probably at Cheshire c. 1570; d. Dublin, 
March or April, 1630. According to Rim- 
bault, he was organist at Chester Cathedral 
in 1599. In 1609 he became vicar choral 
and organist of the Cathedral of the Holy 
Trinity in Dublin. He is said to have been 
the first music graduate of Trinity College, 
earning his Mus. B. in 1612 and his M.A. 

in 1622. As a composer, Bateson is especial- 
ly noted for his madrigals, although they 
are regarded as inferior to those by Morley 
or Weelkes. In 1604 he published a collec- 
tion of 29 madrigals for 3 to 6 voices; it in- 
cluded the madrigal When Oriana walked to 
take the ayre originally intended for publica- 
tion in Morley's Triumphs of Oriana. A sec- 
ond set of 30 madrigals was published in 
1618. Both sets are reprinted in The English 
Madrigal School edited by E. H. Fellowes 
(volumes XXI and XXII). 

Bath, Hubert, English composer; b. Barn- 
staple, Nov. 6, 1883; d. Harefield, April 24, 
1945. He studied piano and composition at 
the Royal Academy of Music; won a schol- 
arship with his short opera based on Long- 
fellow's Spanish Student; conducted Thomas 
Quinlan's opera troupe on its world tour 
(1912-13); returning to England, devoted 
himself chiefly to theatrical music. His 
works include several short operas: Young 
England (1915); Bubbles (Belfast, Nov. 26, 
1923); The Sire de Maletroit's Door; The 
Three Strangers; and the grand opera 
Trilby. He also wrote incidental music to 
Hannele (1908; later expanded into a 
symph. poem) ; African Suite for orch., and 
6 cantatas: Legend of Nerbudda (1908), 
The Wedding of Shon MacLean (Leeds 
Festival, 1910), The Jackdaw of Rheims 
(1911), Look at the Clock (1911), The Men 
on the Line (1913), The Wake of O'Con- 
nor (1914) ; a piece for brass band, Freedom 
(1922); more than 150 songs, and various 
instrumental compositions. 

Bathe, WiUiam, Irish writer on musical 
subjects; b. Ireland, April 2, 1564; d. 
Madrid, June 17, 1614. He was the son of 
Judge John Bathe; studied at Oxford; re- 
mained in England (1584-90); taught 
mnemonics to Queen Elizabeth and present- 
ed her with a harp of his own design. He 
was in Spain in 1591; went to Flanders 
where he became a Jesuit and entered his 
novitiate in 1596; was ordained a priest at 
Padua in 1599; returned to Spain in 1601; 
in 1604 was appointed spiritual director 
of the Irish College at Lisbon; was in Sala- 
manca in 1606 and 1612. As a theorist, 
his chief contributions lay in the establish- 
ment of fixed rules for the placing of acci- 
dentals and in the transition from the hexa- 
chordal system to the system of scales based 
on the octave. He was the author of one 
of the earliest theoretical works on music 
in English, Introduction to the True Art 
of Musicke (London, 1584) ; also published 
A Brief Introduction to the Skill of Song 
(London, 1600). His best known work was 



not on music but on linguistics, Janua lin- 
guarum (Portal of Tongues; Salamanca, 
1611). Bibl.: J. Pulver, The English Theo- 
rists: William Bathe, in the 'Mus. Times' 
(October, 1934). 

Batiste, Antoine-Edouard, French organ- 
ist; b. Paris, March 28, 1820; d. there, 
Nov. 9, 1876. He studied at the Paris Cons, 
with Halevy; won 2d Grand Prix de Rome 
with the cantata Heloise de Montfort 
(1840); subsequently was organist of St.- 
Nicolas-des-Champs (1842-54), then of St. 
Eustache. He composed organ music, piano 
pieces and songs; also edited the official 
Solfeges du Conservatoire (12 vols.), and 
published a Petit solfege harmonique. 

Batistin. See Stuck, Johann Baptist. 

Batka, Richard, music editor; b. Prague, 
Dec. 14, 1868; d. Vienna, April 24, 1922. 
He received his Dr. phil. from the Univ. of 
Prague; from 1896-8 was co-editor, with 
Teibler, of the 'Neue musikalische Rund- 
schau'; also wrote for the 'Neue Revue' and 
the 'Prager Tageblatt'; settled in Vienna 
(1908), where he was music editor of the 
'Wiener Fremdenblatt' and other musical 
publications. He wrote the librettos of many 
modern German operas (almost all of 
Blech's), and translated the texts of nu- 
merous foreign operas. Writings: Biogra- 
phies of Bach and Schumann (in Reclam's 
ed., Leipzig, 1892); Aus der Musik und 
Theaterwelt (Prague, 1894) ; Martin Pliid- 
demann: Eine kritische Studie (Prague, 
1896) ; Musikalische Streifzuge (Leipzig, 
1899); Die Musik der Griechen (1900); 
Die mehrstimmige Kunstmusik des Mittel- 
alters (1901); with P. Runge, Die Lieder 
Miilichs von Prag (in 'Denkmaler deutscher 
Tonkunst aus Bohmen', 1905) ; Die Musik 
in Bohmen (Berlin, 1906); Geschichte der 
Musik in Bohmen (Vol. I: Bohmen unter 
deutschem Einfluss, Prague, 1906) ; Aus der 
Opernwelt (1907); Allgemeine Geschichte 
der Musik (2 vols., Stuttgart, 1909-11); a 
monograph on Wagner ( Berlin, 1912); etc. 

Batta, Alexandre, cellist; b. Maastricht, 
July 9, 1816; d. Versailles, Oct. 8, 1902. 
He was a pupil of Platel at the Brussels 
Cons.; settled in Paris (1835); made suc- 
cessful concert tours on the continent; 
wrote many melodious pieces and transcrip- 
tions for cello with piano accompaniment. 

Battaille (bah-tah'-y), Charles-Aimable, 
French bass; b. Nantes, Sept. 30, 1822; d. 
Paris, May 2, 1872. He was originally a 
medical student; then studied music; sang 
at the Opera-Comique in Paris (1848-57), 

until a throat disorder ended his public 
career; taught singing at the Paris Cons. 
(1851). He published an extensive method 
of singing in 2 vols. : I. Nouvelles recherches 
sul la phonation (1861); II. De la physio- 
logic appliquee au mecanisme du chant 

Battanchon (ba-tahn-shohn'), Felix, 
French cellist and composer; b. Paris, April 
9, 1814; d. there, July, 1893. He studied 
with Vaslin and Norblin at the Paris Cons.; 
member of the Grand Opera Orch. (1840). 
In 1846 he invented, and vainly tried to 
popularize, a small type of cello called a 

Batten, Adrian, English organist and 
composer, b. c. 1585; d. London, 1637. He 
studied at Winchester with the Cathedral 
organist John Holmes; in 1614 went to 
London as vicar choral of Westminster Ab- 
bey. In 1624 he became vicar choral and 
organist at St. Paul's Cathedral. A prolific 
composer, he left 15 services and 47 an- 
thems in manuscript. Some of his pieces 
are included iir Boyce's 'Cathedral Music'. 
A modern reprint of one of his services is 
included in The Choir; several anthems 
have been published by Novello. Batten also 
transcribed into organ score numerous sacred 
choral works, some of which have come 
down to us only through his transcriptions. 
His organ book is described in Tudor 
Church Music (1922, vol. II). 

Battishill, Jonathan, English organist and 
composer; b. London, May, 1738; d. Isling- 
ton, Dec. 10, 1801. He was a chorister in 
St. Paul's ( 1 747 ) ; later apprenticed to 
William Savage; was deputy organist under 
Boyce at the Chapel Royal; then harpsi- 
chordist at Covent Garden and organist in 
several London parishes. He wrote an opera 
with Michael Arne: Almena (Drury Lane 
Theatre, Nov. 2, 1764); a pantomime, The 
Rites of Hecate (1764); many popular an- 
thems, glees and songs. Cf. J. B. Trend, 
Jonathan Battishill in 'Music and Letters' 

Battista, Vincenzo, Italian composer; b. 
Naples, Oct. 5, 1823; d. there, Nov. 14, 
1873. He studied at the Naples Cons.; wrote 
13 operas, eleven of which were produced 
at Naples (1844-69). 

Battistini, Gaudenzio, Italian composer, 
grandson of Giacomo Battistini; b. Novara, 
June 30, 1722; d. there, Feb. 25, 1800. He 
succeeded his father, Giuseppe Battistini, 
in 1747 as organist of the chapel of San 
Gaudenzio in Novara, and served for more 



than 50 years until his death. He wrote 
numerous church works in a highly devel- 
oped polyphonic style (15 motets, a Re- 
quiem, etc.). A biographical sketch and 
examples of his music are found in Vito 
Fedeli, 'Le Cappelle musicali di Novara' 
in vol. Ill of 'Istituzioni e monumenti dell' 
arte musicale italiana' (Milan, 1933). 

Battistini, Giacomo, Italian composer; b. 
1665; d. Novara, Feb. 5, 1719. He was or- 
ganist at the Novara Cathedral (1694- 
1706); then at the church of San Gauden- 
zio. He is reputed to have been the first to 
introduce the violoncello into instrumental 
accompaniment. He composed several mass- 
es, motets, organ works; also contributed 
music to the third act of the drama Antemio 
in Roma (1695; with A. Besozzi and D. 
Erba). See Vito Fedelli, 'Le cappelle musi- 
cali di Novara' in vol. Ill of 'Istituzioni e 
monumenti dell' arte musicale italiana' (Mi- 
lan, 1933), containing musical illustrations 
from Battistini's works. 

Battistini, Mattia, Italian baritone; b. 
Rome, Feb. 27, 1856; d. Collebaccaro, near 
Rome, Nov. 7, 1928. He made his debut in 
Donizetti's La Favorita (Teatro Argentina, 
Rome, 1878) ; subsequently appeared for a 
season with the Italian Opera in Buenos 
Aires; sang on all the principal stages of 
Italy, Spain and Portugal; gave recitals in 
many European cities, including London, 
Berlin and St. Petersburg, until 1927. Cf. 
G. Monaldi, Cantanti celebri, vol. II (Rome, 

Battke, Max, German teacher and writer; 
b. Schiffuss, near Wandlacken, Sept. 15, 
1863; d. Berlin, Oct. 4, 1916. He studied 
at Konigsberg and Berlin, where he later 

i taught at various conservatories. He found- 
ed a music seminary in Berlin (1900), which 

I became (1910) the famous 'Seminar fiir 
Schulgesang' ; also founded (1902) the first 

j concerts for young people. He wrote numer- 
ous textbooks on music and methods for 
voice production; edited (with Humper- 

i dinck ) new collections of folksongs and 

I piano pieces. 

Battmann, Jacques-Louis, organist and 
composer; b. Maasmiinster, Alsace, Aug. 25, 
1818; d. Dijon, July 7, 1886. He was or- 
ganist at Belfort (1840) ; wrote masses, mot- 

i ets, choral music, many pieces for harmon- 

i ium, a treatise on harmony, etc. 

Batton (bah-tohn'), Desire-Alexandre, 

French composer; b. Paris, Jan. 2, 1798; d. 

^Versailles, Oct. 15, 1855. He was a pupil 

(of Cherubini at the Paris Cons.; won the 

Prix de Rome (1816) for his cantata, La 
mort d' Adonis; was inspector of the branch 
schools of the Cons, from 1842, and teacher 
of a vocal class at the Cons, from 1849. His 
most successful opera, La Marquise de Brin- 
villiers (1832), was written jointly with 
Auber, Herold and others; his own operas 
were La fenetre secrete (Paris, Nov. 17, 
1818) ; Ethelvina (1827) ; and Le prisonnier 
d'etat (1828). 

Battu (bah-tu'), Pantaleon, French violin- 
ist; b. Paris, 1799; d. there, Jan. 17, 1870. 
He studied with R. Kreutzer at the Paris 
Cons. ; member of the orchestra of the Opera 
and the court until his retirement in 1859; 
wrote 3 violin concertos; 3 violin duos; etc. 

Batz, Karl, German music editor; b. 
Sommerda, Thuringia, March 17, 1851; d. 
Berlin, 1902. He lived in America (1871- 
86) ; then settled in Berlin, where he found- 
ed the 'Musikinstrumenten-Zeitung' in 1890; 
published Die Musikinstrumente der In- 
dianer (1876); also various pamphlets on 

Baudiot (boh-d'yoh'), Charles-Nicolas, 

French cellist; b. Nancy, March 29, 1773; 
d. Paris, Sept. 26, 1849. He was a pupil of 
the elder Janson, whom he succeeded as cel- 
lo professor at the Paris Cons. (1802) ; from 
1816 was first cellist in the royal orchestra; 
retired in 1832. With Levasseur and Baillot 
he wrote the cello method used at the Paris 
Cons.; also wrote Instruction pour les com- 
positeurs (a guide to composers for cello) ; 
composed 2 cello concertos; 2 cello concert- 
inos; a great variety of chamber music for 

Baudrier, Yves, French composer; b. Paris, 
Feb. 11, 1906. He was originally a law 
student; then turned to music. In 1936 he, 
together with Messiaen, Jolivet and Daniel- 
Lesur, formed in Paris 'La Jeune France', 
a group dedicated to propaganda for a new, 
purely national French music, neither ultra- 
modern nor academic. In 1946 Baudrier 
visited the U.S., giving lectures on new 
French music. He has written the orchestral 
works Raz de Sein; Chant de Jeunesse; Le 
musicien dans la Cite; Eleonora (after Poe), 
a suite for string orch. (1938); Le grand 
voilier, symph. poem (1939-41); string 
quartet ( 1 942 ) ; symphony ( 1 945 ) . 

Bauer, Harold, distinguished pianist; b. 
Kingston-on-Thames, near London, of an 
English mother and German father, April 
28, 1873; d. Miami, March 12, 1951. He 
studied violin with his father and Adolf 
Politzer; made his debut as a violinist in 



London; in 1892 he went to Paris and stud- 
ied piano for a year with Paderewski; in 
1893 made his first tour as a pianist in 
Russia; gave piano recitals throughout Eu- 
rope; in 1900 made his U.S. debut with the 
Boston Symph. Orch.; appeared as soloist 
with other U.S. orchestras, with eminent 
chamber music groups, and as a recitalist. 
He founded the Beethoven Association in 
New York (1918); was president of the 
Friends of Music in the Library of Congress, 
Washington, D.G.; Knight of the Legion of 
Honor; Mus. Doc. (honorary), Lawrence 
College, Appleton, Wisconsin (1938). 
Among his writings are: Self-Portrait of the 
Artist as a Young Man in the 'Mus. Quar- 
terly' (October, 1947); Harold Bauer, His 
Book (N.Y., 1948). He also made arrange- 
ments and transcriptions of Beethoven's 
Grosse Fuge, op. 133; Kuhnau's David and 
Goliath; and Bach's Concerto in C for 2 
pianos and string orchestra; edited works by 
Schubert and Brahms, and Mussorgsky's 
Pictures at an Exhibition. 

Bauer, Marion Eugenie, American com- 
poser and writer; b. Walla Walla, Wash., 
Aug. 15, 1887; d. South Hadley, Mass., 
Aug. 9, 1955. Her parents were of French 
extraction; her father was an amateur musi- 
cian. She was educated at schools in Port- 
land, Oregon; in 1932 received an honorary 
M.A. from Whitman College in Walla 
Walla; studied music in Paris with Andre 
Gedalge, Nadia Boulanger and Campbell- 
Tipton; also in Berlin with Paul Ertel, and 
in America with Walter Henry Rothwell, 
Eugene Heffley and Henry Holden Huss. She 
was visiting professor at Mills College 
(1935), and at the Carnegie Institute of 
Technology in Pittsburgh (1936; 1939); 
annual lecturer at the Chautauqua Institute 
from 1928; later lived in New York; was 
associate prof, of music at New York Univ. 
and instructor at the Juilliard Summer 
School; joined the faculty of the Institute 
of Musical Art in 1940. She was active in 
music societies ; was a founder of the Ameri- 
can Music Guild in N.Y. (1921) ; a member 
of the Executive Board of the League of 
Composers, etc. Her compositions are dis- 
tinguished by fine texture, in a fairly ad- 
vanced modern manner. She was highly es- 
teemed as a teacher of music history and 
composition. Works: Up the Ocklawaha, 
tone poem (1913); From New Hampshire 
Woods for piano (1921); string quartet 
(1928) ; Fantasia quasi una sonata for violin 
and piano (1928); Indian Pipes (orches- 
trated by Martin Bernstein; Chautauqua 
Festival, 1928); Three Noels for chorus 
(1929); incidental music to Aeschylus' 

Prometheus Bound (1930); Sun Splendor, 
for piano (1926; also for orch.; perf. by 
Stokowski with the N. Y. Philh., Oct. 25, 
1947); Dance Sonata for piano (1932); 
suite for oboe and clarinet (1932); viola 
sonata (1936); 4 songs with string quartet 
(1936); Pan, choreographic sketch for 7 
instruments and piano (1937) ; A Garden is 
a Lovesome Thing for chorus (1938); The 
Thinker for chorus (1938); symphony-suite 
for strings (1940); Concertino for oboe, 
clarinet and string quartet ( 1 940 ) ; sonatina 
for oboe and piano (1940) ; American Youth 
Concerto for piano and orch. ( 1 943 ) ; Trio 
Sonata for flute, cello and piano (1944); 
China for chorus with orch. (Worcester 
Festival, Oct. 12, 1945). Writings: How 
Music Grew (1925; with Ethel Peyser); 
Music Through The Ages (1932; with Ethel 
Peyser); Twentieth Century Music (1933); 
Musical Questions and Quizzes (1941); 
How Opera Grew (1955; with Ethel Peyser). 

Bauer, Moritz, German teacher and writer 
on music; b. Hamburg, April 8, 1875; d. 
Frankfurt, Dec. 31, 1932. He first studied 
medicine; then turned to music (Mus. Doc, 
Zurich, 1904); taught at the Hoch Cons. 
(1926) and at the Univ. of Frankfurt. He 
published Die Lieder Franz Schuberts 
(1915) ; Iwan Knorr (1916) ; Formprobleme 
des spdten Beethoven (1927); also edited 
songs by Zelter. Cf. F. Szymichowski, Moritz 
Bauer in 'Zeitschrift fur Musikwissenschaft' 

Bauerle, Hermann, German music editor 
and composer of sacred choruses; b. Ebers- 
berg, Oct. 24, 1869; d. Ulm, May 21, 1936. 
He studied theology at Tubingen and music 
with E. Kauffmann; took holy orders; from 
1899-1908, was court chaplain at Thurn and 
Taxis. In 1906, he became Papal Privy 
Chamberlain, with the title 'Monsignore'. 
He took the degree of Dr. Phil, in Leipzig 
(1906) with the thesis, Eine musik-philolo- 
gische Studie iiber die 7 Busspsalmen Lassos; 
in 1917 was organist and director of music 
in Schwabisch-Gmund ; in 1921 founded 
a conservatory at Ulm. Among his published 
writings are: Palestrina muss popular er wer- 
den (1903); Ler Vatikanische Choral in 
Reformnotation (1907); Liturgie (1908; a 
manual of the Roman Catholic liturgy) ; 
Gesangslehre fur Oberstimmen (1918); 
Musikalische Grammatik (1919); and All- 
gemeine Erziehungs- und Unterrichtslehre 
(1931). His chief work, however, was the 
editing of sacred music of the 16th cen- 
tury in practical form for performance ; from 
1903 on he edited the series Bibliothek alt- 
klassischer Kirchenmusik in moderner Nota- 
tion. The following numbers appeared: Pal- 



estrina, Vol. I, 10 masses for 4 voices 
(1903); Vol. II, 52 motets (1904); Vol. 
Ill, masses for 4 voices (1905) ; Vol. IV, 10 
masses for 5 voices; Lassus, Septem psalmi 
poenitentiales (1906); Victoria, motets for 
4 voices, and 6 masses for 4 voices (1904- 
7); J. J. Fux, Missa canonica and Missa 
Quadragesimalis. He also edited works of 
Anerio, Nanino, and others. 

Bauldewijn (Baudoin; Bauldewyn; Bauld- 
eweyn; Balduin; Bauldoin), Noel (Natalis 
Balduinus), Flemish composer, d. Antwerp 

c. 1529. From Aug. 31, 1509, to July 29, 
1513, he was choir director at the church of 
Saint-Rombaut at Mechlin. On Nov. 16, 
1513 he was appointed choir director at 
the Cathedral of Antwerp where he prob- 
ably remained until his death. Two motets 
by Bauldewijn were included by Petrucci in 
his collection Motetti della Corona (1519); 
3 motets were published by Proske; and a 
chanson was included in Tylman Susato's 
he sixieme livre contenant trente et une 
chansons . . . (Antwerp, 1545). In addition 
10 motets and 6 masses by Bauldewijn are 
also known. 

Baumbach, Friedrich August, German 
composer and conductor; b. 1753; d. Leip- 
zig, Nov. 30, 1813. He was conductor at the 
Hamburg opera (1778-89); then settled in 
Leipzig; wrote many pieces for various in- 
struments; also contributed musical articles 
to the Kurzgefasstes Handworterbuch Uber 
die schonen Kunste (Leipzig, 1794). 

Baume, fimile, French pianist; b. Toulon, 
March 14, 1903. He first studied music with 
his father, who was a piano pupil of Mar- 
montel and Diemer; then at the Paris Cons, 
with Samuel-Rousseau and Widor; won the 
Prix Diemer in 1927; studied conducting 
with Weingartner ; lived for a number of 
years in the U.S., where he gave more than 
200 concerts; subsequently continued his 
career in Europe. 

Baumfelder, Friedrich, German pianist 
and composer; b. Dresden, May 28, 1836; 

d. there, Aug. 8, 1916. He studied at the 
Leipzig Cons, with Moscheles, Wenzel and 
Hauptmann; was conductor of the Schu- 
mann Singakademie at Dresden. He wrote 
a cantata Der Geiger zu Gmiind, a collec- 
tion of piano studies, Tirocinium musicae, 
and a great number of piano pieces in the 
salon style (totalling more than 300 opus 

Baumgart, Expedit (Friedrich), German 
music teacher; b. Grossglogau, Jan. 13, 
1817; d. Warmbrunn, Sept. 15, 1871. He 

was music director at Breslau Univ., and 
teacher in the Royal Institute for Church 
Music; edited K. Ph. E. Bach's Clavier- 
Sonaten. Cf. monograph by H. Palm (1872). 

Baumgarten, Gotthilf von, German com- 
poser; b. Berlin, Jan. 12, 1741; d. Gross- 
Strehlitz, Silesia, Oct. 1, 1813. He wrote 3 
operas, produced in Breslau: Zemire und 
Azor (1775), Andromeda (1776), and Das 
Grab des Mufti (1778). 

Baumgarten, Karl Friedrich, composer; b. 
Liibeck, 1740; d. London, 1824. He was 
conductor of the Covent Garden opera or- 
chestra (1780-94); wrote many operas and 
pantomimes, the best known being Robin 
Hood (London, 1786) and Blue Beard 

Baumgartner, August, German composer 
and writer on music; b. Munich, Nov. 9, 
1814; d. there, Sept. 29, 1862. He was 
choirmaster at the Church of St. Anna in 
Munich; wrote articles on 'musical short- 
hand' for the 'Stenographische Zeitschrift' 
(1852); published a Kurzgefasste Anleitung 
zur musikalischen Stenographic oder Ton- 
zeichenkunst (1853), and a Kurzgefasste 
Geschichte der musikalischen Notation 
(1856); composed an instrumental mass; a 
requiem; psalms; many choruses and piano 

Baumgartner, Wilhelm, Swiss composer; 
b. Rorschach, Nov. 15, 1820; d. Zurich, 
March 17, 1867. He studied with Alexander 
Muller; in 1842 was a piano teacher in St. 
Gall and in Zurich; conducted choruses; 
wrote pieces on Swiss folk themes. His 
patriotic song, O mein Heimatland (1846) 
has acquired tremendous popularity in 
Switzerland, and is regarded as a second 
national anthem. See C. Widmer, Wilhelm 
Baumgartner, ein Liebensbild (Zurich, 
1868) ; L. Gross, Wilhelm Baumgartner, sein 
Leben und sein Schaffen (Munich, 1930). 

Baumker, Wilhelm, German writer on 
music; b. Elberfeld, Oct. 25, 1842; d. Ru- 
rich, March 3, 1905. He studied theology 
and philology at Miinster and Bonn; from 
1892 was a priest at Rurich. His great work 
is Das katholische deutsche Kirchenlied in 
seinen Singweisen von den fruhesten Zeiten 
bis gegen Ende des 17. Jahrhunderts (4 
vols., Freiburg, 1883-1911). Vol. II (1883) 
and vol. Ill (1891) appeared originally as 
continuation of the work begun by K. S. 
Meister, who published vol. I in 1862; 
Baumker revised this volume in 1886; vol. 
IV (1911) was edited by J. Gotzen from 
Baumker's notes, and also contains supple- 



ments to the preceding volumes. Other works 
by Baumker are: Palestrina, ein Beitrag, 
etc. (1877); Orlandus de Lassus, ein his- 
torisches Bildniss (1878); Zur Geschichte 
der Tonkunst in Deutschland (1881); Der 
Todtentanz (1881); Niederldndische geist- 
liche Lieder nebst ihren Singweisen aus 
Handschriften des 15. Jahrhunderts (1888); 
and Ein deutsches geistliches Liederbuch, 
melodies from the 15th century (Leipzig, 
1896). He also contributed to many musical 
publications, including the 'Allgemeine 
deutsche Biographie' and the 'Monatshefte 
fur Musikgeschichte'. 

Bausch, Ludwig Christian August, cele- 
brated violin maker; b. Naumburg, Jan. 15, 
1805; d. Leipzig, May 26, 1871. He estab- 
lished shops for making and repairing violins 
in Dresden (1826), Dessau (1828), Wies- 
baden (1862) and Leipzig (1863). His son, 
Ludwig (b. Dessau, Nov. 10, 1829; d. 
Leipzig, April 7, 1871) first lived in New 
York, later establishing his own violin shop 
in Leipzig. Otto, a younger son (b. Leip- 
zig, Aug. 6, 1841; d. there, Dec. 30, 1875), 
inherited the business, which then passed to 
A. Paulus at Markneukirchen. 

Baussnern, Waldemar von, German com- 
poser and conductor; b. Berlin, Nov. 29, 
1866; d. Potsdam, Aug. 20, 1931. He was a 
pupil of Kiel and Bargiel at the Musik 
Hochschule in Berlin (1882-8); was con- 
ductor of the 'Musikverein' and 'Lehrerge- 
sangverein' at Mannheim (1891) ; then con- 
ductor of the Dresden 'Liedertafel' (1895) 
and of the Dresden 'Bachverein' (1896); 
taught at the Cologne Cons. (1903-8); 
taught at conservatories in Weimar, Frank- 
furt, and Berlin (1908-23); from 1923 was 
secretary of the Berlin Academy of Arts 
and Letters. Works: 6 operas: Dichter und 
Welt (Weimar, 1897); Durer in Venedig 
(Weimar, 1901); Herbort und Hilde 
(Mannheim, 1902) ; Der Bundschuh (Frank- 
furt, 1904); Satyr os (after Goethe; Basel, 
1922) ; Hafts (1926) ; 8 symphonies: the 3d, 
Leben, with choral finale; the 5th, Es ist ein 
Schnitter, heisst der Tod, with choral finale; 
the 6th, Psalm der Liebe, with soprano; the 
7th, Die Ungarische; Himmlische Idyllen 
for strings and organ; a ballade for orch. ; 
Champagner, overture; Das hohe Lied vom 
Leben und Sterben for soli, chorus, orch. 
and organ; Die Geburt Jesu, a Christmas 
cantata; Die himmlische Or gel for baritone 
and orch.; Dem Lande meiner Kindheit, 
orchestral suite; 4 string quartets; 4 piano 
quintets; 3 trio-sonatas; 2 piano trios; Das 
klagende Lied, a ballad cycle for baritone 
and piano; songs for solo voice with orch.; 

mixed choruses; etc. For the complete edi- 
tion of Peter Cornelius' works, Baussnern 
revised his Bar bier von Bagdad and Cid, 
and finished and edited Gunlod (Cologne, 
1906). Cf. G. Wehle, Baussnerns Sinfon- 
isches Schaffen (Regensburg, 1931). 

Bautista, Julian, Spanish composer; b. 
Madrid, April 21, 1901. He studied at the 
Madrid Cons, with Conrado del Campo 
(1915); won national prizes in composition 
(1923, 1926, 1932); later appointed prof, 
of harmony at the Madrid Cons. After the 
Civil War he went to France; settled in 
Buenos Aires, Argentina, in 1940. His music, 
delicate and coloristic, with an admixture of 
robust humor, is frequently performed. 

Works: two string quartets (1923; 

1926); Colores for piano (1923); Preludio 
for orch. (1929); Juerga, ballet (Opera- 
Comique, Paris, 1929) ; Sonatina-Trio for 
violin, viola, and cello (1930); Suite all' 
antica for orch. (1932); Obertura para una 
opera grotesca (International prize, 'Union 
Radio,' 1932); Preludio y Danza for guitar 
(1924); songs: La flute de jade (Paris, 
1931); 3 ciudades (Barcelona, 1938), etc. 

Bax, Sir Arnold (Edward Trevor), an 

outstanding English composer; b. London, 
Nov. 8, 1883; d. Cork, Ireland, Oct. 3, 
1953. He studied at the Royal Academy of 
Music with Matthay and Corder. Although 
not ethnically Irish, Bax became interested 
in ancient Irish folklore; many of his works 
are inspired by Celtic legends. In 1910 he 
visited Russia, and wrote a series of piano 
pieces in a pseudo-Russian style: May 
Night in the Ukraine; Gopak; In a Vodka 
Shop, etc. ; also wrote music to James M. 
Barrie's skit, The Truth about the Russian 
Dancers. He was an excellent pianist, but 
was reluctant to play in public; he also 
never appeared as conductor of his own 
works. His position was high in English music 
and he was knighted at the Coronation of 
George VI (1937); in 1941 he succeeded 
Sir Walford Davies as Master of the King's 
Musick. He was an extremely prolific com- 
poser; his style is rooted in neo-romanticism, 
but impressionistic elements are much in 
evidence in his instrumental works; his 
harmony is elaborate and rich in chromatic 
progressions; his contrapuntal fabric is free 
and emphasizes complete independence of 
component melodies. His works include: 
ballets Between Dusk and Dawn (1917); 
The Truth About the Russian Dancers 
(1920); 7 symphonies: I (London, Dec. 2, 
1922); II (Boston, Dec. 13, 1929); III 



(London, March 3, 1930); IV (San Fran- 
cisco, March 16, 1932); V (dedicated to 
Sibelius; London, Jan. 15, 1934); VI (Lon- 
don, Nov. 21, 1935); VII (dedicated to 
the American people; New York, June 9, 
1939); symph. poems: In the Faery Hills 
(1909); Christmas Eve in the Mountains 
(1912); Nympholept (1912); The Garden 
of F and (1916); November Woods (1917); 
Tintagel (1917); Summer Music (1920); 
Mediterranean (1921); The Happy Forest 
(1922) ; other orchestral works: 4 orchestral 
pieces: Dance in the Sun; Pensive Twilight; 
From the Mountains of Home; and Dance 
of Wild Irravel (1912-13); Scherzo sinfon- 
ico (1913); Romantic Overture (1923); 
Overture to a Picaresque Comedy (1930); 
The Tale the Pine Trees Knew (1931); 
2 Northern Ballads (1933; 1937); Overture 
to Adventure (1935); Rogues' Comedy 
Overture (1936); London Pageant (1937); 
Legend (1944); Coronation March (1953). 
Instrumental works with orchestra: Sym- 
phonic Variations for piano and orch. 
(1917); Phantasy for viola and orch. 
(1920); cello concerto (1932); violin con- 
certo (1937); piano concerto for left hand 
(1948). Vocal music: Fatherland, for tenor, 
chorus and orch. (1907); Enchanted Sum- 
mer (from Shelley's Prometheus Unbound), 
for 2 sopranos, chorus and orch. (1909); 
The Bard of the Dimbovitza, 6 poems for 
voice and orch. (1915); Mater Ora Filium, 
motet (1920); Of a Rose I Sing, for small 
chorus, harp, cello and double bass (1921); 
Now is the Time of Christymas, for male 
voices, flute and piano (1921); This 
Worlde's Joie, motet (1922); The Morning 
Watch for chorus and orch. (1923) ; To the 
Name above Every Name, for soprano, 
chorus and orch. (1923) ; The Boar's Head, 
carol for male voices (1923); St. Patrick's 
Breastplate, for chorus and orch. (1923-24) ; 
/ sing of a Maiden for 5 voices unaccom- 
panied (1926); Walsinghame for tenor, 
chorus and orch. (1928); also many solo 
songs. Chamber music: 3 string quartets 
(1918; 1924; 1936); piano quintet (1915); 
quintet for strings and harp (1919) ; quintet 
for oboe and strings (1923); string quintet 
(1931); trio for flute, viola and harp 
(1916); An Irish Elegy for English horn, 
harp and strings (1917); Nonet for winds, 
strings and harp (1931); octet for horn, 
piano and strings (1934) ; concerto for flute, 
oboe, harp and strings (1934) ; concerto for 
bassoon, harp and strings (1936); 3 violin 
sonatas (1910-27); 2 viola sonatas (2nd 
with harp; 1921; 1928); cello sonata 
(1923); Legend Sonata for cello and piano 
(1943); clarinet sonata (1934); 4 piano 

sonatas; works for 2 pianos, etc. In his many 
settings of folksongs, Bax succeeded in adapt- 
ing simple melodies to effective accompani- 
ments in modern harmonies; in his adapta- 
tions of old English songs, he successfully 
recreated the archaic style of the epoch. In 
his candid autobiography Farewell My 
Youth (London, 1943), Bax gives a vivid 
account of his life and travels. Bibl.: Edwin 
Evans, Arnold Bax in the 'Mus. Quarterly' 
(April, 1923); R. H. Hull, A Handbook 
on Arnold Bax's Symphonies (London, 

Bayer, Josef, Austrian composer and con- 
ductor; b. Vienna, March 6, 1852; d. there, 
March 12, 1913. He studied at the Vienna 
Cons. (1859-70) with Georg and Josef Hell- 
mesberger (violin), Dachs (piano) and 
Bruckner (theory). He was then violinist in 
the Court Opera; from 1885 till his death 
was director of the ballet music. He wrote 
many operettas and ballets, which acquired 
considerable popularity in his time, thanks 
to his gift for facile melodic writing and 
piquant rhythms. He traveled a great deal; 
visited New York in 1881. Operettas: Der 
Chevalier von San Marco (1st perf. at the 
Thalia Theater, New York, Feb. 4, 1881, 
conducted by the composer) ; Menelaus 
(Vienna, 1892); Fraulein Hexe (Vienna, 
1898); Der Polizeichef (Vienna, 1904); 
ballets produced at the Vienna Court 
Opera: Wiener Waltzer (1886); Die Pup- 
penfee (1888); Sonne und Erde (1889); 
Ein Tanzmdrchen (1890); Rouge et Noir 
(1892) ; Die Donaunixe (1892) ; Eine Hoch- 
zeit in Bosnien (1893, with Bosnian folk 
melodies); Burschenliebe (1894); Rund um 
Wien (1894) ; Die Braut von Korea (1896) ; 
Die kleine Welt (1904); ballets produced 
at Berlin: Deutsche Mdrsche (1887); Die 
Welt in Bild und Tanz (1892) ; Die Engels- 
jager (1896); Columbia (1893). Bayer also 
wrote the music for numerous aristocratic 
festival productions (Aschenbrodel, Paris in 
Wien, Jeunesse, etc., and the ballet Nippes 
at the Schonbrunner Schlosstheater in April, 
1911). Works in MS. are Alien Fata (a 
Bosnian opera) and Der Goldasoka (a 
Hindu opera). 

Bazin (bah-zan'), Francois-Emanuel- Jo- 
seph, French composer; b. Marseilles, Sept. 
4, 1816; d. Paris, July 2, 1878. He studied 
with Berton and Halevy at the Paris Cons.; 
was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1840; 
from 1844 taught at the Paris Cons.; in 
1871 succeeded Ambroise Thomas as prof, 
of composition; in 1872 succeeded Carafa 
as member of the Academic He wrote 7 
operas which were produced at the Opera- 



Comique; also a Cours d'harmonie theorique 
et pratique, adopted at the Paris Conserva- 

Bazzini (bah-tse'-ne), Antonio, Italian 
violinist and composer; b. Brescia, March 
•11, 1818; d. Milan, Feb. 10, 1897. He stud- 
ied the violin; encouraged by Paganini, be- 
fore whom he played in 1836, Bazzini em- 
barked upon a series of successful tours 
through Italy, France, Spain, Belgium, 
Poland, England and Germany (1837-63); 
taught at the Milan Cons, from 1873, and 
in 1882 became its director. Works: Turan- 
da, opera after Gozzi's Turandot (La Scala, 
Milan, Jan. 13, 1867); Francesca da Rim- 
ini, symph. poem (1890); symph. overtures 
to Alfieri's Saul (1877) and to Shake- 
speare's King Lear (1880); numerous violin 
pieces, of which Ronde des Lutins became 
extremely popular. 

Beach, Mrs. H. H. A. (maiden-name Amy 
Marcy Cheney), American composer; b. 
Henniker, N. H., Sept. 5, 1867; d. New 
York, Dec. 27, 1944. She studied piano with 
E. Perabo and K. Baermann; theory with 
Junius W. Hill. In composition she was 
largely self-taught, guiding herself by a study 
of the masters. She made her debut as a 
pianist when she was 16. She married Dr. 
H. H. A. Beach of Boston on Dec. 2, 1885. 
Her first important work was a Mass in E 
flat, performed by the Handel and Haydn 
Society (Boston, Feb. 18, 1892). Her Gaelic 
Symphony (Boston Symph. Orch., Oct. 30, 
1896), was the first symph. work by an 
American woman. She also appeared as 
soloist in her piano concerto (Boston Symph. 
Orch., April 6, 1900). Other works: can- 
tatas, The Minstrel and the King, The Rose 
of Avontown, Sylvania, The Sea Fairies and 
The Chambered Nautilus; 2nd piano con- 
certo; piano quintet; suite for 2 pianos; 
Variations on Balkan Themes for 2 pianos; 
violin sonata; numerous choral works, songs 
and piano pieces, most of them published 
by Arthur P. Schmidt. Her music, conserva- 
tive in its idiom and academic in structure, 
retains its importance as the work of a pio- 
neer woman composer in America. Bibl.: 
Percy Goetschius, Mrs. H. H. A. Beach, 
Analytical Sketch (Boston, 1906; contains 
contemporary reviews and a catalog). 

Beach, John Parsons, American composer; 
b. Gloversville, N. Y., Oct. 11, 1877; d. 
Pasadena, Cal., Nov. 6, 1953. He studied 
piano at the New England Cons, in Boston; 
studied composition in Paris with Gedalge, 
in Venice with Malipiero, and in Boston 
with Loeffler; for four years taught piano 

and composition at the Minneapolis Univ., 
Minn.; then in New Orleans and Boston; 
lived at various times in New York and 
Paris; finally settled in Pasadena, Cal. 
Works: operas Pip pa's Holiday (Theatre 
Rejane, Paris, 1915); Jornida and Jornidel; 
the ballets Mardi Gras (New Orleans, Feb. 
15, 1926) ; Phantom Satyr (Asolo, Italy, 
July 6, 1925, in ballet form; 1st concert 
perf., Rochester, N. Y., Dec. 28, 1926); the 
orchestral works New Orleans Street Cries 
(Philadelphia, April 22, 1927; Stokowski 
conducting) ; Asolani (Minneapolis, Nov. 12, 
1926) ; Angelo's Letter for tenor and cham- 
ber orch. (Pro Musica Concert, New York, 
Feb. 27, 1929) ; Naive Landscapes for pi- 
ano, flute, oboe and clarinet (Rome, 1917); 
Poem for string quartet (Flonzaley, London, 
1920) ; Concert for violin, viola, cello, flute, 
oboe and clarinet (1929) ; many songs. 

Beale, Frederic Fleming, American organ- 
ist and comrioser; b. Troy, Kansas, July 13, 
1876; d. Caldwell, Idaho, Feb. 16, 1948. He 
studied in Chicago with Adolf Weidig and 
Wilhelm Middelschulte ; was church organ- 
ist in Chicago, and in St. Joseph, Mo. From 
1908-11 he taught piano at the Univ. of 
Washington, Seattle; in 1939 was appointed 
director of music at the College of Idaho at 
Caldwell. He wrote 3 operettas: The Magic 
Wheel, Fatima and Poor Richard; Dance- 
Caprice for orch.; numerous songs. 

Beale, William, English organist and com- 
poser; b. Landrake, Cornwall, Jan. 1, 1784; 
d. London, May 3, 1854. His early training 
was as chorister in Westminster Abbey; he 
then studied with Dr. Arnold and Robert 
Cooke. In 1813 his madrigal Awake, sweet 
Muse was awarded first prize by the Mad- 
rigal Society; collections of his glees and 
madrigals were published in 1815 and 1820. 
From 1816-20 Beale was one of the Gentle- 
men of the Chapel Royal; served as or- 
ganist of Trinity College, Cambridge 
(1820), Wandsworth Parish Church (1821), 
and St. John's, Clapham Rise. 

Beaton, Isabella, American pianist; b. 
Grinnell, Iowa, May 20, 1870; d. Mt. Plea- 
sant, Henry Co., Iowa, Jan. 19, 1929. She 
studied in Berlin with Moszkowski (1894- 
99 ) ; received her M.A. and Ph.B. from 
Western Reserve Univ. (1902) ; taught many 
private pupils in Cleveland (1910-19); also 
gave recitals. She wrote an opera Anacoana, 
a symphony, a scherzo, and piano pieces. 

Beaufils (boh-feY), Marcel, French musi- 
cologist; b. Beauvais, Dec. 30, 1899; studied 
in Paris and Vienna; author of a biography 



of Schumann (Paris, 1931) and of the essay 
Wagner et le wagnerisme (Paris, 1946). 

Beaulieu (boh-lyo'), Marie-Desire, French 
composer and author, whose real name was 
Martin-Beaulieu j b. Paris, April 11, 1791; 
d. Niort, Dec. 21, 1863. He studied with 
Mehul at the Paris Cons.; won the Prix de 
Rome in 1810; wrote operas Anacreon 
and Philadelphie ; oratorios L'Hymne du ma- 
tin, L'Hymne de la nuit, etc.; also other 
sacred music as well as secular songs. He 
published the essays: Du rythme, des effets 
qu'il produit et de leurs causes (1852); 
Memoire sur ce qui teste de la musique de 
Vancienne Grdce dans les premiers chants de 
I'Eglise (1852); Memoire sur le car act ere 
que doit avoir la musique de I'Eglise 
(1858) ; Memoire sur Vorigine de la musique 
(1859). His main contribution to French 
musical culture was his organizing of annual 
music festivals in provincial towns; founded 
the Association Musicale de l'Ouest, to 
which he bequeathed 100,000 francs. 

Becher (bek'-er), Alfred Julius, composer 
and music critic; b. Manchester, England, 
April 27, 1803; d. Vienna, Nov. 23, 1848. 
He studied at Heidelberg, Berlin and G6t- 
tingen; traveled widely on the continent and 
in England, working as an advocate, edi- 
tor and professor of composition; taught 
harmony at the Royal Academy of Music 
in London (1840); in 1841 he settled in 
Vienna, where, on the advice of Mendels- 
sohn, he became a music critic; in 1848 
became editor of the revolutionary paper, 
'Der Radikale'; that same year he was 
court-martialed for his political activities, 
and shot. He was the author of Jenny Lind: 
eine Skizze ihres Lebens (Vienna, 1846; 
2d augmented ed., 1847); Das niederrhein- 
ische Musikfest, asthetisch und historisch 
betrachtet (1836); also wrote a symphony, 
chamber music and songs. 

Becher, Joseph, German composer; b. 
Neukirchen, Bavaria, Aug. 1, 1821; d. Min- 
traching, Sept. 23, 1888. He was a pastor 
in Mintraching; wrote 60 masses and other 
sacred music. 

Bechler, Johann Christian, composer; b. 
Island of Oesel, in the Baltic Sea, Jan. 7, 
1784; d. Herrnhut, Saxony, April 15, 1857. 
He came to the U. S. in 1806 and became 
a professor of theology at the seminary in 
Nazareth, Pa.; served as deacon, principal 
and pastor in Philadelphia; returned to 
Europe in 1836 as a bishop, and was for 
some years active in Sarepta and Astrakhan, 
Russia. Bechler was one of the 'Moravians' 
active in Pennsylvania. His works, which 

include anthems, hymns and ariettas, are 
more interesting from a historic than a mu- 
sical standpoint. Cf. A. G. Rau and 

H. T. David, A Catalogue of Music by 
American Moravians, 1742-1842 (Bethle- 
hem, Pa.; The Moravian Seminary, 1938). 

Bechgaard, Julius, Danish composer; b. 
Copenhagen, Dec. 19, 1843; d. there, March 
4, 1917. He studied at the Leipzig Cons, 
and with Gade in Copenhagen; lived in 
Germany, Italy and Paris; then settled in 
Copenhagen. He wrote 2 operas: Frode 
(Copenhagen, May 11, 1893) and Frau 
Inge (Prague, 1894); many piano pieces 
and songs. 

Bechstein, (Friedrich Wilhelm) Karl, Ger- 
man piano manufacturer; b. Gotha, June 
1, 1826; d. Berlin, March 6, 1900. He 
worked in German factories; also in London; 
in 1853 set up a modest shop in Berlin; 
constructed his first grand piano in 1856; 
established branches in France, Russia and 
England; after World War I, the London 
branch continued under the direction of C. 
Bechstein, grandson of the founder; follow- 
ing his death (1931), it became an inde- 
pendent British firm, Bechstein Piano Co., 
Ltd. The firm, one of the largest and best- 
known in Europe, built, in 1901, the Lon- 
don concert auditorium, Wigmore Hall. 

Cf. Bechstein-Chronik (Berlin, 1926) ; Count 
du Moulin-Eckart, Neue Briefe Hans von 
Billow (containing correspondence with 
Bechstein; Munich, 1927). 

Beck, Conrad, distinguished Swiss com- 
poser; b. Schaffhausen, June 16, 1901; 
studied at the Zurich Cons, with Andreae, 
and in Paris with Honegger and Ernst Levy; 
lived in Paris and Berlin; in 1939 returned 
and was appointed radio conductor in Basel, 
Switzerland. A prolific composer, Beck excels 
in instrumental writing, in a neo-classical 
style, rich in contrapuntal texture. Several 
of his works have been featured at the Fes- 
tivals of the International Society for Con- 
temporary Music: overture Innominata 
(Vienna, June 16, 1932); chamber cantata 
(Warsaw, April 15, 1939), etc. He has writ- 
ten 6 symphonies (1925-53); Lyric Cantata 
(Munich, May 22, 1931); piano concerto 
(1933); Konzertmusik for oboe and string 
orch. (Basel, April 30, 1933) ; chamber con- 
certo for cembalo and string orch. (Basel, 
Nov. 27, 1942) ; viola concerto (1949) ; ora- 
torio Der Tod zu Basel (Basel, May 22, 
1953); concertino for clarinet, bassoon and 
orch. (1954); Christmas motet, Es kommt 
ein Schiff geladen; 4 string quartets; 2 vio- 
lin sonatas; 2 cello sonatas; 2 string trios; 



piano music; choral works, etc. See Willi 
Schuh, Schweizer Musiker der Gegenwart 
(Zurich, 1948). 

Beck, Franz, German violinist and com- 
poser; b. Mannheim, Feb. 15, 1723; d. 
Bordeaux, Dec. 31, 1809. He was a violinist 
and favorite of the Prince Palatine; after 
killing his opponent in a duel he fled to 
France and settled in Bordeaux (1761). In 
1783 he went to Paris, where he became 
a successful teacher. His works include 24 
symphonies; several stage works; violin quar- 
tets; piano sonatas; church music; the op- 
eras La belle jardiniere (Bordeaux, Aug. 24, 
1767) ; Pandora (Paris, July 2, 1789) ; L'lle 
deserte (unperformed). Bibl.: R. Sondheim- 
er, Die Sinfonien F. Becks (Basel, 1921). 

Beck, Jean-Baptiste, Alsatian-American 
musicologist; b. Gebweiler, Aug. 14, 1881; 
d. Philadelphia, June 23, 1943. He studied 
organ; received his Dr. phil. at Strasbourg 
Univ. with the thesis Die Melodien der 
Troubadours (1908); later publ. a some- 
what popularized edition of it in French, 
La musique des Troubadours (Paris, 1910). 
Beck came to the U. S. after World War 
I; settled in Philadelphia; taught at the 
Curtis Institute and at Univ. of Pennsyl- 
vania. In 1927 he initiated a project of 
publishing a Corpus Cantilenarum Medii 
Aevi, in 52 vols., but was able to bring out 
only 4 vols., under the subtitle Les Chanson- 
niers des Troubadours et des Trouveres (all 
in French), containing phototype reproduc- 
tions of medieval manuscripts, transcriptions 
in modern notation and commentary: Le 
Chansonnier Cange (2 vols.; Philadelphia, 
1927); Le manuscrit du Roi (2 vols.; 
Philadelphia, 1938). Among his other im- 
portant writings is an essay Der Takt in den 
Musikaufzeichnungen des XII. und XIII. 
Jahrhunderts (in the 'Riemann Festschrift,' 
1909). Beck was an outstanding scholar of 
medieval vocal music; his application of the 
modal rhythm of the polyphony of that 
time to the troubadour melodies was an 
important contribution to the problem of 
proper transcription into modern notation. 

Beck, Johann Heinrich, American con- 
ductor and composer; b. Cleveland, Sept. 
12, 1856; d. there May 26, 1924. He was a 
pupil of Reinecke and Jadassohn at the 
Leipzig Cons. (1879-82), subsequently re- 
turning to America. In 1895 he was ap- 
pointed conductor of the Detroit Symph. 
Orch., and from 1901-12 conductor of the 
Cleveland Pops Orch. Works: Moorish Ser- 
enade, for orch. (1889); a cantata, Deuk- 
alion; string quartet; string sextet; overture 

to Bryon's Lara; Aus meinem Leben, symph. 
poem; miscellaneous pieces for various in- 

Beck, Johann Nepomuk, Hungarian sing- 
er; b. Budapest, May 5, 1827; d. Pressburg, 
April 9, 1904. His dramatic baritone voice 
was 'discovered' in Budapest, where he made 
his professional debut; he then sang in 
Vienna, Frankfurt, and many other German 
cities; was a member of the Court Opera 
in Vienna from 1853; retired in 1885; died 

Beck, Karl, Austrian tenor; b. 1814; d. 
Vienna, March 3, 1879. He was the first 
to sing the role of Lohengrin (Weimar, 
Aug. 28, 1850). 

Beck, Thomas Ludvigsen, Norwegian 
composer; b. Horten, Dec. 5, 1899. He 
studied at the Leipzig Cons. Since 1930, 
active in Oslo as church organist and choral 
conductor/ He has written the cantatas 
Arnljot /Gelline (1937) and Hyfjellet 
(1945); Ballade for orch. (1940); choruses. 

Becker, Albert (Ernst Anton), German 
composer; b. Quedlinburg, June 13, 1834; d. 
Berlin, Jan. 10, 1899. He was a pupil of 
Dehn in Berlin (1853-6); was appointed 
teacher of composition at Scharwenka's con- 
servatory (1881), and became the conduc- 
tor of the Berlin Cathedral Choir (1891). 
His Symphony in G minor was awarded the 
prize of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in 
Vienna ( 1 86 1 ) ; also wrote an opera, Lore- 
ley (1898); cantatas; and a number of 
sacred works. 

Becker, Constantin Julius, German com- 
poser and author; b. Freiberg, Saxony, Feb. 
3, 1811; d. Oberlpssnitz, Feb. 26, 1859. He 
studied singing with Anacker and composi- 
tion with Karl Becker; from 1837-46 edited 
the 'Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik,' in associ- 
ation with Schumann; in 1843 settled in 
Dresden; taught singing, composed and 
wrote novels on musical subjects; in 1846 
he went to Oberlossnitz, where he spent the 
remainder of his life. He wrote an opera, 
Die Erstiirmung von Belgrad (Leipzig, May 
21, 1848) ; a symphony; various vocal works. 
However, he is best known for his manuals: 
Manner gesangschule (1845), Harmonielehre 
fiir Dilettanten (1842), and Kleine Har- 
monielehre (1844). He also published the 
novel, Die Neuromantiker (1840); trans- 
lated Voyage musicale by Berlioz into Ger- 
man (1843). 

Becker, Georg, music editor; b. Franken- 
thal, Palatinate, June 24, 1834; d. Lancy, 
near Geneva, July 18, 1928. He was a pupil 



of Prudent; lived in Geneva most of his 
life; published La Musique en Suisse (Gen- 
eva, 1874; reprinted, 1923); Aperqu sur la 
chanson frangaise (from the 11th to 17th 
centuries) ; Pygmalion de Jean-Jacques Rou- 
sseau ; Les projets de notation musicale du 
XIX" siicle ; La Musique a Geneve depuis 50 
ans; Eustorg de Beaulieu; Guillaume de 
Guiroult; Notice sur Claude Goudimel; Jean 
Caulery et ses chansons spirituelles; H. 
Waelrant et ses psaumes (1881); De I'in- 
strumentation du XV au XVII* siecle 
(1844); edited the 'Questionnaire de 1' As- 
sociation Internationale des Musiciens- 
Ecrivains' ; contributed to the 'Monatshefte 
fur Musikgeschichte.' 

Becker, Gustave Louis, American pianist 
and teacher; b. Richmond, Texas, May 22, 
1861. He made his public debut at the age 
of eleven; studied in New York with Con- 
stantin von Sternberg and at the Hochschule 
fur Musik, Berlin (1888-91); took courses 
with Moritz Moszkowski and Scharwenka. 
Returning to New York, he became Rafael 
Joseffy's assistant at the National Cons. He 
continued his teaching activities privately. 
On May 23, 1952, the 80th anniversary of 
his public appearance as a child prodigy, he 
gave a piano recital in Steinway Hall; on 
his 94th birthday, May 22, 1955, played 
at a concert in N. Y., arranged by his 
friends. He wrote 2 suites for string quar- 
tet; Herald of Freedom for chorus (1925); 
many vocal and piano pieces, about 200 
numbers in all. He published several peda- 
gogic works: Exercise for Accuracy; Super- 
ior Graded Course for the Piano; Musical 
Syllable System for Vocal Sight Reading; 
and many magazine articles. 

Becker, Hugo, famous German cellist, son 
of Jean; b. Strasbourg, Feb. 13, 1863; d. 
Geiselgasteig, July 30, 1941. He first studied 
with his father; later with Griitzmacher; 
was cellist in the Frankfurt opera orch; 
(1884-86) ; was a member of the Heermann 
quartet (1890-1906); taught at the Konig- 
liche Hochschule in Berlin (1909-29). He 
was not only one of the finest soloists, but 
also a remarkable ensemble player; was for 
many years a member of the Marteau- 
Dohnanyi-Becker trio; also played with 
Ysaye and Busoni. Among his compositions 
are a cello concerto and smaller cello pieces. 
He publ. Mechanik und Asthetik des Violon- 
cellspiels (Vienna, 1929). 

Becker, Jean, German violinist; b. Mann- 
heim, May 11, 1833; d. there, Oct. 10, 1884. 
He studied with Vincenz Lachner; was con- 
certmaster of the Mannheim Orch. until 
1858; later settled in Florence, and estab- 

lished the renowned 'Florentine Quartet' 
(dissolved in 1880). The remaining years of 
his life were spent touring with his children: 
Jeanne, pianist, pupil of Reinecke and 
Bargicl (b. Mannheim, June 9, 1859; d. 
there April 6, 1893); Hans, violist (b. 
Strasbourg, May 12, 1860; d. Leipzig, May 
1, 1917); and the cellist, Hugo (q.v). 

Becker, John J., American composer; b. 
Henderson, Ky., Jan. 22, 1886. He studied 
at the Wisconsin Cons., Milwaukee; was 
a pupil of Middelschulte and von Fielitz; 
has taught and conducted at Notre Dame 
Univ., College St. Scholastica, College St. 
Mary of the Springs, East Columbus, 
Ohio (Hon. B.A.), and the Univ. of 
St. Paul. In 1939 he was appointed 
director of the Federal Music Project in 
Minn.; from 1943, Director of Music and 
composer in residence at Barat College of 
the Sacred Heart, Lake Forest, 111. Becker 
has written many articles for musical publi- 
cations and was associate editor of the 
quarterly, 'New Music' His compositions 
are characteristically bold, ultra-modern, 
employing highly complex harmonic and 
contrapuntal combinations; he wrote several 
works for various instrumental groups under 
the title Soundpiece, thus indicating the 
constructive character of the music, without 
references to programmatic connotations. 
Works: 3 symphonies (1912, 1920, 1929); 
Rouge Bouquet, for male chorus (1917); 
Out of the cradle endlessly rocking, for 
chorus, soli, narrator and orch. (1929); 
Concerto arabesque, for piano and orch. 
(1930); Concertino pastorale, for orch. 
(1933); horn concerto (1933); Dance Fig- 
ure, ballet (1933); Obongo for orch. 
(1933); A Marriage With Space, subtitled 
'a new stage form' (1933); Missa Sym- 
phonica, for male chorus (1933); Prelude 
to Shakespeare, for orch. (1935); viola 
concerto (1937); Soundpiece for string 
orch. (1937); incidental music to Life of 
Man (1937); stage music for Antigone 
(1938); 2nd piano concerto, Satirico (St. 
Paul, Minn., March 28, 1939); Homage to 
Mozart, for orch. (1942); Out of Bondage, 
for orch. (1943); Deirdre of the Sorrows, 
lyric drama in one act ( 1 945 ) ; violin con- 
certo (1948). 

Becker, Karl Ferdinand, German organist 
and writer; b. Leipzig, July 17, 1804; d. 
there, Oct. 26, 1877. He was church organ- 
ist at Leipzig and organ teacher at the 
Cons. (1843). Among his published writ- 
ings are: Systematisch-chronologische Dar- 
stellung der Musikliteratur (1836; Supple- 
ment, 1839) ; Die Hausmusik in Deutsch- 



land im 16., 17., und 18. Jahrhundert 
(1840); Die Tonwerke des 16. und 17. 
Jahrhundert, etc. He composed piano and 
organ pieces, and wrote a chorale book. He 
gave his library, containing valuable theo- 
retical works, to the city of Leipzig. 

Becker, Reinhold, German composer; b. 
Adorf, Aug. 11, 1842; d. Dresden, Dec. 7, 
1924. He was originally a violinist, but be- 
cause of a muscular disorder, was obliged in 
1870 to give up his playing; then lived in 
Dresden as a composer; from 1884-94 was 
conductor of the TJresdener Liedertafel,' for 
which he wrote numerous choruses. Works: 
Frauenlob, opera (Dresden, 1892) ; Ratbold, 
opera (Mainz, 1896); Der Prinz von Horn- 
bur g, symph. poem; 2 violin concertos; a 
string quartet; violin sonata; many works 
for male chorus. 

Becker, Rene Louis, organist and com- 
poser; b. Bischheim, Alsace, Nov. 7, 1882; 
d. Detroit, Mich., Jan. 28, 1956. He studied 
in Strasbourg at the Municipal Cons.; set- 
tled in the U. S.; taught piano at St. Louis 
Univ. (1905-11) ; was organist at the Blessed 
Sacrament Cathedral, Detroit (1930-42); 
then at St. Alphonsus Church in Dearborn; 
retired in 1952. Works: 6 masses; 4 sonatas 
for organ; motets; numerous compositions 
for piano and organ. 

Becker, Valentin Eduard, Austrian com- 
poser; b. Wiirzburg, Nov. 20, 1814; d. 
Vienna, Jan. 25, 1890. He wrote 2 operas: 
Die Bergknappen and Der Deserteur; masses; 
a quintet for clar. and strings; many popu- 
lar male choruses. 

Becking, Gustav, German musicologist; b. 
Bremen, March 4, 1894; lost his life in 
Prague May 8, 1945, during street fighting. 
He studied in Berlin with J. Wolf and in 
Leipzig where he was assistant to H. Rie- 
mann; received his degree of Dr. phil. 
(1920); taught at Erlangen Univ. (1922); 
succeeded Rietsch at the German Univ. in 
Prague (1929); was also president of the 
German Chamber Music Society. His writ- 
ings included Studien zu Beethovens Person- 
alstil (1921); Zur musikalischen Romantik 
in the 'Vierteljahrsschrift fur Literatur' 
(1924); Englische Musik in the 'Handbuch 
fur England-Kunde' (1929), etc. He edited 
the collected edition of the music of E. T. 
A. Hoffmann. 

Beckwith, John Christmas, English organ- 
ist; b. Norwich, Dec. 25, 1750; d. there, 
June 3, 1809. He studied at Oxford; became 
organist of St. Peter Mancroft (1794); was 
awarded the degrees Mus. Bac. and Mus. 

Doc, Oxon. (1803); became organist of 
Norwich Cathedral (1808). Beckwith's pro- 
ficiency as an organist was coupled with fine 
musical scholarship. His collection of chants, 
'The First Verse of Every Psalm of David, 
with an Ancient or Modern Chant in Score, 
adapted as much as possible to the Senti- 
ment of each Psalm' (London, 1808), in- 
cludes a valuable preface, 'A short history of 
chanting.' He also published numerous pieces 
for chorus and organ. 

Beckmann, Gustav, German musicologist; 
b. Berlin, Feb. 28, 1883; d. there Nov. 14, 
1948. He studied philology; served as a li- 
brarian at the Berlin State Library (1906- 
11) ; from 1934 to his death was councillor 
of the Univ. Library. He took courses with 
Kretzschmar and Johannes Wolf; conducted 
an amateur orch. from 1919. He wrote 
some instrumental and vocal music; publ. 
the valuable paper Das Violinspiel in 
Deutschland vor 1700 (Leipzig, 1918) and 
an essay on Leopold Mozart (1937); edited 
various bibliographical publications. 

Beckmann, Johann Friedrich Gottlieb, 

German composer and organist; b. 1737; d. 
Celle, April 25, 1792. He was one of the 
finest players and improvisers on the organ 
of his time; was for many years active in 
Celle. He wrote an opera, Lukas und Hann- 
chen (Hamburg, 1782); 6 concertos; 12 
piano sonatas; miscellaneous piano pieces. 

Becquie (beck-ya'), A., French flutist; b. 
Toulouse, 1800; d. Paris, Nov. 10, 1825. He 
was a pupil of Tulou and Guillou at the 
Paris Cons.; became first flutist at the 
Opera-Comique ; wrote many compositions 
for flute, including Grande fantaisie et va- 
riations (concerto) ; Les Regrets (sonata) ; 
rondos, airs, etc. His brilliant career was cut 
short by his untimely death at the age of 25. 

Becquie ('de Peyreville' ) , Jean-Marie, 

brother of A. Becquie; French violinist; b. 
Toulouse, April 28, 1795; d. Paris, Jan., 
1876. He studied with R. and A. Kreutzer 
at the Paris Cons.; wrote chamber music 
and many pieces for violin. 

Becvafovsky (betch-vah-rzhohv'-ske), An- 
ton Felix, Bohemian organist; b. Jung- 
bunzlau, April 9, 1754; d. Berlin, May 15, 
1823. He was organist at Prague; then at 
Brunswick (1779-96); after 1800, lived in 
Berlin; wrote 3 piano concertos, 3 piano 
sonatas; many songs for voice and piano. 

Bedard (ba-dahr'), Jean-Baptiste, French 
violinist and harpist; b. Rennes, c. 1765; d. 
Paris, c. 1815. He lived in Paris after 1796; 



wrote 2 'Symphonies periodiques,' and nu- 
merous works for the harp. 

Bedford, Herbert, English composer; b. 
London, Jan. 23, 1867; d. there, March 13, 
1945. He studied at the Guildhall School of 
Music; at the same time was active as a 
painter. He wrote an opera, Kit Marlowe; 
The Optimist for orch. ; Nocturne, for alto 
voice and orch.; Sowing the Wind, symph. 
poem; Over the Hills and Far Away, symph. 
interlude; Queen Mab, suite for orch.; Ode 
to Music and other songs; also an essay 
On Modern Unaccompanied Song (1923). 
He married Liza Lehmann in 1894. 

Bedos de Celles (bii-doh' du sell), Dom 
Francois, French organ theorist; b. Gaux, 
near Beziers, Jan. 24, 1709; d. Saint- 
Denis, Nov. 25, 1779. He was a Benedictine 
monk at Toulouse; wrote an important 
treatise, L'Art du facteur d'orgues (3 vols.; 
Paris, 1766-78); a 4th volume, containing 
historical notes on the organ, appeared in 
German (1793) ; a modern edition was publ. 
in Kassel (1936). He also wrote an account 
of a new organ at St. Martin de Tours in 
the 'Mercure de France' (Jan. 1762; a Ger- 
man translation is included in Adlung's 
Musica mechanica organoed'i). Bibl. : R. 
Raupel in the 'Bulletin de la Societe fran- 
chise de Musicologie' (Vol. I, 1917). 

Beecham, Sir Thomas, eminent English 
conductor; b. St. Helens, near Liverpool, 
April 29, 1879. He was educated at Rossall 
School and at Wadham College, Oxford 
Univ.; took lessons with Dr. Sweeting and 
Dr. V. Roberts. Of independent means, he 
was able to pursue his musical career with- 
out regard to economic necessities. In 1899 
he founded, chiefly for his own pleasure, an 
amateur orch. at Huyton. In 1902 he be- 
came conductor of K. Truman's traveling 
opera company, gaining valuable practical 
experience; after the conclusion of the tour, 
he resumed further serious study of music. 
In 1905 he gave his first symph. concert in 
London with the Queen's Hall Orch.; in 
1906 he established the New Symph. Orch., 
which he conducted until 1908, when he re- 
signed and formed the Beecham Symph. 
Orch. By that time his reputation as a force- 
ful and magnetic conductor was securely 
established. His precise yet dramatic inter- 
pretive style suits equally well the music 
of the classics and the moderns, thus closing 
the esthetic gap between the 18th and 20th 
centuries. In 1910 Beecham appeared in a 
new role, that of operatic impresario. With 
a company of excellent artists and his own 
well-trained orchestra, he gave a season of 

opera in London, conducting most of the 
performances himself; the variety of the rep- 
ertory and the high level of production 
made this season a memorable one; he pre- 
sented the first English performance of 
Elektra at Covent Garden (Feb. 19, 1910) ; 
also other Strauss operas (Salome, Der 
Rosenkavalier and Ariadne auf Naxos) ; A 
Village Romeo and Juliet by Delius, The 
Wreckers by Ethel Smyth, Shamus O'Brien 
by Stanford, Tiefland by Eugene d'Albert, 
and he Chemineau by Leroux; in subsequent 
years he continued to champion English 
operas, producing Dylan by Holbrooke, The 
Critic by Stanford, and Everyman by Liza 
Lehmann. In 1929 he organized and con- 
ducted the Delius Festival in London, to 
which Delius himself, though paralyzed, was 
brought from his residence in France. Beech- 
am's activities continued unabated for sev- 
eral decades. In 1928 he toured the U. S. 
for the first time, subsequently continued to 
appear in America, through 1956. He made 
a tour of Australia and Canada at the out- 
break of World War II; was conductor of 
the Seattle Symph. from 1941-43; also con- 
ducted at the Metropolitan Opera House 
(1942-44). In 1943 he married the British 
pianist, Betty Humby, after divorcing Utica 
Welles, whom he had married in 1903. 
Beecham returned to London in 1945; or- 
ganized the Royal Philh. Orch. in 1947, and 
toured in the U.S. and Canada (1949-51); 
conducted at the Edinburgh Festivals since 
1947. On May 4, 1953, he gave in Oxford 
the first complete performance of the opera 
Irmelin by Delius. Beecham was knighted 
on Jan. 1, 1916. He published his autobi- 
ography, A Mingled Chime, in 1943. He 
arranged several orchestral suites from Han- 
del's works, using material from Handel's 
operas and chamber music, and performed 
them as ballet scores; of these, The Great 
Elopement (1945) is particularly effective. 
See Ethel Smyth: Beecham and Pharaoh 
(London, 1935). 

Beecher, Carl Milton, American composer; 
b. La Fayette, Ind., Oct. 22, 1883. He grad- 
uated in 1908 from Northwestern Univ.; 
then studied in Berlin with Paul Juon and 
Joseph Lhevinne. He was on the faculty of 
Northwestern Univ. from 1913 to 1936; then 
spent eleven years (1936-47) on the South 
Sea Island of Tahiti, where he devoted his 
time to composition. He returned to Amer- 
ica in 1947 and settled in Portland, Oregon, 
where he became head of the theory dept. 
at the Portland School of Music. He has 
written mainly for piano: a set of 6 pieces, 
Remembrances of Times Past; a set of 9 
pieces, Musical Profiles; 5 Aquatints; etc. 



Beecke, Ignaz von, German clavierist 
and composer; b. Wimpfen, Oct. 28, 1733; 
d. Wallerstein, Jan. 2, 1803. He was a 
captain of dragoons; later became 'Musik- 
intendant' to the prince of Ottingen-Waller- 
stein. A highly accomplished pianist, 
he was a friend of Jommelli, Gluck and 
Mozart. Among his compositions are 7 op- 
eras; an oratorio, Die Auferstehung Jesu; a 
cantata ; symphonies ; quartets ; 4 harpsichord 
trios; 6 harpsichord sonatas; songs; etc. 
Bibl.: L. Schiedermair, Die Bliitezeit der 
Ottingen-W allerstein' schen Hofkapelle in the 
'Sammelbande der Internationalen Musik- 
Gesellschaft' (Oct., 1907). 

Beellaerts, Jean. See Bellere. 

Beer (bar), Jacob Liebmann. Original 
name of Giacomo Meyerbeer (q.v.). 

Beer, Josef, clarinetist, b. Griinwald, 
Bohemia, May 18, 1744; d. Potsdam, 1811. 
He was a Royal Prussian chamber-musician; 
introduced an improvement of a' fifth key for 
the clarinet; wrote many compositions for 
his instrument, and influenced Heinrich 
Barmann in the further extension of virtuoso 
technique on the clarinet. 

Beer, Max Josef, Austrian pianist and 
composer; b. Vienna, Aug. 25, 1851; d. 
there, Nov. 25, 1908. He was a pupil of 
Dessoff; wrote the comic operas Friedel mit 
der leer en Tasche (Prague, 1892) ; Der Streik 
der Schmiede (Augsburg, 1897); Das Stell- 
dichein auf der Pfahlbriicke; a cantata, Der 
wilde Jager; many songs and piano pieces. 

Beer-Walbrunn, Anton, German composer; 
b. Kohlberg, Bavaria, June 29, 1864; d. 
Munich, March 22, 1929. He was a pupil 
of Rheinberger, Bussmeyer and Abel at the 
Akademie der Tonkunst in Munich; from 
1901 instructor there; made professor in 
1908. He wrote the operas: Shiine (Liibeck, 
1894); Don Quixote (Munich, 1908); Das 
Ungeheuer (Karlsruhe, 1914) ; Der Sturm 
(after Shakespeare) ; incidental music to 
Hamlet; a symphony; Mahomet's Gesang 
(for chorus and orch.) ; Lusts pielouverture; 
violin concerto; piano quintet; church mu- 
sic; many compositions for various instru- 
ments. He also supervised new editions of 
works of Wilhelm Friedemann Bach. — Cf. 
monograph by O. G. Sonneck in his Suum 
cuique: Essays in Music (New York, 1916). 

Beeth (bat), Lola, dramatic soprano; b. 
Cracow, Nov. 23, 1862; d. Berlin, March 

18, 1940. She studied with Mme. Viardot- 
Garcia and Desiree Artot; made her debut 
as Elsa in Lohengrin at the Berlin Court 
Opera (1882); sang there from 1882 till 
1888; and at the Vienna Court Theater 
(1888-95). After appearances in Paris and 
New York she settled in Berlin as a teacher. 

Beethoven, Ludwig van, the great German 
composer who represents the fullest maturity 
(in emotional scope, in formal construction 
and in instrumental treatment) of the allied 
classic forms of the sonata, concerto, string 
quartet and the symphony; b. Bonn, prob- 
ably Dec. 16 (baptized Dec. 17), 1770; d. 
Vienna, March 26, 1827. His grandfather, 
Ludwig van Beethoven, was born in Malines, 
Belgium, Jan./5, 1712; moved to Louvain 
in 1731; went to Liege in 1732. In 1733 he 
became court musician in Bonn, where he 
married Marie Poll. The youngest of his 
three children was Johann, father of the 
composer; he was a tenor singer in the 
Electoral choir, and married a young widow, 
Marie Magdalena Laym (born Keverich), 
daughter of the court cook at Ehrenbreit- 
stein. Ludwig's musical education was taken 
in hand by his father, a stern master, who 
was interested in exhibiting the boy in pub- 
lic for profit. Beethoven learned the violin 
as well as the piano. His instructors, besides 
his father, were Pfeiffer, a music director 
and oboist; Van den Eeden, the court 
organist; and the latter's successor, Christian 
Gottlob Neefe. He was already a notable 
improviser on the piano; he could play 
Bach's Wohltemperiertes Clavier with flu- 
ency; in 1781 he composed his first pub- 
lished pieces (3 piano sonatas); in 1782, 
during Neefe's absence, Beethoven, then not 
quite twelve, was formally installed as his 
deputy at the organ; in 1783 he was ap- 
pointed cembalist for the rehearsals of the 
court theater orchestra, as yet without 
emolument. In 1784 the new Elector Max 
Franz appointed Beethoven assistant organ- 
ist at a salary of 150 florins; he held this 
place till 1792; from 1788 he also played 
second viola in the theater orchestra under 
the direction of Reicha. In 1787 he made 
a visit to Vienna for a few months, and 
played for Mozart, eliciting from him the 
oft-quoted exclamation: "This young man 
will leave his mark on the world." Beet- 
hoven's mother died in July 1787 and his fa- 
ther gave way to intemperance, gradually 
losing his voice. Beethoven's home life be- 
came wretched. He found consolation in the 
family of Frau von Breuning, the widow of 
a court councillor, to whose daughter and 
youngest son Beethoven gave music lessons. 
In their refined society his taste for literature 



was quickened. About this time he made 
the acquaintance of the young Count Wald- 
stein, his life-long friend, admirer and bene- 
factor. In his leisure hours he gave other 
lessons, and occupied himself with compo- 
sition. Despite his remarkable faculty for 
improvisation, the number of known works 
for the period up to the age of 21 is rela- 
tively small: half a dozen songs; a rondo; a 
minuet, and 3 preludes for piano; 3 piano 
quartets; a piano trio; a string trio; 4 sets 
of piano variations; a rondino for wind in- 
struments; the Ritter-Ballet with orch.; most 
of the Bagatelles, op. 33; 2 piano rondos, 
op. 51; the Serenade Trio, op. 8. To these 
should be added the lost cantata praised by 
Haydn; a lost trio for piano, flute and bas- 
soon, and an Allegro and Minuet for 2 
flutes. When Beethoven arrived in Vienna 
in 1792, he brought with him a considerable 
number of compositions in MS; some of 
these early works, e.g., the piano rondos, 
op. 51, he revised and published later 
(which accounts for the high opus-num- 
ber) ; others were lost. In 1910 Fritz Stein 
found, in Jena, the score and parts of a 
symphony in C, which antedates the one 
known as the First; but the authenticity of 
this 'Jena Symphony' was never definitely 
established. In 1911, it was published by 
Breitkopf & Hartel. In point of fact, Beet- 
hoven never possessed the fatal facility of 
invention which rejoices in rapidity rather 
than solidity of production. His way of 
working is exhibited in the 'sketch books' 
of this early period, which contain motives, 
themes, ideas; fragments jotted down in 
moods of inspiration, frequently reappearing 
in modified forms, and in many cases recog- 
nizable as the germs of later compositions. 
This method of tentative notation and care- 
ful working-over was typical of Beethoven 
through his whole life. 

The year 1792 marks a turning point. 
Haydn, passing through Bonn, warmly 
praised a cantata by Beethoven; the Elec- 
tor, probably influenced by the master's 
opinion and the representations of the 
friendly Waldstein, decided to send Beet- 
hoven to Vienna, then the musical center of 
Europe. Here, a member of the highest 
circles of artists and art lovers, to which his 
native genius and letters from the Elector 
procured speedy admission, Beethoven found 
himself in a most congenial atmosphere. Be- 
sides his salary from the Elector (discon- 
tinued in 1794), and an annual stipend of 
600 florins from Prince Lichnowsky, one of 
his truest friends and warmest admirers, his 
income was derived from the increasing 
sale of his works. He applied to Haydn for 

further instruction; but, dissatisfied with his 
methods of teaching, and angered at his lack 
of appreciation of compositions submitted 
to him for approval, he surreptitiously took 
lessons with Schenk, carrying his exercises, 
after correction by Schenk, to Haydn. This 
peculiar arrangement continued for a little 
more than a year, terminating at Haydn's de- 
parture (Jan. 1794) for England. During 
1794 he had quite regular lessons in counter- 
point with Albrechtsberger, whose verdict, 
'He has learned nothing, and will never do 
anything properly,' can hardly be called pro- 
phetic ; Salieri gave him many valuable hints 
on vocal style; and Aloys Forster contrib- 
uted good counsel on the art of quartet- 
writing. Beethoven's contrapuntal exercises 
under Albrechtsberger (publ. Paris, 1832; 
revised ed. by Nottebohm, in vol. I of his 
'Beethoven-Studien,' in 1873) illustrate the 
irrepressible conflict between Beethoven's im- 
agination and the dry course of prescribed 

A frequent guest at the private musical 
soirees of the Vienna aristocracy, Beethoven 
did not play in public until March 29, 1795, 
when he performed one of his piano con- 
certos (probably op. 19, in B-flat) at a 
concert in the Burgtheater. In 1796 he vis- 
ited Nuremberg, Prague and Berlin, and 
played before King Friedrich Wilhelm II. 
The publication of the E-flat piano sonata 
(op. 7) in 1797, a work of strongly indi- 
vidual type, is noteworthy. Two public con- 
certs given by Beethoven in Prague in 1798 
are chronicled as making a profound im- 
pression. In the same year he met two famed 
piano virtuosi: Steibelt, whose challenge to 
Beethoven as an extemporizer and composer 
resulted in his own overwhelming discom- 
fiture ; and Wolffl, a worthier opponent, with 
whom Beethoven associated and made music 
on a friendly footing (Wolffl inscribed 3 
sonatas to him). To 1798 and 1799 belong 
the 3 sonatas for piano and violin (op. 12), 
the Grande sonate pathetique (op. 13), the 
first piano concerto (in C) and several less- 
er publications. About 1800, Beethoven's so- 
called 'first period' of composition (after 
the generally accepted classification by W. 
von Lenz in his Beethoven et ses trois styles, 
St. Petersburg, 1852) ends; the 'second per- 
iod' extends to 1815; the 'third,' to the end 
of his life in 1827. The works of his first 
period include op/p. 1-13 (4 piano trios, 4 
string trios, the first 6 string quartets, 10 
piano sonatas), several sets of variations, 
septet for winds and strings (op. 20), the 
solo cantata Adelaide (op. 46), etc. At that 
time (1800-1801) a dread malady, which 
later resulted in total deafness, began to 



make alarming progress, and caused Beet- 
hoven acute mental suffering. From his en- 
trance into Viennese society he was known as 
an 'original'; his spirit of independence, his 
love of freedom, his refusal to be obsequious, 
were strange in a world in which even such 
great musicians as Haydn had to practice 
subservience. No doubt, he deliberately culti- 
vated his eccentricity. (He remarked that 'it 
is good to mingle with aristocrats, but one 
must know how to impress them.') His 
genius as an artist, and his noble generosity, 
won the hearts of music lovers, and caused 
them to overlook his occasional outbursts of 
temper. With increasing deafness, however, 
his character altered; he gradually grew 
taciturn, morose and suspicious (traits ag- 
gravated by the sordid meanness of his broth- 
ers, Karl and Johann, who had also settled 
in Vienna), and treated his best friends 
outrageously. From about 1820, deafness was 
nearly total; as early as 1816 he had to 
use an ear-trumpet. When his brother Karl 
died in 1815, leaving a son to Beethoven's 
guardianship, Beethoven undertook the boy's 
education as a sacred trust; his mental an- 
guish at the failure of this task forms one of 
the saddest chapters in the great man's life, 
and still further darkened his declining years. 
— Beethoven's freest and most joyous crea- 
tive period was his second. It was the period 
of the fullest flow of ideas, not as yet over- 
cast by the gloom of his anguish. Major 
works included in it are the six symphonies 
from the third to the eighth; his opera, 
Fidelio; the music to Egmont; the ballet 
Prometheus; the mass in C, op. 86; the 
oratorio Christus am Oelberg (1803); the 
Coriolanus overture; the piano concertos in 
G and E-flat; violin concerto; the quartets 
in F minor, E-flat, and those inscribed to 
Razumovsky; 3 piano trios (op. 70, Nos. 1 
and 2; op. 97); and 14 piano sonatas 
(among them the Sonata quasi una fantasia, 
op. 27, No. 2, commonly known as the 
Moonlight Sonata; the Pastorale, op. 28; 
op. 31, No. 2, in D m. ; the one dedicated 
to Waldstein, op. 53; the Appassionato, op. 
57; and Les Adieux, V absence, et le retour, 
op. 81) ; also the Liederkreis, etc. 

The third period includes the five piano 
sonatas opp. 101, 106, 109, 110, 111; also 
op. 102, Nos. 1 and 2; the Missa solemnis 
in D, op. 123; the Ninth Symphony, op. 
125; the orchestral overture op. 124; the 
grand fugue for string quartet, op. 133; 
and the great string quartets op. 127 (E- 
flat), op. 130 (B-flat), op. 131 (C# m.), 
op. 132 (A m.), and op. 135 (F). 

The work on his only opera, Fidelio, cost 
Beethoven more pains and exasperation than 

any other of his compositions. As early as 

1803 he arranged with Schikaneder, man- 
ager of the Theater-an-der-Wien, to write 
an opera; it was produced on Nov. 20, 1805, 
amid the commotion and gloom incident to 
the entrance, just a week before, of the 
French army into Vienna. Originally in 
three acts, it was withdrawn after three 
consecutive performances; then, after con- 
siderable revisions and cuts, was brought 
out again (March 29, 1806) with more suc- 
cess, but withdrawn by the composer after 
only two performances. Once more sweep- 
ingly revised, it was staged in 1814, very 
successfully. The 7 opera was first named 
Leonore, after jhe heroine; its overture was 
rewritten twice; the present Fidelio overture 
is quite different. Beethoven's sketch-book 
for his opera contains 300 large pages of 
16 staves each, crammed with heterogeneous 

The Eroica symphony (No. 3) has an 
interesting history. Schindler's report (based 
on a story told by Lichnowsky and Ries) 
that Beethoven tore off the title page of 
the MS of the Eroica with a dedication to 
Napoleon after learning of Napoleon's pro- 
clamation as emperor, seems apocryphal; 
while the original MS is lost, a copyist's 
score (in the library of the Gesellschaft der 
Musikfreunde in Vienna) shows that Beet- 
hoven inked out the title and renamed the 
symphony as 'Sinfonia eroica composta per 
festeggiare il sowenire d'un grand' uomo' 
(heroic symphony, composed to celebrate 
the memory of a great man). However, in a 
letter to Breitkopf & Hartel dated Aug. 26, 

1804 (long after Napoleon's proclamation) 
Beethoven still refers to the Eroica as "en- 
titled Bonaparte." 

With the Ninth Symphony Beethoven 
achieved a sublime greatness of expression 
in symphonic form; the choral finale where 
orchestral and vocal music blend in an 
outburst of ecstasy (the words are from 
Schiller's 'Hymn to Joy'), is a true apothe- 
osis of musical art. 

Up to 1814, Beethoven's material welfare 
had increased, though hardly in proportion 
to his artistic triumphs. An honored and 
frequent guest at the houses of the princes 
Carl Lichnowsky, Lobkowitz and Kinsky, 
the counts Moritz Lichnowsky, Rasumov- 
sky and Franz von Brunswick, and Baron 
von Gleichenstein, Beethoven was treated as 
a social equal (the nobiliary particle "van" 
in his full name, Ludwig van Beethoven, 
made him technically a member of the aris- 
tocracy, and Beethoven regarded this sign 
of nobility with some seriousness) ; at the 
time of the Vienna Congress, as a guest of 



Archduke Rudolf, he met the various reign- 
ing monarchs as their peers, and even (as 
he said himself) let them pay court to him. 
A curious incident was the invitation ex- 
tended to Beethoven in 1809, by the de facto 
'King of Westphalia,' Jerome Bonaparte, to 
assume the post of maitre de chapelle at 
Kassel at a salary of 600 ducats (about 
$1,500). Beethoven never considered ac- 
cepting this offer; he really wanted to be- 
come Imperial Kapellmeister at Vienna; but 
the bare possibility of losing the great com- 
poser so dismayed his Viennese admirers, 
that Archduke Rudolf and Princes Lob- 
kowitz and Kinsky bestowed on Beethoven 
an annuity of 4,000 florins (nominally 
$2,000, but in depreciated paper of fluctuat- 
ing value). In December, 1826, he caught 
a violent cold, which developed into pneu- 
monia; dropsy then supervened, and after 
several unsuccessful operations he succumbed 
to the disease on March 26, 1827. Hundreds 
attended his funeral and titled personages 
vied with each other in their expression of 
homage and regret. 

While Beethoven, in choosing the con- 
ventional sonata form as a vehicle for the 
expression of his thought (in 81 works, i.e., 
about one-third of all), still belongs to the 
'classic' school, his methods of moulding 
this form were eminently unconventional; 
indeed, so much so, that even at the be- 
ginning of his 'second period' the progres- 
sive 'Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung' of 
Leipzig berated him for his 'daring harmon- 
ies and venturesome rhythms'. Even among 
musicians no genuine appreciation of his 
last string quartets and piano sonatas was 
found until half a century after his death. 
His innovations on the formal key scheme 
of his predecessors, his original elaboration 
of connecting links both in thematic devel- 
opment and between separate movements, 
his fertility in incidental modulation, and 
the inexhaustible freshness of his rhythms, 
render the structure of his compositions 
thoroughly individual. But his loftiest origin- 
ality, and that whence the differences in 
formal construction naturally flowed, is the 
intensity and fervor of subjective emotion 
which pervades his music. It is this mood 
of profound subjectivity, of powerful soul- 
expression, that separates Beethoven's music 
from the classical works of Bach, Haydn and 
Mozart, opening the era of 'romantic' com- 
position. Technically, Beethoven's art of 
orchestration reaches a perfection in detail 
and a grandeur of effect theretofore un- 
known; and his diversified development of 
the motives (melodic, harmonic, rhythmic) 
surpasses anything before Wagner. As speci- 

mens of what can be done in thematic 
treatment, his variations on given or original 
themes are a ne plus ultra of musical in- 
genuity. It is noteworthy that, according to 
contemporary accounts, his 'free improvisa- 
tions' at the piano, which held his auditors 
spellbound, were developments of kindred 
nature; not mere rhapsodies, but the spon- 
taneous elaborations of a teeming invention; 
in vocal music, his Fidelio and the Missa 
solemnis are creations of unique power. 

Monuments were erected to Beethoven in 
1845 at Bonn (by Hahnel), and in 1880 at 
Vienna (by Zumbusch). 

Beethoven's works comprise 138 opus- 
numbers, and many unnumbered composi- 
tions. A list of his publ. works is given 
below. Certain works are in both instru- 
mental and vocal categories (the 9th sym- 
phony, Egmont, Ruins of Athens, etc.). 
They have been listed in that group with 
which they are customarily associated. 

Instrumental Works 

Nine Symphonies: No. 1, op. 21, in G; 2, 
op. 36, in D; 3, op. 55, in Ed (Eroica) ; 4, 
op. 60, in Bb ; 5, op. 67, in G m. ; 6, op. 68, 
in F (Pastoral) ; 7, op. 92, in A; 8, op. 93, 
in F; 9, op. 125, in D m. (Choral). 

The Battle of Vittoria (op. 91); Sym- 
phony in G (Jena, publ. 1911; of doubtful 
authenticity) ; music to the ballet Prometheus 
(op. 43), and to Goethe's Egmont (op. 84), 
both with overtures. 

Nine further overtures: Coriolanus (op. 
62); Leonore (No. 1, op. 138; Nos. 2 and 
3, op. 72a) ; Fidelio (from op. 72b) ; King 
Stephen (from op. 117); Ruins of Athens 
(from op. 113); Namensfeier (op. 115); 
Weihe des Hauses (op. 124). 

Other compositions for orch. or band: 
Allegretto in Eb ; March from Tarpeia, in C ; 
Military Marches in D and F; Ritter-Ballet; 
12 Minuets; 12 deutsche Tanze; 12 Contre- 
tanze; 2 Marches in F; March in G; Polon- 
aise in D; Ecossaise in D. 

Violin concerto, op. 61, in D. 

Two Romances for violin and orch. (op. 
40, in G; op. 50, in F). 

Two cadenzas to the violin concerto. 

Five piano concertos: No. 1, op. 15, in 
C; 2, op. 19, in Bb; 3, op. 37, in C m.; 4, 
op. 58, in G; 5, op. 73, in Eb (Emperor); 
also a piano concerto arranged from the 
violin concerto; a Rondo in Bb, for piano 
and orch. (left incomplete and finished by 

8 cadenzas to the first 4 piano concertos, 
and 2 cadenzas to Mozart's piano concerto 
in D m. (K. 466). 

A triple concerto, op. 56, for piano, violin, 



cello and orch. ; a Choral Fantasia, op. 80, 
for piano, chorus and orch. 

Two Octets for wind, both in Eb (the 
first op. 103). 

Septet for strings and wind, in Eb, op. 20. 

Sextet for strings and 2 horns, in Eb, op. 

Sextet for wind, in Eb, op. 71. Also, a 
March, in Bb, for 6 woodwinds. 

Three Quintets for strings : Op. 4, in Eb ; 
op. 29, in C; op. 104, in G m. Also a Fugue 
for string quintet, op. 137. 

For four trombones: Three Equate. 

Sixteen String Quartets: Op. 18, Nos. 1-6, 
in F, G, D, G m., A, and Bb (first period). 
Op. 59, Nos. 1-3, in F, E m., and C; op. 
74 in Eb (Harfenquartett) ; op. 95, in F m. 
(second period). — Op. 127, in Eb ; op. 130, 
in Bb; op. 131, in C# m. ; op. 132, in A m. ; 
op. 135, in F. Also a Grand Fugue for string 
quartet, op. 133, in Bb (third period). 

Five string trios: Op. 3, in Eb ; op. 9, 
Nos. 1-3, in G, D, G m. ; op. 3, in D 
(Serenade). Also 6 Landlerische Tanze. 

Trio for 2 oboes and Engl, horn, op. 87, 
in G. Also a Serenade for flute, violin and 
viola op. 25, in D. 

Quintet for piano and wind, op. 16, in Eb. 

Four Quartets for piano and strings: in 
Eb, D, C (juvenile) ; in Eb (arrangement of 
the piano quintet). 

Nine Trios for piano, violin and cello: 
Op. 1, Nos. 1-3, in Eb, G, C m.; op. 70, 
Nos. 1-2, in D, Eb ; op. 97, in Bb; in Eb, Bb 
(both posthumous, the latter in one move- 
ment) ; in D (incomplete). Also for piano, 
violin and cello: 14 variations, op. 44, in 
Eb ; Variations, op. 121a, on 'Ich bin der 
Schneider Kakadu' ; an arrangement of the 
2nd symph., op. 36. 

Two Trios for piano, clar. (or violin) and 
cello: Op. 11, Bb; op. 38, in Eb (after the 
septet, op. 20). Also a Trio for piano, flute 
and bassoon. 

Sonatina in C m., for piano and mandolin. 
Also an Adagio in Eb, for piano and man- 

Ten Sonatas for piano and violin: Op. 
12, Nos. 1-3, in D, A, Eb; op. 23, in A m.; 
op. 24, in F; op. 30, Nos. 1-3, in A, G m., 
G; op. 47 in A (Kreutzer) ; op. 96, in G. 
Also for piano and violin: Rondo in G; 12 
Variations, in F, on 'Se vuol ballare' from 
Mozart's Marriage of Figaro; 6 Deutsche 

Five Sonatas for piano and cello; Op. 5, 
1-2, in F, G; op. 69, in A; op. 102, Nos. 
1-2, in G, D. Also for piano and cello: 12 
variations on 'Ein Madchen oder Weibchen', 
op. 66, in F; 12 variations in G, on 'See, the 
Conquering Hero Comes'; 7 variations, in 

Eb, on 'Bei Mannern, welche Liebe fiihlen'. 

Sonata for piano and horn, op. 17, in F. 

Two sets of 'varied themes' for piano with 
obbligato flute (or violin) ; op. 105 with 6 
themes; op. 107 with 10 themes. 

For piano, 4 hands: Sonata, op. 6, in D; 
3 Marches, op. 45, in G, Eb, D; Variations, 
in G, on a theme by Count Waldstein; Song 
with variations, in D ( 'Ich denke dein' ) ; 
Grand Fugue, op. 134 (an arr. of op. 133) ; 
an Allegro in Bb; Gavotte in F; Marzia 
lugubre (incomplete). 

Thirty-eight jSonatas for piano solo : Op. 
2, Nos. 1-3, in F m., A, G (ded. to Haydn) ; 
op. 7, in Eb; op. 10, Nos. 1-3, in C m., F, 
D; op. 13, in Cm. (Pathetique; ded. to Prince 
Lichnowsky) ; op. 14, Nos. 1-2, in E, G; 
op. 22, in Bb; op. 26, in Ab (ded. to Prince 
Lichnowsky) ; op. 27, Nos. 1-2, in Eb, G# m.; 
(the latter known as Moonlight Sonata); 
op. 28, in D (Pastoral) ; op. 31, Nos. 1-3, in 
G, D m., Eb ; op. 49, 2 easy sonatas in G 
m., G; op. 53, in G (ded. to Count Wald- 
stein) ; op. 54, in F; op. 57, in F m. (Appas- 
sionato.) ; op. 78, in F# ; op. 79, little sonata 
in G; op. 81a, in Eb (Les Adieux, V absence, 
le retour; ded. to Archduke Rudolph) ; op. 
90, in E m. (ded. to Count Lichnowsky); 
op. 101, in A; op. 106, in Bb (Hammer- 
klavier; ded. to Archduke Rudolph) ; op. 
109, in E; op. 110, in Ab; op. Ill, in C m. 
Also three sonatas in Eb, F m., D; an easy 
sonata in C (incomplete) ; two sonatinas in 

Also for piano solo: 21 sets of variations, 
including op. 34, in F; op. 35, in Eb 
(Eroica) ; op. 76, in D; op. 120, in G 
(Diabelli). Bagatelles, op. 33, 119, 126. 5 
Rondos, including op. 51, Nos. 1-2, and op. 
129; Fantasia, op. 77, in G m. ; 3 Preludes, 
including op. 39, Nos. 1-2 (for piano or 
organ); Polonaise, op. 89, in G; Andante 
in F; 7 Minuets; 13 Landler; a Kleines 
Stuck in Bb; a German dance in G; Letzter 
Gedanke in G; 6 easy variations, in F, for 
piano or harp; Fur Elise (Bagatelle in A 
m. ) ; Allegretto in C m. ; Allemande in A ; 
2 Bagatelles in C m., G; 8 Ecossaisen; 2 
Kleine Clavierstucke (Lustig, Traurig) ; 2 
Waltzes in Eb, D. 

For organ: A 2-part fugue. 

Vocal Music 

Opera, Fidelio, in 2 acts, op. 72b. 

Two Masses, op. 86, in C, and op. 123, in 
D (Missa Solemnis) . 

Oratorio, Christus am Oelberg, op. 85. 

Cantata, Der glorreiche Augenblick, op. 
136 (also arr. as Preis der Tonkunst). 

Meeresstille und gliickliche Fahrt, op. 112 
(poem by Goethe). 



Ah, perfido!, scena and aria for soprano 
with orch., op. 65. 

Tremate, empi, tremate, trio for soprano, 
tenor and bass, op. 116. 

Opferlied, for soprano, chor. and orch., op. 

Bundeslied, for 2 soli, 3-part chorus and 
wind, op. 122. 

Elegischer Gesang, for 4 voices and strings, 
op. 118. 

Cantate auf den Tod Kaiser Joseph des 
Zweiten; Cantate auf die Erhebung Leopold 
des Zweiten zur Kaiserwurde; Chor zum 
Festspiel: Die Weihe des Hauses; Chor auf 
die verbundeten Fiirsten. 

For bass and orch. : Priifung des Kiissens. 
Also Mit Madeln sich vertragen. 

Two arias for Ignaz Umlauf's Singspiel 
Die schbne Schusterin (O welch ein Leben! ; 
Soil ein Schuh nicht drucken). 

For soprano and orch: Primo amore 
piacer del del. 

Music to Friedrich Duncker's drama 
Leonore Prohaska. 

Trauergesang for 4-part male chor. and 4 
trombones; Lobkowitz-Cantate for 3 voices 
and piano; Gesang der Mbnche for 3 voices; 
Abschiedsgesang for 3 male voices; O care 
selve (song from Metastasio's Olimpiade), 
for unison chorus and piano. 

Seventy-five songs with piano accomp.; 
one duet; twenty-three vocal canons; seven 
books of English, Scotch, Irish, Welsh and 
Italian songs for voice, piano, violin and 

Breitkopf & Hartel were the first to publ. 
a 'complete edition' in 24 series comprising 
40 volumes (1864-67, ed. by Rietz, Notte- 
bohm, David, Hauptmann, Reinecke and 
others). An additional volume, containing 
48 works subsequently found, appeared in 

A. Biographical :F. G. Wegeler and F. 
Ries, Biographische Notizen iiber L. van B. 
(Koblenz, 1838; new ed. by A. Kalischer, 
Leipzig, 1906) ; A. Schindler, Biographie von 
L. van B. (Minister, 1840; new ed. by A. 
Kalischer, Berlin, 1909; Eng. transl. by Mo- 
scheles, London, 1841) ; W. v. Lenz, B.: eine 
Kunststudie (2 vols., Kassel, 1855; I. Das 
Leben des Meisters, new ed. by A. Kalischer, 
Berlin, 1908; II. Der Stil in B.; Die Mit- 
und Nachwelt B.'s; Der B. Status Quo in 
Russland) ; A. B. Marx, L. van B.'s Leben 
und S chaff en (2 vols., Berlin, 1859; 6th ed. 
Leipzig, 1906) ; L. Nohl, B.'s Leben (3 vols., 
Vienna, 1864-77) ; id., B. nach den Schilder- 
ungen seiner Zeitgenossen (Stuttgart, 1877) ; 
G. v. Breuning, Aus dem Schwarzspanier- 
hause (Vienna, 1874) ; J. W. v. Wasielewski, 

L. van B. (2 vols., Berlin, 1888); T. v. 
Frimmel, Neue Beethoveniana (Berlin, 1887; 
revised and augmented as Beethovenstudien, 
2 vols., Munich, 1905-6); id., B. (in Rie- 
mann's Beriihmte Meister, Berlin, 1901) ; R. 
Rolland, B. (Paris, 1903; in English, N. Y., 
1917); F. Kerst, B. im eigenen Wort (Ber- 
lin, 1904; Engl, transl. by H. E. Krehbicl, 
N. Y. 1905) ; G. A. Fischer, B., a Character 
Study (N. Y., 1905) ; E. Walker, B. (2d ed. 
London, 1907); A. Kalischer, B. und seine 
Zeitgenossen (4 vols., Leipzig, 1910); P. 
Bekker, B. (Berlin, 1911; Engl, transl. and 
adaptation by M. M. Bozman, London, 
1925) ; M. E. Belpaire, B., een kunsten 
levensbeeld (Antwerp, 1911); V. d'Indy, 
B.: Biographie critique (Paris, 1911; Engl, 
transl. by T. Baker, Boston, 1913); W. A. 
Thomas-San Galli, L. van B. (Berlin, 1913) ; 

A. Hensel, B. Der Versuch einer musik-phil- 
osophischen Darstellung (ib., 1918) ; J. G. 
Prod'homme, La jeunesse de B. (Paris, 
1920; new ed., 1927); G. Bilancioni, La 
sordita di B. (Rome, 1921); T. v. Frimmel, 

B. im zeitgenbssischen Bildnis (Vienna, 
1923); W. Krug, B.'s Vollendung (Munich, 
1924) ; S. Ley, B.'s Leben in authentischen 
Bildern und Texten (Berlin, 1925) ; L. 
Schiedermair, Der junge B. (Leipzig, 1925; 
2nd ed., 1951) ; B. issue of the 'Mus. Quart- 
erly' (1927); B. Bartels, B. (Hildesheim, 
1927) ; L. Bertran, Anecdotario completo de 
B. (Buenos Aires, 1927); E. Newman, The 
Unconscious B. (N. Y, 1927); A. Orel, B. 
(Vienna, 1927); J.-G. Prod'homme, B. 
raconte par ceux qui I'ont vu (Paris, 1927) ; 
A. Schmitz, Das romantische Beethovenbtld 
(Berlin, 1927); O. G. Sonneck, The Riddle 
of the Immortal Beloved, a supplement to 
Thayer's 'Life of B.' (N. Y., 1927); W. J. 
Turner, B., the Search for Reality (Lon- 
don, 1927) ; R. J. J. van Aerde, Les ancetres 
flamands de B. (Malines, 1928) ; E. Glosson, 
L'element flamand dans B. (Brussels, 1928; 
Engl, transl. London, 1934) ; W. Fischer, B. 
als Mensch (Regensburg, 1928); R. Rol- 
land, B.: les grandes epoques creatrices 
(Paris, 1928 ff.) ; id., B. the Creator (Engl, 
transl. by E. Newman, N. Y., 1929) ; R. H. 
Schauffler, B., the Man who Freed Music 
(N. Y., 1929); E. Herriot, La vie de B. 
(Paris, 1929; Engl, transl. N. Y., 1935); 
R. Rolland, Goethe et B. (Paris, 1930; 
Engl, transl. N. Y., 1931); A. Boschot, B., 
la musique et la vie (Paris, 1931); R. 
Specht, Bildnis B.'s (Hellerau, 1931; Engl, 
transl. London, 1933); E. Briimmer, B. im 
Spiegel der zeitgenbssischen rheinischen 
Presse (Wurzburg, 1932); F. S. Howes, B. 
(London, 1933); M. Scott, B. (ib., 1934); 
E. Biicken, L. van B. (Potsdam, 1935) ; G. 



Carpenter, French Factors in B.'s Life (N. 
Y., 1935); E. Buenzod, Pouvoirs de B. 
(Paris, 1936) ; K. Kobald, B. (Leipzig, 
1936)i W. Riezler, B. (Berlin, 1936; Engl, 
transl. London, 1938) ; H. Schultz, L. van 
B., sein Leben in Bildern (Leipzig, 1936) ; 

B. und die Gegenwart (Berlin and Bonn, 
1937) ; H. Kesser, B. der Europaer (Zurich, 
1937); H. v. Hofmannsthal, B. (Vienna, 
1938) ; R. Petzoldt, L. van B., Leben und 
Werk (Leipzig, 1938); R. van Aerde, A la 
recherche des ascendants de B. in the 'Revue 
beige archeologique' (1939, No. 2); G. 
Brandt, B., su vida, su obra, y el sentido 
de su musica (Caracas, 1940) ; A. Orel, 
Grillparzer und B. (Vienna, 1941); L. 
Schrade, B. in France (New Haven, 1942); 
H. Volkmann, B. in seinen Beziehungen zu 
Dresden (Dresden, 1942); J. N. Burk, The 
Life and Works of B. (N. Y., 1943); E. C. 

C. Corti, B.- Anekdoten (Berlin, 1943); 
E. Ludwig, B., Life of a Conqueror 
(1943); A. Albertini, B., I'uomo, 4th ed. 
(Milan, 1944) ; Les cahiers de conversation 
de B. (1819-1827), trans, and ed. by J. G. 
Prod'homme (Paris, 1946) ; A. Pryce-Jones, 
B. (London, 1948) ; S. Axnelson, B.'s feme 
und unsterbliche Geliebte (Zurich, 1953; 
purporting to prove that the "immortal be- 
loved" was Josephine Deym-Stackelberg, 
sister of Therese Brunswick; that Beethoven 
was with her in Prague, July 3, 1812, and 
that Josephine's child Minona, born in 
Vienna on April 9, 1813, was in fact Beet- 
hoven's) ; Editha and Richard Sterba, B. and 
his Nephew, a Psychoanalytical Study of 
their Relationship (N. Y., 1954). The 
standard and most extensive biography is the 
monumental work of A. W. Thayer, L. v. B.'s 
Leben (5 vols., 1866-1908). The English 
original was never published. The first 3 
volumes appeared in a German transl. by H. 
Deiters (Berlin, 1866, 1872, 1877). After 
the author's death Deiters completed vols. 
IV and V from Thayer's material, but died 
also before their publication. He had also 
revised and enlarged vol. I (Leipzig, 1901). 
Deiters' manuscript was revised and edited 
by H. Riemann (vol. IV, Leipzig, 1907; 
vol. V, ib., 1908). Vols. II and III were 
then revised and enlarged by Riemann along 
the lines followed by Deiters in the revision 
of vol. I (Leipzig, 1910-11). The 4th ed. 
of Thayer's work was revised by Riemann 
and published in 1919 (abridged English ed. 
by Krehbiel, in 3 vols., N. Y., 1921). 

B. Correspondence: The several partial 
collections of letters edited by Nohl, Kochel, 
etc., have been superseded by the following 
complete editions: A. C. Kalischer, B.'s 
sammtliche Brief e (5 vols., Berlin, 1906-8; 

partial Engl, transl. by J. S. Shedlock, Lon- 
don, 1909) ; F. Prelinger, L. van B.'s sdmmt- 
• liche Brief e und Aufzeichnungen (5 vols., 
Vienna, 1907-10); E. Kastner, L. van B.'s 
sammtliche Brief e (Leipzig, 1910). Also A. 
Leitzmann, B.'s Aufzeichnungen (Leipzig, 
1918) ; M. Unger, B. und seiner Verleger 
Steiner-Haslinger-Schlesinger (Berlin, 1921) ; 
id., B.'s Handschrift (Bonn, 1926); O. G. 
Sonneck, B. Letters in America (N. Y., 
1927) ; G. Kinsky, Die Handschriften zu B.'s 
Egmont Musik (Vienna, 1933). Other letters 
have been edited by U. Steindorff (in Engl.; 
Los Angeles, 1933); Brief e und das heili- 
genstadter Testament, ed. by A. Klarer 
(Zurich, 1944) ; L. v. B., ein Bekenntnis mit 
Briefen und Zeitdokumenten, edited by H. 
Freiberger (Berlin, 1951). 

C. Criticism, Analysis. — General: L. v. 
Seyfried, L. van B.'s Studien im Generalbass, 
Kontrapunkt, und in der Kompositionslehre 
(Vienna, 1832; new ed. by Nottebohm, Leip- 
zig, 1873; also by L. Kohler, ib., 1880); W. 
v. Lenz, B. et ses trois styles (St. Petersburg, 
1852; new ed. by M. D. Calvocoressi, Paris, 
1909) ; A. v. Oulibicheff, B., ses critiques et 
ses glossateurs (Paris, 1857; Ger. transl. by 
L. Bischoff, Leipzig, 1859); G. Nottebohm, 
Ein Skizzenbuch von Beethoven (Leipzig, 
1865; 2d ed. ib., 1880; new rev. ed. by P. 
Mies, 1924); R. Wagner, B. (Leipzig, 1870; 
reprinted in vol. IX of 'Ges. Schriften und 
Dichtungen'; Engl, transl., 3rd ed., N. Y.j 
1883) ; G. Nottebohm, Beethoveniana (Leip- 
zig, 1872); id., Neue Beethoveniana (orig. 
publ. in 'Musikal. Wochenblatt,' 1878; re- 
vised and enlarged E. Mandyczewski as 
Zweite Beethoveniana (Leipzig, 1887) ; T. de 
Wyzewa, B. et Wagner (Paris, 1898; 4th ed., 
1914) ; D. G. Mason, B. and His Forerun- 
ners (N. Y., 1904); H. Berlioz, A Critical 
Study of B.'s Nine Symphonies (transl. by E. 
Evans; N. Y., 1913) ; R. Rolland, B. (transl. 
by B. Constance Hull, with a brief analysis 
of the sonatas, the symphonies and the quar- 
tets by A. Eaglefield Hull; N. Y., 1917) ; H. 
Mersmann, B., die Synthese der Stile (Ber- 
lin, 1922); id., B.'s Skizzen (Basel, 1924); 
F. Cassirer, B. und die Gestalt (Stuttgart, 
1925); P. Mies, Die Bedeutung der Skizzen 
B.'s zur Erkenntnis seines Stiles (Leipzig, 
1925; Engl, transl. London, 1929); T. v. 
Frimmel, B.-Handbuch (2 vols., Leipzig, 
1926); J. W. N. Sullivan, B., His Spiritual 
Development (London, 1927); T. Veidl, 
Der musikalische Humor bei B. (Leipzig, 
1929) ; H. Naumann, Strukturkadenzen bei 
B. (Meissen, 1931) ; W. Haas, Systematische 
Ordnung Beethovenscher Melodien (Leipzig, 
1932); D. F. Tovey, Essays in Musical An- 
alysis (5 vols., London, 1935-37); A. Scher- 



ing, B. und die Dichtung (Berlin, 1936) ; 
W. Broel, Die Durchfiihrungsgestaltung in 
B.'s Sonatensdtzen (Brunswick, 1937); A. 
Schering, Zur Erkenntnis B.'s; neue Beitrage 
zur Deutung seiner Werke (Wiirzburg, 
1938) ; J. Boyer, Le 'romantisme' de B. (Pa- 
ris, 1939) ; Storck-Wieman, Wege zu B. (Re- 
gensburg, 1942); D. F. Tovey, B. (London, 
1945); L. Misch, B.-Studien (Berlin, 1950; 
Engl, transl., Norman, Okla., 1954). — Sym- 
phonic: G. Erlanger et al., B.'s Symphonien 
erlautert (Frankfurt, 1896) ; G. Grove, B. 
and His Nine Symphonies (London, 1896) ; 
A. Colombani, Le nove sinfonie di B. (Turin, 
1897) ; J. Hartog, L. van B. en zijne negen 
symphonieen (Amsterdam, 1904); J.-G. 
Prod'homme, Les symphonies de B. (Paris, 
1906) ; F. Weingartner, Ratschldge fur Auf- 
filhrungen der Symphonien B.'s (Leipzig, 
1906; 2d ed. 1916; Engl, transl. N. Y., n. 
d. ) ; M. H. Barroso, La IX sinfonia de B. 
(Madrid, 1912); H. Schenker, B.'s neunte 
Symphonie (Vienna, 1912); Eigenhandiges 
Skizzenbuch zur 9. Symphonie (Leipzig, 
1913; facsim. ed.) ; E. Evans, B.'s Nine Sym- 
phonies ... (2 vols., London, 1923-24); E. 
de la Guardia, Las sinfonias de B. (Buenos 
Aires, 1927); D. E. Berg, B. and the 
Romantic Symphony (N. Y., 1927); J. 
Braunstein, B.'s Leonore-Ouvertiiren (Leip- 
zig, 1927); W. Hutschenruijter, De sym- 
phonieen van B. geanalyseerd (The Hague, 
1928); K. Nef, Die neun Sinfonien B.'s 
(Leipzig, 1928) ; O. Baensch, Aufbau und 
Sinn des Chorfinales in B.'s Neunter Sym- 
phonie (Berlin, 1930) ; J. Chantavoine, Les 
Symphonies de B. (Paris, 1932); E. Magni 
Dufflocq, Le sinfonie di B. (Milan, 1935). 
— Chamber music: J. Matthews, The Violin 
Music of B. (London, 1902) ; H. Riemann, 
B.'s Streichquartette (in 'Musikfuhrer,' Leip- 
zig, 1901-7); T. Helm, B.'s Streichquartette 
(2nd ed. Leipzig, 1910); H. Riemann, B.'s 
Streichquartette erlautert (Berlin, 1910) ; S. 
Midgley, Handbook to B.'s Sonatas for Vio- 
lin and Pianoforte (London, 1911) ; O. Rup- 
ertus, Erlauterungen zu B.'s Violinsonaten 
(Cologne, 1915) ; E. Albini, B. e le sue 
cinque sonate per violoncello (Turin, 1923) 
J. H. Wetzel, B.'s Violinsonaten, nebst den 
Romanzen und dem Konzert (Berlin, 1924) 
J. de Marliave, Les quatuors de B. (Paris 
1925; Engl, transl. by H. Andrews, London 
1928) ; M. Herwegh, Technique d'interpri' 
tation sous forme d'essai d'analyse psycho 
logique expirimentale applique" aux sonates 
pour piano et violon (Paris, 1926) ; W. H. 
Hadow, B.'s Op. 18 Quartets (London, 
1926); W. Engelsmann, B.'s Kompositions- 
pldne dargestellt in den Sonaten fur Klavier 
und Violine (Augsburg, 1931); S. Grew, 

B.'s 'Grosse Fuge' (in the 'Mus. Quarterly,' 
1931); R. Giraldi, Analisi formale ed estet- 
ica dei primi tempi dei Quartetti Op. 18 
(Rome, 1933) ; S. Kjellstrom, B.'s strakkvar- 
tetter, en orientering (Stockholm, 1936) ; G. 
Abraham, B.'s Second-Period Quartets 
(1942); D. G. Mason, The Quartets of B. 
(N.Y., 1947). — Piano Music: E. v. Elterlein, 
B.'s Klavier sonaten (Leipzig, 1856; 5th ed. 
1895; Engl, transl. London, 1898); C. Rei- 
necke, Die Beethovenschen Klavier sonaten 
(Leipzig, 1897; Engl, transl. London, 1898) ; 
A.B. Marx, Anleitung zum Vortrag Beethov- 
ensche Klavierwerke (Berlin, 1898) ; W. Na- 
gel, B. und seine Klavier sonaten (2 vols., 
Langensalza, 1905) ; R. Nesieht, Das goldene 
Zeitalter der Klavier sonate (Cologne, 1910) ; 
H. Riemann, L. van B.'s samtliche Klavier- 
Solosonaten (3 vols., Berlin, 1919-20); S. 
Leoni, Le sonate per pf. di B. (Turin, 
1922); F. Volbach, Erlauterungen zu den 
Klavier sonaten B.'s (3d ed. Cologne, 1924) ; 
A. F. Milne, B., the Pianoforte Sonatas 
(London, 1925-28) ; I. Peters, B.'s Klavier- 
musik (Berlin, 1925); W. Behrend, L. van 
B.'s Pianoforte Sonatas (transl. from the Dan- 
ish; London, 1927); J. A. Johnstone, Notes 
on the Interpretation of 24 Famous Piano- 
forte Sonatas by B. (London, 1927) ;H. West- 
erby, B. and His Piano Works (ib., 1931); 

A. Coviello, Difficulties of B.'s Pianoforte 
Sonatas (ib., 1935) ; D.F. Tovey, A Compan- 
ion to B.'s Pianoforte Sonatas (ib., 1935) ; R. 
Kastner, B.'s Pianoforte Sonatas; a Descrip- 
tive Commentary on the Sonatas in the 
Light of Schnabel's Interpretations (ib., 
1935); H. Leichtentritt, The Complete Pi- 
anoforte Sonatas of B. (N. Y., 1936); J.-G. 
Prod'homipe, Les sonates pour piano de B. 
(Paris, 1937); E. Blom, B.'s Pianoforte 
Sonatas Discussed (London, 1938). 
— Vocal and choral music: M. Bou- 
chor. La messe en re de B. (Paris, 1886) ; 
M. Remy, Missa solemnis (Brussels, 1897) ; 
R. Sternfeld, Zur Einfuhrung in L. van B.'s 
Missa solemnis (Berlin, 1900) ; H. de Cur- 
zon, Les Lie der et airs detaches de B. (Paris, 
1905) ; W. Weber, B.'s Missa solemnis (Leip- 
zig, 1908) ; M. KufFerath, Fidelio de L. van 

B. (Paris, 1913) ; M. Chop, L. van B.: Missa 
solemnis geschichtlich und musikalisch analy- 
siert (Leipzig, 1921); H. Bottcher, B.'s 
Lieder (Berlin, 1927) ; id., B. als Liederkom- 
ponist (Augsburg, 1928); J. Schmidt, Un- 
bekannte Manuskripte zu B.'s weltlichen und 
geistlichen Gesangsmusik (Leipzig, 1928) ; F. 
Lederer, B.'s Bearbeitungen schottischer und 
anderer Volkslieder (Bonn, 1934). 

D. Catalogues, Year-Books, Etc.: The 
first catalogue, revised by Beethoven per- 
sonally, and completed by A. Graff er (Vi- 



enna, 1828), as well as several published 
subsequently, leave much to be desired. The 
first valuable thematic catalogue was issued 
by Breitkopf & Hartel (Leipzig, 1851). It 
was thoroughly revised and enlarged by G. 
Nottebohm and published as Thematisches 
V erzeichnis der im Druck erschienenen 
Werke von L. van B. (Leipzig, 1868); new 
edition, together with Bibliotheca Beethoven- 
iana, by E. Kastner, giving a complete list 
of all books (and important articles written 
in periodicals) about Beethoven from 1829- 
1913 (Leipzig, 1913; 2d ed. by T. von 
Frimmel, 1925). As a precursor to his great 
biography, Thayer published a Chronolog- 
isches Verzeichniss der Werke L. van B.'s 
(Berlin, 1865), which includes unpublished 
works. In 1908 T. von Frimmel began the 
publication of a 'B.-Jahrbuch,' the name of 
which, in 1911, was changed to 'B.-For- 
schung' (Vienna). See also the yearly publi- 
cations of the Beethovenhaus in Bonn (since 
1920) ; especially J. Schmidt-Gorg, Katalog 
der Handschriften des B.-Hauses und B.- 
Archivs Bonn (Bonn, 1935) and T. Lohmer, 
Das B.-Haus in Bonn und seine Samm- 
lungen (Bonn, 1936; English transl., 1937); 
'Neues B.-Jahrbuch' ed. by A. Sand- 
berger (Augsburg, 1924 ff.); W. Korte, 
L. van B., Darstellung seines Werkes (Ber- 
lin, 1936) ; A. Bruers, B., Catalogo ragionato 
delle opere principali (Rome, 1937). Of 
value and interest also are G. Adler, Ver- 
zeichnis der musikalischen Autographe von 
L. van B. (Vienna, 1890), and A. C. Kal- 
ischer, Die B.-Autographe der Kgl. Biblio- 
thek zu Berlin, in 'Monatshefte fur Musik- 
geschichte' (Oct., 1895) ; report of the 
Beethoven Centenary (Vienna, J 927) ; G. 
Biamonti, Catalogo cronologico di tutte le 
musiche di B. (Rome, 1952). A thematic 
and bibliographic index of all Beethoven's 
works, prepared by Georg Kinsky and com- 
pleted, after Kinsky's death, by Hans Halm, 
was published in Munich in 1955. 

Beffara, Louis-Francois, French writer on 
music; b. Nonancourt, Eure, Aug. 23, 1751; 
d. Paris, Feb. 2, 1838. He was 'Commissaire 
de Police' in Paris from 1792-1816; left his 
rare collection of books and MSS. to the 
city of Paris. Practically all of these were 
burned during the Commune in 1871, but a 
few are preserved in the Opera library and 
at the Bibliotheque Nationale. He wrote a 
Dictionnaire de I' Academie royale de Mu- 
sique (7 vols.) and 7 vols, of rules and 
regulations of the 'Academie' (Grand Op- 
era) also a Dictionnaire alphabetique des 
acteurs, etc. (3 vols.) ; Tableau chrono- 
logique des representations journalieres, etc. 
(from 1671); Dictionnaire alphabetique des 

tragedies lyriques . . . non representees a 
l' Academie, etc. (5 vols.) ; and Dramaturgic 
lyrique etr anger e (17 vols. ) . 

Behaim, Michel, singer; b. Sulzbach, near 
Weinsberg, 1416; d. there (murdered), 
1474. He was active as a soldier and singer 
in the service of various German, Danish 
and Hungarian princes ; was one of the earli- 
est of the Meistersinger who still retained 
some of the characteristics of the Minne- 
singer; finally settled in Sulzbach as village 
major or magistrate. He composed many 
songs; eleven are preserved at Heidelberg 
and Munich. Cf. Alfred Kiihn, Rhythmik 
und Melodik Michel Behaims (1907). 

Behm (bam), Eduard, German composer; 
b. Stettin, April 8, 1862; d. Bad Harzburg, 
Feb. 6, 1946. He studied at the Leipzig 
Cons.; taught at the Erfurt Academy of 
Music; became director of the Scharwenka 
Cons, in Berlin (until 1901), and prof, in 
1917. He was awarded the Mendelssohn 
prize for a symphony and the Bosendorfer 
prize for a piano concerto. He wrote the , 
operas, Der Schelm von Bergen (Dresden, 
1890), Marienkind (1902), Das Gelobnis 
(1914); a string sextet, using the Stelzner 
violotta; a piano trio; a clarinet quintet; 3 
violin sonatas; a violin concerto; Friihlings- 
idylle for violin and orch. ; male choruses, 
songs, etc. Behm wrote a short autobiog- 
raphy in 'Musik in Pommern' (Vol. I, 

Behnke (ban'-keh), Emil, vocal teacher; 
b. Stettin, 1836; d. Ostende, Sept. 17, 1892. 
He lived chiefly in London as an authority 
on voice-training, and teacher of voice pro- 
duction for singers and speakers; also lec- 
turing on physiology of voice. He wrote The 
Mechanism of the Human Voice (London, 
1880) ; Voice, Song and Speech (with Len- 
nox Browne, 1883) ; Voice-training Exercises 
1884); and The Child's Voice (1885), the 
last two in collaboration with Dr. C. W. 

Behr, Franz, German composer; b. Liib- 
theen, Mecklenburg, July 22, 1837; d. Dres- 
den, Feb. 15, 1898. He published many 
salon pieces for the piano, some under the 
pseudonyms of William Cooper, Charles 
Morley and Francesco d'Orso. 

Behrend, William, Danish musicologist; b. 
Copenhagen, May 16, 1861; d. there April 
23, 1940. He studied law; held various gov- 
ernment positions. At the same time he took 
courses in music theory; from 1917 taught 
music history at the Royal Danish Cons. 
He was one of the founders of the Wagner 



Society of Denmark. Under the influence 
of Niels Gade he turned to music criticism, 
and became critic of 'Politiken.' Among his 
writings are biographies of J. P. E. 
Hartmann (1895) and of Gade (1917). He 
contributed to the Danish Illustreret Musik- 
historie (1905; Vol. II, from Gluck to mod- 
ern times) ; and to Salmonsen's Konversa- 

Beilschmidt, Curt, German composer; b. 
Magdeburg, March 20, 1886. He studied 
in Magdeburg with Fritz Kauffmann; then 
in Leipzig (1905-09) with Stephan Krehl 
(theory), Adolf Ruthardt (piano) and Hans 
Sitt (violin). He served in the army in 
World War I; returned to Leipzig in 1923 
and founded a choral-symphonic group 
which he continued to lead in 1954. His 
catalogue comprises 141 opus numbers, 
among them a dance opera Das Abenteuer 
im Walde (Leipzig, 1918); opera buff a 
Meister Innocenz; pastoral play Der schlaue 
Amor (Leipzig, 1921); musical diverti- 
mento Der Tugendwdchter (Halle, 1927) 
and numerous works for orch. and chamber 

gr ° UPS ' A.Ai*lw^»,A p r.| Vl -. 

Beinum (ba'-noom), Eduard van, eminent 
Dutch conductor; b. Arnhem, Sept. 3, 1901. 
He studied violin with his brother, and com- 
position with Sem Dresden; also proficient 
as pianist. In 1926 he became conductor of 
the Orkest Vereenigung in Haarlem; then 
was second conductor of the Goncertgebouw, 
Amsterdam (1931-38); in 1938 an associate 
conductor with Mengelberg, and in 1945 
succeeded him as its principal conductor, 
maintaining the high standard of perform- 
ance. He also was guest conductor of other 
European orchestras, the Leningrad Phil- 
harmonic (1937); London Philharmonic 
(1946, 1949 and 1950), etc.; made his 
American debut with the Philadelphia Orch. 
on Jan. 8, 1954; toured the U. S. with the 
i Concertgebouw Orchestra in the autumn of 
1954. In 1956 he was appointed conduc- 
tor of the Los Angeles Philh. Orch. 

Beissel, Johann Conrad, German-Ameri- 
can composer of religious music ; founder of 
i the sect of Solitary Brethren of the Com- 
imunity of Sabbatarians; b. Eberbach on 
i the Neckar, Palatinate, April, 1690; d. 
iEphrata, Pa., July 6, 1768. He migrated to 
America in 1720 for religious reasons. His 
first attempt to build up a 'solitary' resi- 
cdence failed, but in 1735 he started the 
community at Ephrata which became a 
(flourishing religious and artistic center. Beis- 
ssel, who styled himself Bruder Friedsam 
(Brother Peaceful), was a prolific writer of 

hymns in fanciful German, published in 
various collections, some printed by Benja- 
min Franklin, some by the community at 
Ephrata. He composed tunes for his hymns 
and harmonized them according to his own 
rules. His compositions were collected in 
beautifully illuminated MSS., many of which 
are preserved at the Library of Congress and 
the Library of the Historical Society of Penn- 
sylvania. Beissel was not a trained musician, 
but had original ideas; his religious fanati- 
cism inspired him to write some startling 
music; in several of his hymns he made 
use of an antiphonal type of vocal compo- 
sition with excellent effect. He left a tract 
explaining his harmonic theory and his 
method of singing. Beissel's hymns are col- 
lected chiefly in Zionistischer Weyrauchs 
Hiigel (1739), Das Gesang der einsamen 
und verlassenen Turtel Taube, das ist der 
christlichen Kirche (1747) and Paradisisches 
W under Spiel (two independent publica- 
tions, 1754 and 1766). Only texts were 
printed in these volumes, but the 1754 issue 
was arranged so that the music could be in- 
serted by hand. Beissel's life was first de- 
scribed in the Chronicon Ephratense, com- 
piled by the brethren Lamech and Agrippa, 
published at Ephrata in a German edition 
in 1786, and in an English translation by 
J. M. Hark at Lancaster in 1889. Cf. J. F. 
Sachse, The German Sectarians of Pa. 
(Philadelphia, 1899-1900) ; do., The Music 
of the Ephrata Cloister (Lancaster, 1903); 
Church Music and Musical Life in Pa. in 
the 18th Century (publ. by the Pennsylvania 
Society of the Colonial Dames of America, 
vol. II, pp. 26-84 and 242-253; Philadel- 
phia, 1927); W. C. Klein, /. C. Beissel: 
Mystic and Martinet (1942). 

Bekker, Paul, eminent writer on music; b. 
Berlin, Sept. 11, 1882; d. New York, March 
7, 1937. He studied violin with Rehfeld, 
piano with Sormann, and theory with Hor- 
witz; began his career as a violinist with 
the Philh. Orch. in Berlin; then conducted 
at Aschaffenburg and Gorlitz; returned to 
Berlin (1906) as music critic for the 'Neu- 
este Nachrichten' ; also wrote program notes 
for the concerts of the Philharmonic So- 
ciety; in 1909 was music critic for the 'Ber- 
liner Allgemeine Zeitung' ; then settled tem- 
porarily in Frankfurt (1911) as critic for 
the 'Frankfurter Zeitung'; was Intendant of 
the Prussian State Theater in Kassel (1925) ; 
director of the State Theater at Wiesbaden 
(1927-32); owing to political developments 
he came to the U. S. in 1934, and settled 
in New York as music critic of the 'New 
Yorker Staatszeitung und Herold'; in 1936 
was expatriated by the German National 



Socialist Government. He published biogra- 
phies of Oskar Fried (1907) and Jacques 
Offenbach (1909); also Das Musikdrama 
der Gegenwart (1909); Beethoven (1911; 
in English, 1926) ; Das deutsche Musikleben, 
Versuch einer soziologischen Musikbetrach- 
tung (1916); Die Sinfonie von Beethoven 
bis Mahler (1918; in Russian, 1926) ; Franz 
Schreker (1919); Kunst und Revolution 
(1919); Die Weltgeltung der deutschen 
Musik (1920); Die Sinfonien G. Mahlers 
(1921); Richard Wagner (1924; in English, 
1931); Von den Naturreichen des Klanges 
(1924); Musikgeschichte als Geschichte der 
musikalischen Formwandlungen (1926; in 
French, 1929); Das Operntheater (1930); 
Brief e an zeitgenossische Musiker (1932); 
Wandlungen der Oper (Zurich, 1934; Eng- 
lish translation by Arthur Mendel as The 
Changing Opera, N. Y., 1935); The Opera 
Walks New Paths, in the 'Mus. Quarterly' 
(July, 1935); Liszt and His Critics, in the 
'Mus. Quarterly' (July, 1936) ; The Story of 
the Orchestra (his last book; written in 
English; N. Y., 1936). 

Belaiev (Belaieff) (ba-lah'-yev), Mitrofan 
Petrovitch, renowned Russian music pub- 
lisher; b. St. Petersburg, Feb. 22, 1836; d. 
there, Jan. 10, 1904. His father, a rich 
lumber dealer, gave Belaiev an excellent 
education. After his father's death in 1888, 
Belaiev decided to use part of the income 
from the business for a music publishing 
enterprise devoted exclusively to the publi- 
cation of works by Russian composers (the 
printing was done in Leipzig) ; he_ also 
established concerts of Russian music in 
St. Petersburg (ten symphony concerts and 
four concerts of chamber music each season) 
and provided funds for prizes awarded for 
the best compositions. Rimsky-Korsakov, 
Glazunov and Liadov were placed by Belaiev 
on the jury for these multifarious activities. 
The "Belaiev Editions" became a vital factor 
in the development of Russian national mu- 
sic. Although a conservative, Belaiev was 
generous towards representatives of the mod- 
ern school, such as Scriabin, for whom he 
provided financial means to travel in Europe 
early in Scriabin's career. The catalogue of 
Belaiev's publications includes the greatest 
names in Russian music: Mussorgsky, Rim- 
sky-Korsakov, Borodin, Balakirev, Cui, Scri- 
abin; also Gliere, Glazunov, Gretchaninov, 
Liadov, Liapunov, Taneyev, Nicolas Tcher- 
epnin, as well as many iesser and even ob- 
scure composers, such as Akimenko, Alfer- 
aky, Amani, Antipov, Artzibushev, Blumen- 
feld, Kalafati, Kopylov, Sokolov, Steinberg, 
Wihtol, Zolotarev and others. The complete 
list of Belaiev's editions is available in the 

Verzeichnis der in Deutschland seit 1868 
erschienenen Werke russischer Komponisten 
(Leipzig, 1950). See also M. Montague Na- 
than, Belaiev, Maecenas of Russian Music, 
in the 'Mus. Quarterly' (July, 1918). 

Belaiev (ba-lah'-yev), Victor Mikhailo- 
vitch, Russian writer on music; b. Uralsk, 
Feb. 5, 1888. Hjb studied at the St. Petersburg 
Cons. (1908-14) with Liadov, Wihtol and 
Glazunov; was secretary of the Conservatory 
Council (1917-22); moved to Moscow, 
where he was a member of the Russian State 
Publishing Department (1922-23), and a 
professor at the Moscow Cons. (1923-24); 
subsequently settled in Leningrad. In 1923 
he founded the Society for Contemporary 
Music in Russia. He has written textbooks 
on counterpoint and musical forms; also 20 
biographical pamphlets on living Russian 
and foreign composers. He is author of a 
monograph on Glazunov (1921); editor of 
the correspondence between Scriabin and 
M. P. Belaiev (1922); translator into Rus- 
sian of Prout's Fugal Analysis (1923); also 
prepared many articles for foreign maga- 
zines, including several articles in the 'Mus. 
Quarterly': Rachmaninov (1927); The 
Folk-Music of Georgia and The Longitudi- 
nal Open Flutes of Central Asia (1933); 
and Turkish Music (1935). 

Belcke, Friedrich August, German trom- 
bone player; b. Lucka, Altenburg, May 27, 
1795; d. there, Dec. 10, 1874. He was a 
member of the Gewandhaus Orch. in Leip- 
zig (1815); a chamber musician in Berlin 
(1816-58) ; was the first concert virtuoso on 
the trombone, for which he wrote concertos 
and etudes. 

Beliczay (ba-le-tsi), Julius von, Hungarian 
composer; b. Komorn, Aug. 10, 1835; d. 
Budapest, April 30, 1893. He was a pupil 
of Joachim, Hoffmann and Franz Krenn; 
in 1888 was appointed professor of theory 
at the National Academy in Budapest. 
Works: Mass in F; a symphony; Ave Maria 
for soprano, chorus and orch.; string quar- 
tet; Andante for orch.; serenade for strings; 
many vocal and piano pieces. In 1891 he 
published the first part of a 'Method of 
Composition' in Hungarian. Cf. A. Janit- 
schek, Julius von Beliczay (Carlsbad, 1889). 

Bell, William Henry, English composer; b. 
St. Albans, Aug. 20, 1873; d. Capetown, 
South Africa, April 13, 1946. He studied at 
St. Albans, and sang in the Cathedral choir; 
won the Goss scholarship at the Royal Acad- 
emy of Music, London (1889) ; studied with 
Steggall (organ), Burnett (violin), Izard 
(piano), F. Corder (composition) and Stan- 



ford (counterpoint) ; was prof, of harmony 
there (1903-12); became director of the 
South African College of Music, Capetown 
in 1912; retired in 1936. As a composer, he 
was extremely self-critical and destroyed al- 
most all of his early works. Most of his com- 
positions were written in South Africa and 
performed by the Municipal Orch. of Cape- 
town. Among his surviving works are the 
operas Hippolytus (after Euripides) and 
Isabeau; 3 symphonies, including a Walt 
Whitman Symphony ; symph. prelude, Song 
in the Morning (1901) ; music for Ben Jon- 
son's masque, A Vision of Delight (1908); 
Arcadian Suite for orch. (1909), symph. 
poems, Love Among the Ruins (1908), The 
Shepherd (1908), La Fee des sources 
(1912), and Veldt Loneliness (1921); Song 
of Greeting (written for the centenary of 
the Royal College of Music) ; viola concerto; 
violin sonata; Maria Assumpta for chorus 
(published); etc. Bibl. : M. van Someren 
Godfrey, The Symphonic Works of W. H. 
Bell, in 'The Mus. Times' (May and 
June, 1920). 

Bella, Johann Leopold, Slovakian com- 
poser; b. Lipto-Szentmiklos, Upper Hungary, 
Sept. 4, 1843; d. Bratislava, May 25, 1936. 
He was a priest and canon at Neusohl; later 
cantor and music director at Hermannstadt ; 
retired in 1922 and lived in Vienna. He 
wrote much church music in the strict style; 
an opera, Wieland der Schmied (Bratislava, 
April 28, 1926); a symph. poem, Schicksal 
und Ideal (Prague, March 19, 1876) ; cham- 
ber music; numerous songs and piano pieces. 
Cf. Dobroslav Orel, /. L. Bella (Bratislava, 
1924); J. Jindra, /. L. Bella (1933); K. 
Hudec, /. L. Bella (Prague, 1937); E. 
Zavarsky, /. L. Bella (Bratislava, 1955). 

Bellaigue (bel-lag') , Camille, French music 
critic; b. Paris, May 24, 1858; d. there, 
Oct. 4, 1930. Originally a law student, he 
took music courses at the Paris Cons, with 
Paladilhe and Marmontel; from 1885 was 
music critic for 'La Revue des Deux 
Mondes'; also wrote for 'Le Temps.' He bit- 
terly opposed modern music and was par- 
ticularly violent in his denunciation of De- 
bussy, his classmate at the Paris Cons. His 
selected essays are published under the fol- 
lowing titles: L'annie musicale (5 vols., 
1886-91); L'annie musicale et dramatique 
(1893); Psychologie musicale (1894); Por- 
traits et silhouettes de musiciens (1896; 
English, 1897; German, 1903); Etudes mu- 
sicales et nouvelles silhouettes de musiciens 
(1898; English, 1899); Impressions musi- 
cales et littir aires (1900); Etudes musicales 
(2 vols., 1903, 1907); Mozart: biographie 

critique (1906); Mendelssohn (1907); Les 
£poques de la musique (2 vols., 1909) ; 
Gounod (1910) ; Paroles et musique (1925), 
etc. — Cf. L. Gillcl, Camille Bellaigue (Paris, 

Bellamann, Henry, American author and 
pianist; b. Fulton, Mo., April 28, 1882; d. 
New York, June 16, 1945. He studied at 
Westminster College, Fulton, Mo. (1897- 
98); at the Univ. of Denver (1898-1900), 
also in London and Paris. He was dean of 
the School of Fine Arts, Chicora College for 
Women, Columbia, S. C. (1907-24); served 
as chairman of the Examining Board of the 
Juilliard School (1924-26) and of the 
Rockefeller Foundation (1927-28); was 
dean of the Curtis Institute (1931-32). He 
was a pianist and lecturer on modern French 
music; was made Officer of Public Instruc- 
tion (France, 1924), Mus. Doc. (De Pauw 
Univ., 1926); Chevalier of the Legion d' 
Honneur (1931). Among his writings on 
music are: A Music Teacher's Notebook 
(1920); Charles Ives, The Man and his 
Music, in the 'Mus. Quarterly' (Jan., 1933) ; 
etc. He was the author of a successful novel, 
King's Row. 

Bellasio, Paolo, Italian composer; b. Ver- 
ona, May 20, 1554; d. Rome, July 10, 1594. 
He was church organist in Rome from 1587; 
published 5 books of madrigals, beginning 
with 1578; also Villanelle alia Romana 

Bell'Avere. See Bell'Haver. 

Bellazzi (bel-laht'-se), Francesco, Vene- 
tian composer who flourished in the early 
17th century. He was a pupil of Giovanni 
Gabrieli; later a follower of Monteverdi; 
published (1618-28) a mass, psalms, motets 
and other sacred music. 

Bellere (bel-lar') (or Bellerus, properly 
Beellaerts), Jean, music publisher; d. Ant- 
werp, 1595. He was a partner of Pierre 
Phalese, fits. His son Balthasar trans- 
ferred the business to Douai, and printed 
much music up to c. 1625. His catalogue 
of compositions, published from 1603-5, was 
found by Coussemaker in the Douai library. 

Bellermann, Johann Friedrich, German 
music scholar; b. Erfurt, March 8, 1795; 
d. Berlin, Feb. 5, 1874. He dedicated him- 
self mainly to the study of ancient Greek 
music; his chief work was Die Tonleitern 
und Musiknoten der Griechen, explanatory 
of the Greek system of notation (Berlin, 
1847). He further wrote Die Hymnen des 
Dionysios und Mesomedes (Berlin, 1840) 
and edited essays by authors of classical an- 
tiquity: Anonymi scriptio de musica, Bacchii 



senioris introductio (1841). Bibl. : Friedrich 
Bellermann; seine Wirksamkeit auf dem Ge- 
biet der Musik, reprint from the 'Allgemeine 
Musikzeitung' (Leipzig, 1874, No. 9). 

Bellermann, (Johann Gottfried) Heinrich, 

German music teacher and theorist, son of 
the preceding; b. Berlin, March 10, 1832; 
d. Potsdam, April 10, 1903. He studied at 
the Royal Institute for Church music; also 
with Eduard Grell; from 1853 taught sing- 
ing at 'Graues Kloster' and in 1861 was ap- 
pointed Royal Musikdirektor ; in 1866 suc- 
ceeded Marx as professor of music at Berlin 
Univ. His book, Die Mensuralnoten und 
Taktzeichen des 15. und 16. Jahrhunderts 
(Berlin, 1858; 3d edition, 1930), gives an 
excellent exposition of the theory of men- 
sural music; his treatise Der Kontrapunkt 
(1862; 4th ed., 1901) revives the theories 
of J. J. Fux's 'Gradus ad Parnassum.' Beller- 
mann attempted to justify his adherence to 
Fux in a pamphlet Die Grosse der musika- 
lischen Intervalle als Grundlage der Har- 
monie (1873). He also contributed valuable 
articles to the Allgemeine musikalische Zei- 
tung' (1868-74) and published a biography 
of Eduard Grell (1899); also composed 
many vocal works. 

Belleville-Oury, Caroline de. See Oury. 

Bell'Haver, Vincenzo, Italian organist; b. 
Venice, about 1530; d. there, in Oct., 1587. 
He was a pupil of Andrea Gabrieli, and 
upon the latter's death, succeeded him as 
first organist of San Marco on Oct. 30, 
1586; Bell'Haver died a year later, and his 
position was taken over by Gioseffo Guami. 
Bell'Haver published several books of madri- 
gals (1567-75), of which only Book II, 
containing works for 5 voices, is extant ; single 
works survive in various collections. See G. 
Benvenuti, Andrea e Giovanni Gabrieli e la 
musica strumentale in San Marco, vol. II 
of 'Istituzioni e Monumenti dell'arte musi- 
cale italiano' (Milan, 1932). 

Belli, Domenico, Italian composer of the 
early 17 th century. He lived most of his 
life in Florence. On Sept. 19, 1619 he and 
his wife entered the service of the Medici 
court. As a composer he was one of the earli- 
est representatives of the new monodic style; 
Caccini praised his music. However, the 
claim that his short opera, II pianto d'Orfeo, 
or Orfeo Dolente (Florence, 1616; reprinted 
Brussels, 1927, in Tirabassi's edition) was 
the earliest ever written is questionable. 
Among his instrumental works is Arie . . . 
per sonarsi con il chitarrone (Venice, 
1616). Bibl.: E. Schmitz, Geschichte der 
weltlichen Solokantate (Leipzig, 1914); A. 

Tirabassi, The Oldest Opera: Belli' s 'Orfeo 
Dolente' in the 'Mus. Quarterly' (Jan. 
1929); see also M. Bukofzer, Music in the 
Baroque Era (N. Y., 1947). 

Belli, Girolamo, composer of the Venetian 
school; b. Argenta (Ferrara), 1552; a pupil 
of L. Luzzaschi; chapel-singer to the Duke 
of Mantua. Publ. 3 books of madrigals a 6 
(1583; 1584; 1593), 9 books of madrigals 
a 5 (1584; 1586; 9th ed., 1617); 2 books 
of canzonets a 4 (1584; 1593) ; Sacrae can- 
tiones a 6 (1585), a 8 (1589), and a 10 
(1594) ; 2 magnificats ( 1610) ; and Salmi a 5 ; 
some 5-part madrigals in the collection 'De' 
floridi virtuosi d'ltalia' (1586). 

Belli, Giulio, Italian composer, b. Long- 
iano, c. 1560; d. c. 1621. He was a student 
of Cimelli and held numerous posts as maes- 
tro di cappella: at Imola (1582); at Capri 
(1590), where he joined the Franciscan 
order; at Ferrara (1592-3); at the church 
of Frari in Venice (1594 and 1606); at 
Montagnana (1596); at Fori! (1599); at 
the S. Antonio in Padua (1606-8) ; again at 
Imola (1613); and at San Marco, Venice 
(1615). He was a prolific composer; publi- 
cations of his works appeared between 1584 
and 1615; some being reissued several times, 
among them madrigals and canzonets (1584; 
1593); psalms and vespers (1596; 1604); 
masses (1586; 1595; 1608) ; sacrae cantiones 
(1600); motets (1605) ; falsi bordoni (1605, 
1607); concerti ecclesiastici (1613); etc. 
Many of these works are provided with basso 
continuo. — Cf. A. Brigidi, Cenni sulla vita e 
sulle opere di Giulio Belli (Modena, 1865). 

Bellincioni (bel-lin-choh'-ne) , Gemma, 
Italian dramatic soprano; b. Monza, Italy, 
Aug. 18, 1864; d. Naples, April 23, 1950. 
She studied with her father and with Rob- 
erto Stagno whom she later married (1881) ; 
made her debut in Naples in Pedrotti's 
Tutti in maschera (1881); appeared in the 
U.S. in 1899. She sang Santuzza at the 
premiere of Cavalleria Rusticana (Rome, 
May 17, 1890). Her repertoire included 
virtually all soprano roles; particularly suc- 
cessful in La Traviata. She publ. an autobi- 
ography, Io e il palcoscenico (1920). Bibl.: 
Bianca Stagno Bellincioni, Roberto Stagno e 
Gemma Bellincioni (Florence, 1943). 

Bellini, Renato, Italian conductor and 
composer; b. Naples, March 7, 1895. He 
studied piano and theory at the Naples 
Cons.; then was active as opera coach. He 
was asst. conductor of the Chicago Opera 
Co. (1919-21). From 1921-34 he was in 
Europe; in 1934 he returned to the U. S. for 
a concert tour with Tito Schipa; settled in 



New York in 1936 as voice teacher. He has 
written numerous songs, including the popu- 
lar Ninna Nanna a Liana. 

Bellini, Vincenzo, famous Italian opera 
composer; b. Catania, Sicily, Nov. 3, 1801 
(birth registry) ; d. Puteaux, near Paris, 
Sept. 23, 1835. He was of a musical family; 
both his grandfather and his father were 
organists at the Catania Cathedral; he re- 
ceived his first musical education from them, 
and when still a child began to compose 
sacred and secular music. His talent was 
called to the attention of the Duchess of 
Sammartino, and she enabled him to enter 
the Cons, of San Sebastiano at Naples. He 
studied harmony with Giovanni Furno, coun- 
terpoint with Giacomo Tritto and piano 
with Carlo Conti; he continued his ad- 
vanced studies with Nicola Zingarelli. At 
the same time he made a thorough study 
of the works of Jommelli, Paisiello and 
Pergolesi. Among his student compositions 
were a symphony, 2 masses, several psalms 
and a cantata Ismene. His first opera A del- 
son e Salvini was given at the Cons. (Jan. 
12, 1825), and its success encouraged Bel- 
lini to continue to write for the stage. The 
well-known impresario Barbaja commis- 
sioned him to write an opera for the San 
Carlo Theater in Naples; this was Bianca e 
Fernando, staged (May 30, 1826) with 
considerable approval; this success was fol- 
lowed by a new opera 77 Pirata presented 
at La Scala on Oct. 27, 1827, and La 
Straniera (La Scala, Feb. 14, 1829). The 
series of Bellini's successes was interrupted 
when he met with his first fiasco, the pro- 
duction of his opera Zaira in Parma (May 
16, 1829). Undaunted by this reverse, he 
accepted an offer from La Fenice Theater 
at Venice for which he rapidly wrote I Cap- 
uleti e i Montecchi (March 11, 1830), which 
was acclaimed as a masterpiece. His inspira- 
tion seemed to receive a new impetus; he 
produced in succession two operas destined 
to become famous: La Sonnambula (Teatro 
Carcano, Milan, March 6, 1831) and Norma 
(La Scala, Milan, Dec. 26, 1831). The 
celebrated prima donna Giuditta Pasta 
created the title role in Norma. Bellini re- 
garded Norma as his greatest achievement; 
the verdict of the musical public confirmed 
his judgment, for the popularity of the 
opera spread quickly throughout Europe. 
Strangely enough, this supreme achievement 
was followed by a distinct failure in his next 
production, Beatrice di Tenda, given at La 
Fenice (March 16, 1833). In 1833 Bellini 
visited London; then he went to Paris on 
Rossini's advice. There he wrote his last 
opera I Puritani, which was brilliantly pro- 

duced at the Thcatre-Italicn (Jan. 25, 
1835), with such celebrated artists as Grisi, 
Rubini, Tamburini and Lablache in the cast. 
Bellini died in his 34th year, at full matur- 
ity of his lyric genius. His remains were 
removed to Catania 40 years after his death. 
Bellini's music represented the Italian oper- 
atic school at its best; together with Don- 
izetti he gave the lyric stage its finest and 
most singable melodies; harmonic elabora- 
tion was not Bellini's aim; hence, the im- 
pression of monotony produced on some 
critics. However, the unassuming grace of 
Bellini's melodies continues to serve as an 
unfailing attraction to the musical public 
at large, and his best operas remain in the 
repertory of the ppera houses in both hemis- 
pheres. Bibl. : F. Cicconetti, Vita di V. B. 
(Prato, 1859); A. Pougin, B., sa vie, ses 
ceuvres (Paris, 1868) ; F. Clementi, II lin- 
guaggio dei suoni: Belliniani e Wagneristi 
(Rome, 1881); M. Scherillo, Belliniana 
(Milan, 1885) ; L. Salvioli, B., Letter e ine- 
dite (Milan, 1885) ; A. Amore, V. B.; arti, 
studi e ricerche (Cantania, 1894) ; A. Cam- 
etti, B. a Roma (Rome, 1900) ; P. Voss, 
V. B. (Florence, 1901); W. A. Lloyd, V. B. 
(London, 1908); L. Parodi, V. B. (Sanpier- 
darena, 1913); lid. Pizzetti, La musica di 
V.B. (Florence, 1918; reprinted in his Inter- 
mezzi critici, 1921); A. Cametti, La musica 
teatrale a Roma 100 anni fa (Rome, 1920) ; 
A. Damerini, Norma di V. B. (Milan, 1923) ; 

A. Rapisarda, Vita di B. (Turin, 1925); 
Cecil Gray, V. B. in 'Music and Letters' 

(1926) ; O. Andolfi, Norma di V. B. (Rome, 
1928) ; O. Andolfi, La Sonnambula di V. B. 
(Rome, 1930) ; B. Miraglia, V. B., in 'Rivista 
Musicale Italiana' (1931); V. Ricca, V.B. 
(Catania, 1932); Luisa Cambi, B. (Verona, 
1934); G. Ammirata, La vita amorosa di 
V.B. (Milan, 1935); A. della Corte, V.B., 
il carattere morale, i caratteri artistici (Tu- 
rin, 1935); A. Einstein, V. B., in 'Music 
and Letters' (1935); G. G. Mezzatesta, V.B. 
nella vita e nelle opere (Palermo, 1935) ; 
G. Monaldi, V.B. (Milan, 1935); G. Poli- 
castro, V.B. (Catania, 1935); C. Reina, II 
cigno catanese: B., la vita e le opere (Ca- 
tania, 1935); lid. Pizzetti (ed.), V.B.: 
Vuomo, le sue opere, la sua jama (Milan, 
1936); O. Tiby, V.B. (Turin, 1938); A. 
Fraccaroli, B. (Verona, 1941) ; P. Cavazzuti, 

B. a Londra (Florence, 1945). A collection 
of Bellini's letters was issued in Catania on 
the occasion of the centenary of his death 
(1935); a facsimile reproduction of his 
opera Norma was published in Rome 

Bellison, Simeon, Russian-American clar- 
inetist; b. Moscow, Dec. 4, 1883; d. New 



York, May 4, 1953. He studied at the Mos- 
cow Cons.; was first clarinetist at the Mos- 
cow Opera (1904-14); toured the Far East 
and the U. S. with a chamber music group 
(1917-20); in 1920 became first clarinetist 
of the N. Y. Philharmonic, retiring in 1948. 
He made transcriptions for clarinet of 
Hebrew melodies, and songs by Russian 

Bellman, Carl Mikael, Swedish poet and 
composer; b. Stockholm, Feb. 4, 1740; d. 
there Feb. 11, 1795. He publ. an important 
collection of songs to his own words, Bac- 
chanaliska ordenskapitlets handlingar 
(1783); wrote lyric ballads expressive of 
folk life, Fredmans epistlar (1790) and 
Fredmans Sanger (1791). Bibl.: Hendrik 
Van Loon, The Last of the Troubadours, 
C. M. Bellman, His Life and His Music 
(N. Y, 1939). 

Bellmann, Karl Gottlieb, German organ- 
ist; b. Muskau, Sept. 6, 1772; d. Schleswig, 
Dec. 26, 1861. He was organist in Schleswig 
from 1813; composed the German national 
song Schleswig-Holstein meerumschlungen ; a 
Christmas cantata, motets, etc. 

Belloc, Teresa Giorgi, dramatic mezzo- 
soprano; b. San Benigno, near Turin, July 2, 
1784; d. San Giorgio Cavanese, May 13, 
1855. She sang with La Scala, Milan (1804- 
24) ; toured through Italy and to Paris and 
London; retired in 1827. Her repertory com- 
prised roles in 80 operas, Rossini's being her 
favorites. — Cf. La cantante Teresa Belloc by 
C. Boggio (Milan, 1895). 

Bely, Victor, Soviet composer; b. Ber- 
dichev, Ukraine, Jan. 14, 1904. He studied 
with Conius (violin) and Miaskovsky (com- 
position) at the Moscow Cons.; later be- 
came an instructor there. In his early period 
he was influenced by Scriabin; later his 
style changed towards a more vigorously 
national idiom. He has written a number 
of mass songs and choral suites on Chuvash 
and Bashkir themes. 

Bemberg (bahn-bar'), Herman, French 
dramatic composer; b. Paris, March 29, 
1859; d. Bern, Switzerland, July 21, 1931. 
He studied at the Paris Cons, with Dubois, 
Franck and Massenet; won the Rossini prize 
in 1885. Among his works are: cantata for 
soprano and orchestra, La Mort de Jeanne 
d'Arc (1886); short opera, Le Baiser de 
Suzon (Paris, 1888) ; grand opera Elaine 
(Covent Garden, London, July 5, 1892; 
N. Y., Dec. 17, 1894). He also published 
numerous songs, of which Chant hindou 
became extremely popular. 

Bembo, Antonia, composer; b. presumably 
in Venice, c. 1670; death date unknown. 
Between 1690-95 she went to Paris; sang for 
Louis XIV, and received a pension from 
him enabling her to devote herself to com- 
position. Extant works (in the Paris Biblio- 
theque Nationale) : Produzioni armoniche, 
collection of 40 pieces (motets, duets, soli for 
soprano, etc., with figured bass or instru- 
mental accompaniment, set to sacred Latin, 
French and Italian texts) ; Te Deum for 3 
voices and string orch.; Divertimento for 5- 
voiced chorus with string orch.; Te Deum, 
with large orch.; Exaudiat for 3 voices, 2 
'symphonie' parts and basso continuo; an 
opera, L'Ercole Amante (1707); and Les 
sept Pseaumes de Dauid, for various vocal 
combinations with instrumental accompani- 
ment. Cf. Yvonne Rokseth, A. Bembo, Com- 
poser to Louis XIV, in the 'Mus. Quarterly' 
(April, 1937). 

Bemetzrieder, Anton, music theorist; b. 
Alsace, 1743; d. London, 1817. Was at first 
a Benedictine monk; on leaving the order 
he became Diderot's pupil and protege at 
Paris, and lived from 1782 till 1817 in Lon- 
don. He wrote Lecons de clavecin et prin- 
cipes d'harmonie (Paris, 1771; London, 
1778), and other textbooks (of doubtful 
value) ; also polemical pamphlets. 

Benatzky, Ralph, Czech composer of light 
opera; b. Moravske-Budejovice, June 5, 
1884; studied in Prague (with Veit and 
Klinger) and in Munich (with Mottl). He 
lived in Vienna, Berlin and Switzerland; 
came to the U. S. in 1940; returned to 
Europe and settled in Zurich. He wrote 92 
stage works, 250 film scores and some 5000 
songs. Among his successful operettas are Der 
lachende Dreibund (Berlin, Oct. 31, 1913); 
Yuschi tanzt (Vienna, April 3, 1920) ; Adieu 
Mimi (Vienna, June 9, 1926); Casanova 
(Berlin, Sept. 1, 1928), etc. 

Benda, Franz, famous violinist; b. Alt- 
Benatek, Bohemia, Nov. 24, 1709; d. Pots- 
dam, March 7, 1786. He was a pupil of 
Lobel, Konicek, and of J. S. Graun at Rup- 
pin (1733); was first violinist in the orch. 
of the Crown Prince (afterwards Frederick 
II) whom he accompanied in some 10,000 
flute concerts during 40 years' service. Pub- 
lished works: 2 violin concertos; 6 trio- 
sonatas for 2 violins with basso continuo; 6 
sonatas for violin with basso continuo; vio- 
lin studies; several symphonies and concertos 
by him are in MS. His autobiography was 
printed in the 'Neue Berliner Musikzeitung' 
(vol. X; Nos. 32-35); in English, in Paul 



Nettl's Forgotten Musicians (N. Y., 1950). 
See F. Berten, Franz Benda (Cologne, 

Benda, Friedrich Ludwig, German com- 
poser, son of Georg Benda; b. Gotha, Sept. 
4, 1746; d. Konigsberg, March 20, 1792. He 
was director of the Hamburg opera (1780) ; 
court musician at Schwerin (1782); concert 
director in Konigsberg (1789). He wrote 
incidental music for The Barber of Seville 
(Dresden, 1776); also operas, cantatas, and 
many works for various instruments. Gf. H. 
Guttler, Kbnigsberger Musikkultur im 18. 
Jahrhundert (Kassel, 1925). 

Benda, Friedrich (Wilhelm Heinrich), 

German violinist; son of Franz Benda; b. 
Potsdam, July 15, 1745; d. there, June 
19, 1814. He studied music with his father; 
was a royal chamber musician at Potsdam 
(1765-1810); wrote the operas Orpheus 
(1785) and Alceste (1786); a comic opera, 
Blumenmadchen (Berlin, July 16, 1806); a 
cantata, Pygmalion; much chamber music. 

Benda, Georg, brother of Franz; b. Alt- 
Benatek, Bohemia, June 30, 1722; d. K6s- 
tritz, Nov. 6, 1795. He was the third son, 
and pupil, of Hans Georg Benda; served as 
chamber musician at Berlin (1742-49); 
then at Gotha, where he became court 
Kapellmeister (1750); in 1764 went to 
Italy, returning in 1766. He remained in 
Gotha until 1788, producing 14 Singsptele 
and melodramas (his best works: Ariadne 
auf Naxos, Medea, Almansor und Nadine) ; 
then resigned, lived in Hamburg, Vienna 
and other towns; finally settled in Kostritz. 
Most of his other works (church music, 
symphonies, concertos, sonatas, etc.) are in 
MS. in the Berlin Library. He developed the 
novel idea of the music-drama with spoken 
words, the music being carried out by the 
orchestra only. Bibl.: biographies by Hoder- 
mann (Goburg, 1895) ; F. Bruckner (Rostock, 
1904) ; see also E. Istel, in Die Entstehung 
des deutschen Melodrams (Berlin, 1906) ; 
VI. Helfert, G. Benda und J. J. Rousseau 
(Munich, 1908) ; also in his Zum Problem 
der bohmischen Musiker-Emigration (Brno, 
1929) ; H. Martens, Das Melodram (Berlin, 
1933) ; Jan van der Veen, he melodrame 
musical de Rousseau (The Hague, 1955). 

Benda, Karl Hermann Heinrich (son of 
Georg Benda), German violinist; b. Pots- 
dam, May 2, 1748; d. there, March 15, 
1836. He was the concertmaster at the Roval 
Chapel and teacher of King Friedrich Wil- 
helm III; wrote much chamber music. 

Bendel, Franz, German pianist; b. Schon- 

linde, Bohemia, March 23, 1833; d. Berlin, 
July 3, 1874. He was a pupil of Proksch 
(Prague) and Liszt (Weimar); from 1862 
taught at Kullak's Academy in Berlin. Com- 
positions: symphonies, 4 masses, piano con- 
certo; piano trio; salon pieces for piano; 
violin sonata; nocturnes, romances, several 
books of songs, etc. 

Bendeler, Johann Philipp, German organ 
theorist; b. Riethnordhausen (near Erfurt), 
Nov., 1654; d. Quedlinburg, Dec, 1709. He 
went to Quedlinburg in 1681 as an instruc- 
tor at the Gymnasium there; in 1687 added 
the duties of cantor, which post he held 
for the rest of his life. As an organ theorist 
he belongs, with Werckmeister, to the mid- 
dle German group whose ideas were realized 
in the organs of Arp Schnitger. His most 
important work is Organopoeia (c. 1690; re- 
printed in 1739 as Orgelbaukunst), a treat- 
ise on organ building. Other works are 
Collegium Musicum de Compositione (men- 
tioned in Mattheson's Ehrenpforte) ; Me- 
lopeia practica (1686); and Aerarium me- 
lopoeticum (1688). In addition, he wrote 
two books on mathematics. Bibl.: Chr. 
Mahrenholz, Die Berechnung der Orgelpfeif- 
enmensuren (Kassel, 1938). 

Bender, Paul, German bass singer; b. 
Driedorf, July 28, 1875; d. Munich, Nov. 
25, 1947. He sang at the Bayreuth Festi- 
vals (1902), and at Munich (from 1903). 
He made his American debut at the Metro- 
politan Opera House (Nov. 17, 1922). His 
repertoire there included several Wagnerian 

Bendix, Max, American conductor and 
composer; b. Detroit, March 28, 1866; d. 
Chicago, Dec. 6, 1945. He studied in Ger- 
many; was concertmaster of the Metropoli- 
tan Opera House (1885) and the Thomas 
Orch. in New York and Chicago (1886- 
96) ; later was opera conductor in New 
York. He wrote a violin concerto; Pavlova, 
valse-caprice for orch.; also ballet scores for 
special productions. 

Bendix, Otto, pianist; b. Copenhagen, 
July 26, 1845; d. San Francisco, March 1, 
1904. He was a pupil of Niels Gade; then 
studied with Kullak in Berlin and Liszt at 
Weimar; taught piano at the Copenhagen 
Cons., and was oboist in a theater orchestra; 
came to the U. S. in 1880; settled in 
Boston as a piano teacher at the New Eng- 
land Cons.; in 1895 moved to San Fran- 
cisco, where he established his own music 
school; gave successful concerts in Europe 
and America; published some piano pieces, 



Bendix, Victor Emanuel, Danish com- 
poser, brother of Otto Bendix; b. Copen- 
hagen, May 17, 1851; d. there, Jan. 5, 1926. 
He studied with Niels Gade; was active as 
a choral conductor; wrote 4 symphonies in 
a romantic vein; piano concerto; church 

Bendl, Karl, Czech composer; b. Prague, 
April 16, 1838; d. there, Sept. 16, 1897. He 
studied with Blazek and Pietsch at Prague; 
was choirmaster of the German Opera in 
Amsterdam (1864); returned to Prague in 
1865; after 1866 was conductor of the male 
choral society 'HlahoP. Jointly with Sme- 
tana and Dvorak, he contributed to the gen- 
eral recognition of Czech music. Works: 
Czech national operas Lejla (Prague, Jan. 4, 
1868), Bretislav and Jitka (1869), Cerno- 
horci (1881), Karel Skreta (1883), Dite 
Tabor a (Child of the Camp, 1892), Mother 
Mila (1895), The Bagpiper (1907); all 
produced at the National Theater, Prague, 
and in its standing repertory; also a ballet, 
Bohemian Wedding; 3 masses; several can- 
tatas for soli, chorus and orch.; an overture, 
a Dithyramb, a Concert Polonaise, a Sla- 
vonic Rhapsody, etc., for orch.; a string 
quartet; 200 Czech songs and choruses; 
piano music. 

Benedict, Sir Julius, composer; b. Stutt- 
gart, Nov. 27, 1804; d. London, June 5, 
1885. He was the son of a Jewish banker; 
from his early years he showed a decisive 
musical talent in various fields. He first 
studied with J. C. L. Abeille in his native 
city; then with Hummel at Weimar. Hum- 
mel introduced him to Weber, and he be- 
came Weber's pupil at the age of 17. In 
1823, Benedict was appointed conductor of 
the Karnthnerthor Theater in Vienna; in 
1825 he received a similar post at the Teatro 
San Carlo in Naples, where he made his de- 
but as composer with the opera Giacinta ed 
Ernesto (1829) without signal success. His 
second opera in Italian was I Portoghesi in 
Goa, produced in Stuttgart (1830). He 
went to Paris in 1834; the following year 
he settled in London, where he remained 
for the rest of his life. In 1836 he became 
music director of the Opera Buffa at the 
Lyceum Theater. His first opera in English, 
The Gypsy's Warning, was produced, April 
19, 1838, at Drury Lane, where Benedict 
was engaged as conductor. He also con- 
ducted at Covent Garden; led the Monday 
Popular Concerts; was musical director of 
the Norwich Festivals from 1845-78, and the 
Liverpool Philharmonic Society from 1876- 
80. In recognition of his services, he was 
knighted in 1871. Benedict enjoyed a very 

great reputation as a musician in Europe 
and in America; he accompanied Jenny 
Lind on her American tour in 1850-52. 
Among his operas The Lily of Killarney 
(Covent Garden, Feb. 8, 1862) enjoyed 
considerable success, and was produced in 
the U. S. and Australia. Other operas are: 
The Brides of Venice (Drury Lane, April 
22, 1844) ; The Crusaders (Drury Lane, 
Feb. 26, 1846); The Lake of Glenaston 
(1862); The Bride of Song (Covent Gar- 
den, Dec. 3, 1864) ; he also wrote the can- 
tatas Undine (1860); Richard Cceur-de- 
Lion (1863); St. Cecilia (1866); St. Peter 
(1870); Graziella (1882); 2 symphonies; 2 
piano concertos, etc.; wrote biographies of 
Mendelssohn (1850) and Weber (1881; 2nd 
ed., 1913). 

Benedictus Appenzeller. See Appenzeller. 

Benedito y Vives, Rafael, Spanish con- 
ductor, pedagogue, and editor; b. Valencia, 
Sept. 3, 1885. He studied at Madrid Cons.; 
in 1917 he organized an orchestra under 
his own name and a university chorus. In 
subsequent years he devoted himself to the 
organization of music festivals with folk 
singing. He has published several collections 
of songs of a popular nature; also peda- 
gogical works: El piano amigo del nino; 
Como se ensena el canto y la musica; etc. 

Benelli, Alemanno. See Bottrigari, Ercole. 

Benelli, Antonio Peregrino, singer and 
composer; b. Forli, Romagna, Sept. 5, 1771; 
d. Bornichau, Saxony, Aug. 16, 1830. In 
1790 he was first tenor at the Teatro San 
Carlo in Naples; held the same position in 
London (1798), and in Dresden from 1801- 
22, when his voice failed; then taught sing- 
ing at the Royal Theater School in Berlin; 
was dismissed in 1829 on account of an 
unjust attack on his benefactor, Spontini. 
His most valuable work is a vocal method 
Gesangslehre (Dresden, 1819; originally 
published in Italian as Regole per il canto 
figurato, 1814) ; also wrote Bemerkungen 
iiber die Stimme in the 'Allgemeine musi- 
kalische Zeitung' (Leipzig, 1824) ; composed 
many vocal pieces and some piano pieces. 

Benet, John, English composer who flour, 
ished in the 15th century. He wrote church 
music, of which the following works are ex- 
tant: a Mass, 2 motets (Lux fulget ex Ang- 
lia and Tellus purpureum), an isorhythmic 
motet Gaude pia Magdalena, and several 
numbers from incomplete masses. Stylistic- 
ally he belongs to the school of John Dun- 
stable and Lionel Power. His Sanctus and 
Agnus are found in Wooldridge's Early Eng- 
lish Harmony (1897); a Gloria is included 



in 'Denkmaler der Tonkunst in Osterrcich' 
(vol. XXXI). 

Benevoli, Orazio, Italian composer; b. 
Rome, April 19, 1605; d. there June 17, 
1672; son of a French baker who italianized 
his name. He studied with Vincenzo Ugolini 
and sang in the boys' choir at the school 
'dei francesi' in Rome (1617-23). He held 
numerous posts as maestro di cappella: at 
Santa Maria in Trastevere (1624-30); at 
San Luigi dei francesi in Rome (1638-44); 
at the Vienna Court (1646) ; at Santa Maria 
Maggiore in Rome (1646); and thereafter 
in the Vatican. His work shows influences 
of the conservative Palestrina style combined 
with the polychoral technique of the Ven- 
etians; some of his sacred works call for 
twelve separate choirs. Benevoli's mass, com- 
missioned for the consecration of the Salz- 
burg Cathedral (1628), was in 52 parts 
with cembalo; this mass and a hymn in 
56 voices are reprinted in the 'Denkmaler 
der Tonkunst in Osterreich' (Vol. X, 1903). 
Another mass (performed at the Church of 
Santa Maria sopra Minerva, Rome, 1650) 
is for 12 choirs of 4 voices each. Bibl.: A. 
Cametti, La Scuola dei pueri cantus di San 
Luigi dei francesi in Roma e suoi principali 
allievi in the 'Rivista musicale italiana' (Oct., 
1915) ; M. Bukofzer, Music in the Baroque 
Era (N. Y., 1947). 

Bengtsson, Gustav Adolf Tiburt, Swedish 
conductor and composer; b. Vadstena, 
March 29, 1885. He studied music in Stock- 
holm; then in Berlin with Juon and in 
Leipzig with Riemann; returned to Sweden 
and settled in Karlstad as composer and 
teacher; from 1942-46 was conductor of 
an orchestra in Linkoping. He composed 3 
symphonies: (I, 1908; II, 1910; III, 1921); 
string quartet (1907); piano trio (1916); 
violin sonata; various orchestral works; 

Ben-Haim, Paul (real name, Franken- 
burger), Israeli composer; b. Munich, July 
5, 1897. He studied piano, conducting and 
composition in Munich; went to Palestine in 
1933 and settled in Tel-Aviv, as a teacher 
and composer. He has written 2 symphonies 
(1941; 1948); piano concerto (Tel-Aviv, 
Feb. 1, 1950); chamber music; songs. He 
has also made arrangements of Israeli folk 

Benincori, Angelo Maria, composer; b. 
Brescia, March 28, 1779; d. Paris, Dec. 30, 
1821. He was a pupil of Cimarosa; lived in 
Spain, Italy and Vienna until 1803, when 
he went to Paris and brought out three un- 
successful operas; he completed Isouard's 

opera Aladin; published several string quar- 
tets and 3 piano trios. 

Benjamin, Arthur, English composer and 
pianist; b. Sydney, Australia, Sept. 18, 1893. 
He studied at the Royal College of Music 
in London (1911-14) and, after war ser- 
vice (1914-18) became prof, at the Sydney 
Cons. (1919-21); returning to England, he 
was appointed prof, at the Royal College 
(from 1926). He was conductor of the Van- 
couver Symphony Orch. (1941-46), then 
returned again to London. He has written 
the operas: The Devil Take Her (London, 
Nov. 30, 1932); Prima Donna (1933; Lon- 
don, Feb. 23, 1949) ; A Tale of Two Cities 
(B.B.C., London, April 17, 1953; prize win- 
ner at the Festival of Britain) ; the ballet 
Orlando's Silver Wedding (London, Festival 
of Britain, May, 1951); instrumental works : 
Pastoral Fantasia (Carnegie Award, 1924); 
Sonatina for violin and piano (1925) ; Suite 
for piano (1927) ; Concertino for piano and 
orch. (1928) ; violin concerto (1932) ; Light 
Music, for orch. (1933); Overture to an 
Italian Comedy (London, March 2, 1937); 
Romantic Fantasy, for violin, viola and orch. 
(London, March 24, 1938) ; Cotillon, a 
suite of dance tunes for orch. (B.B.C., Feb. 
3, 1939); Prelude to a Holiday, for orch. 
(Indianapolis Symphony Orch., Jan. 17, 
1941) ; Jamaican Rumba (WOR Orch., Jan. 
21, 1942; highly successful) ; Symphony No. 1 
(Cheltenham Festival, June 30, 1948); 
piano concerto (Sydney Symphony Orch., 
Sept. 5, 1950, composer soloist) ; concerto 
for harmonica and orch. (London, Aug. 15, 
1953, Larry Adler soloist) ; also numerous 
smaller works. 

Bennet, John, English composer of the 
16th-17th centuries, possibly born in Lan- 
cashire. In 1599 he published Madrigalls to 
Foure Voyces, containing 17 compositions. 
He contributed a well-known madrigal 
'All creatures now are merry minded' to 
The Triumph of Oriana (1601), and com- 
posed 6 songs for Ravenscroft's 'Briefe Dis- 
course' (1614). Bennet's works have been 
reprinted by Fellowes in 'The English Mad- 
rigal School.' Bibl.: E. H. Fellowes, Eng- 
lish Madrigal Composers (Oxford, 1921). 

Bennet, Theodore. See Ritter, Theodore- 
Bennett, George John, English composer 
and organist; b. Andover, May 5, 1863; d. 
Lincoln, Aug. 20, 1930. He won the Balfe 
scholarship, and studied with G. A. Mac- 
farren at the Royal Academy of Music 
(1878-84); took courses in Berlin (1885) 
and Munich (1886-87). After returning to 
London, he was appointed prof, of harmony 



and composition at the Royal Academy 
(1888). From 1890 to 1895 was organist 
in several London churches; from 1895 till 
his death, organist of the Lincoln Cathedral. 
Works: Festival Evening Service (for dedi- 
cation of St. Paul's Cathedral, 1890); 2 
overtures: Jugendtraume (1887) and Cym- 
beline (1895); a piano trio (1893); piano 
pieces, songs, etc. He was the author of the 
manuals Florid Counterpoint and Elements 
of Music for Choir-boys. 

Bennett, Joseph, English critic and writer 
on music; b. Berkeley, Gloucestershire, Nov. 
29, 1831; d. Purton, June 12, 1911. After 
serving in various musical positions in Lon- 
don, he wrote music criticism for 'The Sun- 
day Times,' 'Pall Mall Gazette,' and 'The 
Graphic'; was a contributor to the 'Daily 
Telegraph' and 'The Musical Times'; was 
editor of 'Concordia' (1875-6) and 'The 
Lute' (1883-6); annotator of the programs 
of the Philh. Soc. (1885-1903) and of the 
Saturday Popular Concerts; also wrote li- 
bretti for several English composers. — Pub- 
lications: Letters from Bayreuth (1877); 
The Musical Year (1883); History of the 
Leeds Musical Festivals, 1858-1889 (1892; 
with F. R. Spark) ; Story of Ten Hundred 
Concerts (1887; an account of the origin 
and rise of the Saturday Popular Concerts, 
1857-87); Forty Years of Music (1908). 

Bennett, Robert Russell, American com- 
poser and arranger; b. Kansas City, June 
15, 1894. He studied in New York and in 
Paris with Nadia Boulanger; held Guggen- 
heim Fellowships for two consecutive years 
(1927-28); first gained recognition with a 
symphonic work which won honorable men- 
tion in a contest sponsored by 'Musical 
America' (1927). In 1930 he worked in film 
studios in Hollywood; then settled in New 
York. His main activity has been that of 
expert orchestrator of musical comedies, a 
field in which he has attained a very high 
position, financially and artistically. His 
own works are distinguished by immediate 
effectiveness of instrumental writing and a 
facile flow of musical ideas; among them 
are the following: operas, Maria Malibran 
(N. Y., April 8, 1935) and The Enchanted 
Kiss (1944); operetta Endymion (1927); 
for orch.: Charlestown Rhapsody (1926); 
Paysage (1928); Sights and Sounds (Victor 
Contest Award, 1929) ; March for two pianos 
and orch. (Los Angeles, July 18, 1930) ; Ab- 
raham Lincoln Symphony (Philadelphia, 
Oct. 24, 1931) ; Early American Ballade on 
melodies of Stephen Foster (1932); Ada- 
gio Eroico (Philadelphia, April 25, 1935) ; 
Concerto Grosso for band (Rochester, Dec. 9, 

1932); Variations on a theme by Jerome 
Kern (N. Y., Dec. 3, 1933); Hollywood 
Scherzo (N.B.C., Nov. 15, 1936); Eight 
Etudes for orch. (C.JB.S., July 17, 1938); 
Symphony in D "for the Dodgers" (N. Y., 
Aug. 3, 1941); violin concerto (N.B.C., 
Dec. 26, 1941) ; The Four Freedoms, symph. 
sketch after 4 paintings by Norman Rock- 
well (Los Angeles, Dec. 16, 1943); Classic 
Serenade for string orchestra ( 1 945 ) ; Sym- 
phony (1946); Overture to an Imaginary 
Drama (Toronto, 1946) ; A Dry Weather 
Legend (Knoxville, 1947); piano concerto 
( 1 948 ) . He further wrote a violin sonata 
(1927); Toy Symphony for 5 woodwinds 
(1928) ; organ sonata (1929) ; Water Music 
for string quartet (1937); Hexapoda for 
violin and piano (1940); Five Improvisa- 
tions for trio (1946); Sonatine for soprano 
and harp (1947) ; Six Souvenirs for 2 flutes 
and piano (1948); Nietzsche Variations for 
chorus; songs, etc.; 2 piano sonatinas (1941, 
1944), etc. He also reorchestrated Bizet's 
Carmen for the all-Negro production Car- 
men Jones (N. Y., Dec. 2, 1943). 

Bennett, Sir William Sterndale, English 
pianist, conductor and composer; b. Shef- 
field, April 13, 1816; d. London, Feb. 1, 
1875. His father, an organist, died when 
Bennett was three years old, and he was 
educated by his grandfather, John Bennett. 
At eight he entered the choir of King's 
College Chapel, and at ten, the Royal Acad- 
emy of Music, where he was a pupil of 
Charles Lucas, Dr. Crotch, Cipriani Potter 
and William Henry Holmes; performed 
(1833) his own piano concerto there, which 
was later published by the Academy. In 
1837 the Broadwoods sent him to Leipzig for 
a year, a visit repeated in 1841-42; he was 
intimate with Schumann and Mendelssohn, 
and the influence of both, particularly the 
latter, is reflected in some of his composi- 
tions. From 1843-56 he gave a series of 
chamber concerts in England; married Mary 
Anne Wood in 1844; founded the Bach So- 
ciety in 1849; conducted the concerts of the 
Philharmonic Society from 1856-66; also 
led the Leeds Music Festival in 1858; re- 
ceived the degree of Mus. Doc. from Cam- 
bridge (1856), after his election to the 
chair of Musical Professor. In 1866 he was 
chosen Principal of the Royal Academy of 
Music, and resigned the conductorship of 
the Philharmonic. The additional degree of 
MA. was conferred on him by Cambridge 
in 1867; that of D.C.L. by Oxford in 1870; 
and in 1871 he was knighted. The subscrip- 
tion fund of the Bennett testimonial pre- 
sented to him at St. James' Hall in 1872 
was converted by the recipient into a schol- 



arship at the Royal Academy of Music. He 
is buried in Westminster Abbey. Sterndale 
Bennett ranks high among English com- 
posers of genuine ability. His compositions 
are polished and carefully elaborated ; a 
great many of his piano works display the 
versatility of the piano as a solo instru- 
ments. Works: 4 piano concertos; a sym- 
phony; 5 overtures: Parisina (1834); The 
Naiads (1836; his best work, long in the 
active orchestral repertory) ; The Wood 
Nymphs (1841); Paradise and the Peri 
(1862); Marie du Bois; Caprice for piano 
and orch. (1844); Ode for the Opening of 
the International Exhibition (1862); Cam- 
bridge Installation Ode (1862); a pastoral, 
The May Queen for soli, chorus and orch. 
(Leeds, 1858) ; an oratorio, The Woman of 
Samaria (Birmingham, 1867; and performed 
for many years afterwards) ; music to Sopho- 
cles' Ajax; piano sextet; piano quintet ; piano 
trio; sonata-duo for piano and cello; num- 
erous piano pieces, among them a sonata 
surnamed The Maid of Orleans; pedagogical 
works for piano; anthems, songs. Bibl. : 
J. R. S. Bennett, The Life of W. S. Ben- 
nett (Cambridge, 1907); C. V. Stanford, 
W. S. Bennett in the 'Mus. Quarterly' (Oct. 
1916). The 'Mus. Times' publ. a series of 
articles on Bennett in its issues of May- 
August, 1903; and an article by F. Corder 
(May, 1916). 

Benoist (bu-nwah'), Andre, French pian- 
ist; b. Paris, April 4, 1879; d. Monmouth 
Beach, N. J., June 19, 1953. He studied 
at the Paris Cons, with Pugno and Saint- 
Saens; toured in Europe and America as 
accompanist to Casals, Heifetz, Albert Spald- 
ing, Tetrazzini and other celebrated artists. 

Benoist (bu-nwah'), Francois, French 
composer and organist; b. Nantes, Sept. 10, 
1794; d. Paris, May 6, 1878. He studied at 
the Paris Cons. (1811-15) with Adam and 
Catel, and won the Prix de Rome in 1815 
with the cantata Enone; returning from 
Italy in 1819, he was appointed prof, of 
organ at the Paris Cons.; in 1840, 'chef du 
chant' at the Opera; pensioned in 1872. 
Works: 2 operas, Leonore et Felix (1821) 
and U Apparition (1848) ; 4 Ballets, La Gipsy 
(1839), Le Diable amoureux (1840), Ni- 
sida, ou les Amazons des Agores (1848), and 
Paquerette (1851) ; 'Bibliotheque de l'organ- 
iste' (12 books of organ pieces), etc. 

Benoit-Berbiguier. See Berbiguier. 

Benoit (bu-nwah'), Peter, foremost Flem- 
ish composer; b. Harlebeke, Belgium, Aug. 
17, 1834; d. Antwerp, March 8, 1901. He 

studied at the Brussels Cons, with Fetis 
(1851-55); while there he earned his living 
by conducting theater orchestras. He also 
wrote music for Flemish plays; at the age 
of 22 he produced his first opera in Flem- 
ish, Het dorp in't gebergte (A Mountain 
Village), staged in Brussels on Dec. 14, 
1856. With his cantata Le Meurtre d'Abel 
Benoit obtained the Belgian Prix de Rome 
(1857); however, he did not go to Italy, 
but traveled instead in Germany. As part 
of his duties he submitted a short Cantate 
de Noel to Fetis, who praised Benoit's mu- 
sic; he also wrote an essay L'ecole de 
musique flamande et son avenir proclaiming 
his fervent faith in the future of a national 
Flemish school of composition, of which he 
was the most ardent supporter. His one-act 
opera Roi des Aulnes was presented in Brus- 
sels (Dec. 2, 1859); the Theatre-Lyrique of 
Paris tentatively accepted it; Benoit spent 
many months in Paris awaiting its produc- 
tion, which never took place; in the mean- 
time he acted as second conductor at the 
Bouffes-Parisiens. In 1863 he returned to 
Belgium, where he produced his second 
Flemish opera Isa (Brussels, Feb. 24, 1867). 
In 1867 he founded the Flemish Music 
School in Antwerp; he militated for many 
years to obtain an official status for it. In 
1898 it was finally granted and the school 
became the Royal Flemish Cons.; Benoit 
remained its director to the end of his life. 
In Belgium Benoit is regarded as the origi- 
nator of the Flemish musical traditions both 
in composition and in education; but al- 
though he cultivated the Flemish idiom in 
most of his works, his musical style owes 
much to French and German influences. 
Apart from his successful early operas, he 
wrote the opera Pompeja (1895) which was 
not produced; the Flemish oratorios Lucifer 
(Brussels, Sept. 30, 1866; highly successful; 
considered his masterpiece) ; De Schelde 
(1869); De Oorlog (War; 1873); a dra- 
matic musical score Charlotte Corday 
(1876) ; historic music drama De Pacificatie 
van Ghent (1876); Rubens Cantata (1877; 
greatly acclaimed) ; children's oratorio De 
Waereld in (In the World; 1878) ; cantata 
Hucbald (1880); cantata De Genius des 
Vaderlands (1880); oratorio De Rhijn 
(1889), etc. Of his church music, the most 
important is his Quadrilogie religieuse (Ant- 
werp, April 24, 1864), of which the compo- 
nent parts had been separately performed 
in 1860, 1862 and 1863; also Drama Christi 
(1871). Benoit wrote relatively little in- 
strumental music; his symph. poems for 
piano with orch. and flute with orch. have 
been performed. He also composed many 



songs in French and in Flemish. In his 
propaganda for national Flemish music, 
Benoit contributed numerous papers and 
articles, among them Considerations a propos 
d'un projet pour Vinstitution de festivals en 
Belgique (1874); Verhandeling over de na- 
tionale Toonkunde (2 vols.; Antwerp, 1877- 
79) ; De Vlaamsche Muziekschool van Ant- 
werp en (1889; a history of the Antwerp 
School of Music) ; De Oorsprong van het 
Cosmopolitisme in de Muziek (1876). In 
1880 he was elected a corresponding member 
of the Belgian Royal Academy; in 1882, 
full member. Bibl. : M. E. Belpaire, Een 
vlaamsche me ester; Peter Benoit (Belfort, 
1901); C. Stoffels, P. Benoit et le mouve- 
ment musical flamand (Antwerp, 1901) ; Th. 
Radoux, Paroles prononcees a. I'annonce de 
la mort de P. Benoit in 'Bulletins Lettres et 
Beaux-Arts' (Brussels, 1901); J. Sabbe, P. 
Benoit; zijn leven, zijne werken, zijne be- 
teekenis (Ghent, 1902); L. Mortelmans, P. 
Benoit (Antwerp, 1911); H. Baggaert, P. 
Benoit, een kampion der nacionale gedachte 
(Antwerp, 1919); H. P. Morgan-Browne, 
Peter Benoit, ne Pierre Benoit in 'Music and 
Letters' (1929); J. Horemans, P. Benoit 
(Antwerp, 1934) ; A. M. Pols, Het leven 
van P. Benoit (Antwerp, 1934) ; Ch. van 
den Borren, Peter Benoit (Brussels, 1942); 
R. R. Boschvogel, P. Benoit (Tiel, 1944) ; A. 
Corbet, P. Benoit, leven, werk en beteekenis 
(Antwerp, 1944) ; G.-M. Matthijs, P. Benoit 
(Brussels, 1944). 

Bentinelli, Bruno, Italian composer; b. 
Milan, June 4, 1913. He studied at the 
Milan Cons, with Paribeni and R. Bossi. 
He has written Invenzioni for string orch. 
(1938); 3 symphonies (1939, 1944, 1947); 
Concerto for orch. (1940); Fantasia e fuga 
su temi gregoriani (1942); Divertimento for 
chamber orch. (1945); Fantasia concertante 
for string quartet and orch. (1949); Psalm 
IV for soprano and orch. (1950) ; songs. 

Bentonelli, Joseph (real name Benton), 
American tenor; b. Sayre, Oklahoma, Sept. 
10, 1900. He studied general musical sub- 
jects at the State Univ. of Oklahoma (B.A., 
1920; Mus. Bac, 1921), voice with Jean de 
Reszke (Paris) and with Vanzo (Milan); 
made his debut in Nice (1925) with the 
de Reszke Ensemble; made guest operatic 
appearances in Europe and Egypt; in 1928 
sang at the inauguration of the Teatro Mira- 
mare in Tripoli ; returned to the U. S. 
(1934); sang with the Chicago Opera for 
four years: then with the Metropolitan Op- 
era from 1936-38; made his debut there as 
Des Grieux in Manon (Jan. 10, 1936). He 
has made extensive tours throughout the 

U. S.; his repertoire includes the standard 
leading Italian tenor roles; sang leading 
parts in Vittadini's Anima Allegra (1931), 
Refice's Cecilia (Rome, 1930), etc. 

Bentzon, Jorgen, Danish composer; cousin 
of Niels Viggo Bentzon; b. Copenhagen, Feb. 
14, 1897; d. Horsholm, July 9, 1951. He 
studied music with Carl Nielsen (1915-19), 
then took a course at the Leipzig Cons. 
(1920-21). Returning to Denmark, he was 
active in the field of musical education for 
the masses; was president of the People's 
Music Schools from 1937 till 1946. As a 
composer, he followed the romantic school, 
closely related to Nielsen's ideals. Bentzon 
wrote 2 symphonies (the 1st, subtitled Dick- 
ens Symphony, was performed on the Cop- 
enhagen radio in 1941); the opera Saturn- 
alia (Copenhagen, Dec. 15, 1944); 5 string 
quartets and other chamber music. 

Bentzon, Niels Viggo, eminent Danish 
composer; b. Copenhagen, Aug. 24, 1919. 
He is a descendant of Johan Ernst Hart- 
mann (1726-93), an early Danish composer. 
The musical tradition of the family con- 
tinued through many generations (his cousin 
was Jorgen Bentzon). He studied piano with 
his mother, and composition at the Copen- 
hagen Cons, with Jeppesen. From his earliest 
works, Bentzon assimilated a neo-classical 
idiom, distinguished by compact contra- 
puntal writing and harmonic clarity without 
avoidance of justifiable dissonance. Between 
1943 and 1953 he wrote 7 symphonies; No. 
4 (subtitled Metamorphoses) was performed 
in Copenhagen on June 18, 1949; No. 7, on 
April 21, 1953. His ballet Metaphor was 
staged in Copenhagen on March 31, 1950. 
Among his other works are a piano concerto 
(1948); 2 string quartets (1941; 1946); 
quintet for flute, oboe, horn, bassoon and 
piano (1943) ; quartet for flute, violin, cello 
and piano (1949); 3 violin sonatas (1940, 
1943, 1944); cello sonata (1946); horn 
sonata (1947); 4 piano sonatas (1946-49), 

Benvenuti, Giacomo, Italian musicologist, 
b. Tremosina, Lake Garda, March 16, 1885; 
d. Salo, Jan. 20, 1943. He studied at the 
Liceo Mus., Bologna, with M. E. Bossi; 
edited 2 volumes of selected works by 
Andrea and Giovanni Gabrieli for the 
'Istituzioni e Monumenti dell' Arte Musicale 
Italiana' (with valuable documentary pre- 
faces) ; 12 harpsichord sonatas by B. Galup- 
pi; works by Cavazzoni (1919) and Paradies 
(with D. Cipollini; 1920); 35 Arie di vari 
autori del secolo XVII (1922), etc. He 
also wrote an opera Juan Jose (not per- 
formed) ; songs and a string quartet. 



Bcnvcnuti, Tommaso, Italian opera com- 
poser; b. Cavarzere (Venice), Feb. 4, 1838; 
d. Rome, Feb. 26, 1906. When he was 18 
years old, his opera Valenzia Candiano was 
announced for performance in Mantua, but 
was taken off after a rehearsal. The follow- 
ing year, he succeeded in having his second 
opera Adriana Lecouvreur produced in Mi- 
lan (Nov. 26, 1857). Other productions 
followed: Guglielmo Shakespeare (Parma, 
Feb. 14, 1861); La Stella di Toledo (Mi- 
lan, April 23, 1864) ; II Falconiere (Venice, 
Feb. 16, 1878) ; Beatrice di Suevia (Venice, 
Feb. 20, 1890); opera buffa Le baruffe 
Chiozzotte (Florence, Jan. 30, 1895). Al- 
though Benvenuti's operas are workmanlike 
and effective, they failed to hold the stage 
after initial successes. 

Berardi, Angelo, Italian theorist; b. S. 
Agata, Feltria, c. 1635; d. c. 1700. He was 
maestro di cappella at Spoleto in 1681, and 
at Viterbo in 1687. In 1693 he was at the 
Basilica of Santa Maria in Trastevere. He 
published several treatises on harmony and 
related subjects: Ragionamenti musicali 
(Bologna, 1681); Documenti armonici (Bo- 
logna, 1687); Arcani musicale (Bologna, 
1690) ; II Perche musicale ovvero Staffetta 
armonica (Bologna, 1693); composed a 
Missa pro defunctis (1663); Salmi con- 
certati (Bologna, 1668) ; Concentus cum 
Missa (Bologna, 1669) ; Musiche diverse 
variemente concertate per camera (Bologna, 
1689) ; many canons; etc. 

Berat (ba-rah'), Frederic, French song 
composer; b. Rouen, 1800; d. Paris, Dec. 2, 
1855. He was a friend of the poet Beranger, 
many of whose lyrics he set to music; wrote 
many popular romances and chansonettes : 
A la frontiere, Bibi, La Lisette de Beranger, 
Le Depart, Ma Normandie, etc. 

Berber, Felix, notable German violinist; b. 
Vienna, March 11, 1871; d. Munich, Nov. 
2, 1930. He studied at the Dresden Cons.; 
then with Adolf Brodsky in Leipzig; was 
concertmaster at the Gewandhaus Orch. 
there (1897-1903); taught at the Royal 
Academy of Music in London (1904-7); at 
the Hoch Cons, in Frankfurt and at the 
Geneva Cons. (1908). In 1910 he made a 
highly successful tour of the U. S.; in 1912 
he settled in Munich, teaching privately. 

Berbiguier (bar-be-g'ya.'), Benoit-Tran- 
quille, French flutist; b. Caderousse, Vau- 
cluse, Dec. 21, 1782; d. Pont-Levoy, near 
Blois, Jan. 20, 1838. He was a pupil of 
Wunderlich at the Paris Cons.; wrote many 
important works for flute, including: 15 
books of flute duos; 2 books of duos for 

flute and violin; 10 concertos; 7 books of 
sonatas, with cello or viola; 8 sets of vari- 
ations with piano or orch.; 6 books of 
flute trios, etc. 

Berchem (bar' -hem) (or Berghem), 
Jachet (de) (also Jaquct, Jacquet), Flemish 
composer; b. Berchem, near Antwerp, early 
in the 16th century; he was organist to 
the Duke of Ferrara in 1555. He has been 
confused with his contemporary Jachet de 
Mantua; also with Jachet Buus and Giaches 
de Wert. Berchem's 27 madrigals for 5 
voices appeared in 1546, and 24 madrigals 
for 4 voices in 1555; three books contain- 
ing settings of stanzas from Orlando furioso 
and dedicated to Duke Alfonso II of Ferrara 
were publ. in 1561. Modern reprints of Ber- 
chem's works are included in the following 
editions: R. van Maldeghem, Tresor musical 
(1865-93), volumes XI and XX (chan- 
sons); vols. XXVII and XXVIII (madri- 
gals) ; R. Eitner, Publikationen alter er 
praktischer und theoretischer Musikwerke 
(1873-1905), vols. IX and XI (chansons). 
Bibl. : R. Eitner, Jachet da Mantua und 
Jachet Berchem in 'Monatshefte fur Musik- 
geschichte' (1889); A. Einstein, The Italian 
Madrigal (Princeton, 1949) ; G. Reese, Mu- 
sic in the Renaissance (N. Y., 1954). 

Berens, Hermann, noted pianist and peda- 
gogue; b. Hamburg, April 7, 1826; d. 
Stockholm, May 9, 1880. He studied with 
his father, Karl Berens, in Hamburg; then 
studied with Reissiger in Dresden, and with 
Czerny. In 1847 he settled in Sweden; or- 
ganized the Quartet Soirees in Stockholm; 
in 1849 became Royal Music Director in 
Orebro; taught at the Royal Academy in 
Stockholm. He wrote the opera Violetta 
(1855) and 3 light operas: Ein Sommer- 
nachtstraum, Lully und Quinault, and Ric- 
cardo; some chamber music. Flis book of 
piano studies, Neueste Schule der Gelaufig- 
keit, has become a standard work for piano 
students, and has gone through numerous 

Beretta, Giovanni Battista, Italian music 
theorist; b. Verona, Feb. 24, 1819; d. Milan, 
April 28, 1876. He was director of the 
Bologna Cons.; then devoted himself to con- 
tinuing the 'Dizionario artistico-scientifico- 
storico-technologico-musicale' begun by A. 
Barbieri (publ. Milan, 1869-72), but did not 
complete it; also wrote a treatise on har- 
mony, and another on instrumentation and 
orchestration; composed instrumental and 
sacred music. 

Berezovsky, Maximus Sozontovitch, Rus- 
sian singer and composer; b. Glukhov, Rus- 



sia, Oct. 27, 1745; d. St. Petersburg, April 
2, 1777; he studied at the Kiev Ecclesiastic 
Academy; then was chorister at the Court 
Chapel in St. Petersburg. He attracted at- 
tention by his lyric voice, and in 1765 was 
sent by the Russian government to Bologna 
for further study. He became a pupil of 
Padre Martini, and wrote an opera Demo- 
foonte (1773) which was produced in Bo- 
logna. Upon his return to Russia, he was 
unable to compete with Italian musicians 
who had acquired all the lucrative positions 
in the field of vocal teaching and opera; he 
became despondent and cut his throat. In 
addition to his opera, he left a Credo and 
17 other sacred works; in these he made an 
attempt to follow the natural accents of 
the Russian text, which was an innovation 
at the time. Bibl. : N. Lebedev, Berezovsky 
and Bortniansky as Church Music Composers 
(St. Petersburg, 1882). 

Berezowsky, Nicolai, talented composer; b. 
St. Petersburg, Russia, May 17, 1900; d. 
New York, Aug. 27, 1953. He studied sing- 
ing, violin and piano; graduated from the 
Court Chapel of St. Petersburg in 1916; 
played the violin in the orch. of the Opera 
House in Saratov (1917-19); then in the 
orch. of the Bolshoy Theater in Moscow. 
He crossed the border to Poland in 1920 
and reached New York in 1922. He found 
employment as a theater violinist; took a 
course in the Juilliard Graduate School of 
Music, where he was a pupil of Rubin Gold- 
mark and Paul Kochanski; was a member 
of the violin section of the N. Y. Philh. 
(1923-29); a member of the Elizabeth 
Sprague Coolidge String Quartet (1935-40) ; 
was also active as a radio conductor; held 
a Guggenheim Fellowship (1948). His mu- 
sic was widely performed; its style, con- 
ditioned mainly by national Russian influ- 
ences, is distinguished also by coloristic 
effects in sonorous modern harmonies. 
Works: Sinfonietta (N.B.C. Orch., May 8, 
1932; won a prize); Symph. I (Boston 
Symph., March 16, 1931, composer cond.); 
Symph. II (Boston, Koussevitzky cond., Feb. 
16, 1934); Symph. Ill (Rochester, Jan. 21, 
1937); Symph. IV (Boston Symph., Oct. 
22, 1943, composer cond.) ; Christmas Fes- 
tival Overture (N. Y. Philh., Dec. 23, 
1943) ; Soldiers on the Town (N. Y. Philh., 
Nov. 25, 1943); violin concerto (Dresden, 
April 29, 1930, composer cond., Carl Flesch, 
soloist) ; viola concerto (Chicago Symph. 
Orch., Jan. 29, 1942, Stock cond., Primrose 
soloist) ; Concerto Lirico for cello and orch. 
(Boston, Feb. 22, 1935, Koussevitzky cond., 
Piatigorsky soloist) ; harp concerto (Phila- 
delphia Orch., Jan. 26, 1945) ; Passacaglia 

for the theremin and oreh. (N. Y. Philh., 
Feb. 29, 1948). Chamber music: 2 string 
quartets, 2 woodwind quintets, string sextet, 
brass suite, etc. Cantata Gilgamesh (New 
York, May 16, 1947); Babar the Elephant, 
children's opera (New York, Feb. 21, 1953; 
very successful, numerous performances 
given in the U. S.). See Duet with Nicky 
(New York, 1943) by his first wife, Alice 

Berg, Adam, German music printer who 
was active at Munich between the years 
1567 and 1599; he published the important 
collection Patrocinium musices, in 12 vols., 
printed between 1573 and 1598. Of these, 
7 volumes are devoted to Orlandus Lassus. 

Berg, Alban, outstanding Austrian com- 
poser; b. Vienna, Feb. 9, 1885; d. there, 
Dec. 24, 1935. He studied music by himself; 
as a young man he met Arnold Schoenberg, 
who became his teacher and intimate friend. 
Berg embraced the atonal method of his 
master, and later adopted the full-fledged 
12-tone technique. With Schoenberg, he led 
the radical movement in Viennese music; 
was one of the founders of the Society 
for Private Performances in Vienna, which 
made propaganda for new music; was also 
a member of the Austrian section of the 
International Society for Contemporary Mu- 
sic (from 1925). He taught privately in 
Vienna; contributed to modern music maga- 
zines ('Anbruch,' '23'); also gave occasional 
lectures on modern music. The interest 
shown in his work by Hertzka, the president 
of Universal Edition, and the devotion of his 
friends and admirers enabled him to con- 
tinue his work. He evolved a markedly in- 
dividual style of composition, remarkable for 
its outspoken lyricism and dramatic tension, 
while using the 12-tone technique as them- 
atic foundation. His early works stem from 
Wagner and Mahler; in later works tonality 
is abandoned in favor of a free melodic and 
harmonic discourse. His major work is the 
opera Wozzeck, after the romantic play by 
Buchner; the score contains several sym- 
phonic sections (a passacaglia with 29 vari- 
ations; a dance suite; a rhapsody, etc.); 
the idiom is entirely atonal. Wozzeck was 
first produced at the State Opera in Berlin 
(Dec. 14, 1925) and aroused a storm of 
protests; the criticisms in the Berlin press, 
some of extreme violence, were collected and 
published in a special booklet by Berg's 
friends as a means of combating the injustice 
to the work. The production of the opera 
in Prague was accompanied by similar out- 
bursts. However, the first American per- 
formance of Wozzeck (Philadelphia, March 
19, 1931, Stokowski conducting) aroused 



tremendous interest; after World War II 
numerous performances were given in Eu- 
rope and the U. S. with great acclaim, and 
Wozzeck became recognized as a modern op- 
eratic masterpiece. The original score of 
Wozzeck was acquired from the composer by 
the Library of Congress in Washington. 
Berg's second opera Lulu (derived from two 
plays by Wedekind) was left unfinished; 2 
acts and two fragments of the 3d act were 
first performed in Zurich (June 2, 1937). 
Berg's last completed work was a violin con- 
certo commissioned by the American violin- 
ist Louis Krasner, who gave its first per- 
formance at the Festival of the International 
Society for Contemporary Music in Barce- 
lona (April 19, 1936) ; the score bears the 
inscription 'Dem Andenken eines Engels' 
as a memorial to Alma Mahler's young 
daughter. The concerto is written in the 12- 
tone technique, applied with great freedom 
without avoidance of passing tonality; it 
has since become part of the modern vio- 
linist's repertory. Other works are: 7 friihe 
Lieder (1905-8); piano sonata (1908); 
4 songs (1909); string quartet (1910); 5 
Songs with orch. (1912); 4 pieces for clar- 
inet and piano (1913); 3 pieces for orch. 
(1914) ; Chamber Concerto for piano, violin 
and 13 wind instruments (1925); Lyrische 
Suite for string quartet (1926; Kolisch 
Quartet, Vienna, Jan. 8, 1927; 3 move- 
ments arranged by Berg for string orch.; 1st 
perf., Berlin, Jan 21, 1929); Der Wein for 
soprano and orch., after Baudelaire (Konigs- 
berg, June 4, 1930). Berg made piano ar- 
rangements of Schoenberg's Gurre Lieder 
and F# minor quartet and compiled analyses 
of Schoenberg's Kammersymphonie, Pelleas 
und Melisande, as well as the Gurre Lieder. 
The basic biography of Alban Berg is by 
Willi Reich (Vienna, 1937; with contribu- 
tions by Theodore Wiesengrund-Adorno and 
Ernst Krenek), which includes musical an- 
alyses; Reich also compiled a guide to Woz- 
zeck (publ. in English, N. Y., 1931). See 
also the Alban Berg issue of 'Eine Wiener 
Musikzeitschrift' (Vienna, 1936) ; Hans Hol- 
laender, Alban Berg in the 'Mus. Quarterly' 
(Oct. 1936) ; Rene Leibowitz, Alban Berg's 
Five Orchestral Songs in the 'Mus. Quar- 
terly' (1948); Rene Leibowitz, Schoenberg 
and his School (N. Y., 1949) ; P. J. Jouve 
and M. Fano, Wozzeck, ou le nouvel opera 
( Paris, 1 953 ) . Alban Berg's talk on atonality 
is printed in English in N. Slonimsky, Music 
Since 1900 (N. Y., 1937). 

Berg, Johann von, Flemish music printer; 
b. Ghent; d. Nuremberg, 1563. He lived in 
Ghent; settled in Nuremberg in 1531 where 
he became Ulrich Neuber's partner. 

Berg, Conrad Mathias, Alsatian pianist; 
b. Colmar, April 27, 1785; d. Strasbourg, 
Dec. 13, 1852. He studied at the Paris Cons. 
(1806-07); then settled in Strasbourg as a 
piano teacher (1808). He wrote 4 string 
quartets; 10 piano trios; 3 piano concertos; 
sonatas; many other pieces for his instru- 
ment; his essay Ideen zu einer rationellen 
Lehrmethode der Musik mit Anwendung auf 
das Klavier spiel appeared in 'Cacilia' (vol. 
XVII, 1835); he also wrote an Aperqu 
historique sur I'etat de la musique a Stras- 
bourg pendant les 50 dernieres annees 

Berg, Natanael, Swedish composer; b. 
Stockholm, Feb. 9, 1879. He first studied 
surgery; then singing at the Stockholm 
Cons. ; later composition in France, Austria 
and Germany; was president of the Associ- 
ation of Swedish Composers (1918-25). He 
has written 5 operas which were produced 
in Stockholm: Lelia (Feb. 29, 1912) ; Engel- 
brekt (Sept. 21, 1929); Judith (Feb. 22, 
1936); Birgitta (Jan. 10, 1942); Genoveva 
(Oct. 25, 1947); the ballets Alvorna 
(1914), Sensitiva (1919), and Hertiginnans 
friare (The Duchess' Suitors; 1920) ; the 
symph. poems Traumgewalten (1911); Alles 
endet, was entstehet (1913); Varde I jus! 
(1914); Arstiderna [The Tides; 1916), and 
Makter (Power; 1917); Pezzo sinfonico 
(1918); Sinfonia delle passioni (1922); the 
oratorios Mannen och kvinnan (Man and 
Woman; 1911); Israels lovsdng (Israel's 
Hymns; 1915) and Das Hohelied (1925); 
violin concerto; Serenade for violin and 
orch.; chamber music (string quartet, piano 
quintet) ; songs. 

Berger, Arthur, American composer and 
music critic; b. New York, May 15, 1912. 
He studied with Piston at Harvard Univ. 
(M.A., 1936); then in Paris with Milhaud 
and Nadia Boulanger, on a Paine Fellow- 
ship from Harvard (1937-39). Returning 
to America, he taught at Mills College, 
Brooklyn College, and the Juilliard School 
of Music in New York; was music critic 
of the 'N. Y. Sun' (1943-46), and of the 
'N. Y. Herald Tribune' (1946-53). In 1953, 
appointed assoc. prof, of music at Brandeis 
Univ. Berger's early compositions reveal an 
atonal trend, which was later changed to a 
neo-classical style, largely influenced by Stra- 
vinsky. His works include a ballet, Entertain- 
ment Piece for 3 dancers and 'modern style 
piano' (1940); Serenade Concertante, for 
violin, woodwind quartet and small orch. 
(Rochester, N. Y., Oct. 24, 1945; revised, 
1951) ; 3 pieces for string orch. (N. Y., Jan. 
26, 1946) ; Ideas of Order for orch. (N. Y. 



Philh., April 11, 1953); woodwind quartet 
(1941) ; 2 Duos for violin and piano (1948; 
1950); Duo for cello and piano (1951); 
Duo for oboe and clarinet (1952) ; Fantasy 
for piano (1942); Capriccio for piano 
(1945) ; Partita for piano (1947) ; songs. He 
has published a monograph on Aaron Cop- 
land (N. Y., 1953); has contributed special 
articles to various publications; active in 
modern music organizations, etc. 

Berger, Erna, German soprano, b. Dres- 
den, Oct. 19, 1900. She began studying 
voice rather late but made rapid progress, 
and was engaged to sing at the Dresden 
Opera; she later joined the staff of the 
Berlin State Opera, where she distinguished 
herself in Mozart's works. She sang in vari- 
ous European opera houses; in 1949 made 
her American debut at the Metropolitan 

Berger, Francesco, English pianist and 
composer; b. London, June 10, 1834; d. 
there (at the age of 98), April 25, 1933. 
Pie studied harmony with Luigi Ricci in 
Trieste, piano with Karl Lickl in Vienna; 
later studied with Hauptmann and Plaidy 
at Leipzig; returned to London, where he 
was professor of piano at the Royal Academy 
of Music and at the Guildhall School of 
Music; made frequent concert tours through 
Great Britain and Ireland; was for some 
years director, and from 1884-1911 hon- 
orary secretary of the Philharmonic. He 
composed an opera, II Lazzarone, and a 
mass; overtures and incidental music to 
Wilkie Collins' The Frozen Deep and The 
Lighthouse ; many songs and piano pieces. 
He published First Steps at the Pianoforte ; 
Reminiscences, Impressions and Anecdotes; 
Musical Expressions, Phrases and Sentences; 
and a Musical Vocabulary in 4 Languages 
(1922); in 1931 he published his memoirs 
entitled (with reference to his age), 97. 

Berger, Jean, choral conductor and com- 
poser; b. Hamm, Sept. 27, 1901. He 
studied musicology under Besseler in Heidel- 
berg (1927; Ph.D., 1931). From 1931-39 
he was in Paris, where he took lessons in 
composition with Louis Aubert; was also 
conductor of 'Les Compagnons de la Mar- 
jolaine,' a mixed choral group specializing 
in his modern harmonizations of French 
folk-tunes. In 1935, Berger became a French 
citizen. In 1939-41 he was in Rio de Jan- 
eiro, where he coached French opera at the 
Municipal Theater. In 1941 he settled in 
New York. Among his choral compositions, 
Le sang des autres won first prize at the 
international contest in Zurich in 1937. 

Berger, Ludwig, German pianist and com- 
poser; b. Berlin, April 18, 1777; d. there, 
Feb. 16, 1839. He studied harmony and 
counterpoint with Gurrlich in Berlin 
(1799); studied piano with Clementi at St. 
Petersburg, where he was also influenced by 
Field's technique; went to Stockholm in 
1812, and then to London, rejoining Clem- 
enti and meeting Cramer; finally settled in 
Berlin (1815) as a piano teacher ; among 
his pupils were Mendelssohn, Henselt, Tau- 
bert and Fanny Hensel. With Klein, Reich- 
ardt and Rellstab he founded the junior 
'Liedertafel' (1819). He composed many 
effective piano studies; also an opera Oreste 
(never performed) ; cantatas; male quartets; 
songs, etc. A biography of him was published 
by L. Rellstab in the 'Berlinische Zeitung' 
of Feb. 12, 1839 (reprint, 1846). 

Berger, Rudolf, opera singer; b. Brunn, 
Moravia, April 17, 1874; d. New York, Feb. 
27, 1915. He began his vocal studies at the 
Brunn Cons. (1891) ; made his debut there, 
as a baritone (1896); subsequently success- 
fully sang baritone roles at various German 
theaters; from 1904-07 was a member of 
the Royal Opera at Berlin. He then retired 
for a year; studied with Oscar Saenger in 
New York, changing to tenor; returned to 
Germany, where he appeared in Berlin 
(1909) as Lohengrin, and sang tenor roles 
(chiefly Wagner) thereafter; in 1913 mar- 
ried the soprano Marie Rappold; then set- 
tled in New York, where he was a member 
of the Metropolitan Opera (1914-15). He 
had a large repertory, consisting of 96 bari- 
tone and 18 tenor roles; sang Jokanaan, in 
Salome, 79 times. 

Berger, Theodor, Austrian composer; b. 
Traismauer, Lower Austria, May 18, 1905. 
He studied in Vienna with Franz Schmidt. 
His music reflects Schmidt's influence; he 
takes particular interest in structural prob- 
lems. Among his works are Malinconia for 
string orchestra in 25 parts (1938) ; Ballade 
for orchestra (1941); Rondo ostinato for 
wind instruments with percussion (1947); 
quintet for horns; 2 string quartets, etc. 

Berger, Wilhelm, German composer; b. 
Boston, Mass. (of German parents), Aug. 9, 
1861; d. Jena, Jan. 15, 1911. When an in- 
fant he was taken to Germany; studied at 
the Hochschule fur Musik in Berlin (1878- 
81); taught at the Klindworth-Scharwenka 
Cons, (until 1903); then was court con- 
ductor at Meiningen. He was a very pro- 
lific composer; wrote 105 opus numbers; 
his music, though lacking in originality, com- 
manded respect for its technical skill. He 



wrote 2 symphonies (no. 1 was perf. in 
Boston on Nov. 4, 1899) ; oratorio Euphor- 
ion; 3 Ballades for baritone with orch. ; 
Gesang der Geister iiber den Wassern for 
chorus and orch.; piano quartet; many piano 
works; choral pieces; about 80 songs. A full 
catalogue of his works was publ. by W. 
Altmann (Leipzig, 1920) ; biography by A. 
Kohut in the 'Neue Musikzeitung' (Stutt- 
gart, 1902, nos. 21-23); see also E. Krause, 
W. Berger in 'Monographien moderner 
Musiker' (Leipzig, 1907); G. Ernest, W. 
Berger (Berlin, 1931). 

Berggreen (barg-gran), Andreas Peter, 
Danish composer; b. Copenhagen, March 2, 
1801; d. there, Nov. 8, 1880. He studied 
law, but turned to music later. He occupied 
various posts as church organist and teacher 
of singing in Denmark; in 1859 he became 
inspector of singing in Danish public schools. 
His first important work was a comic opera 
Billedet og Busten (The Portrait and The 
Bust), produced in Copenhagen on April 9, 
1832. He also wrote incidental music to 
various theatrical plays. His most important 
contribution is the compilation of 1 1 volumes 
of folksongs of various nations, published 
under the title Folkesange og Melodier 
(1842); and 14 volumes of songs for use 
in schools (1834-76); also edited church 
anthems. Among his students was Gade. 
His biographical sketch, by Skou, was pub- 
lished in 1895. 

Bergh, Arthur, American composer and 
conductor; b. St. Paul, Minn., March 24, 
1882. He studied violin; played in the 
orchestra of the Metropolitan Opera (1903- 
08) ; then conducted a series of municipal 
concerts in New York (1911-14); later be- 
came associated with various recording com- 
panies. Among his works are 2 melodramas 
with orch., The Raven and The Pied Piper 
of Hamelin; a romantic opera Niorada; a 
symphonic chorale The Unnamed City; 2 
operettas, In Arcady and The Goblin Fair; 
about 100 songs; a number of violin pieces, 
etc. From 1941 Bergh lived in Hollywood as 
librarian for moving picture companies. 

Bergh, Rudolph, composer and writer; 
b. Copenhagen, Sept. 22, 1859; d. Davos, 
Dec. 7, 1924. He studied biology and music 
in Copenhagen and Berlin; in 1922 was a 
member of the Board of the Copenhagen 
Cons. He composed the choral works Re- 
quiem fur Werther; Geister der Windstille; 
and an oratorio, The Mount of Holy Fire; 
also about 150 songs; 50 piano pieces; 
chamber music, etc. 

Berghem, Jachet de. See Berchem. 

Bergman, Erik, Finnish composer; b. 
Nykarleby, Nov. 24, 1911. He studied at the 
Sibelius Academy in Helsinki; then in Ber- 
lin, Vienna and Paris. Works: Majndtter 
for soprano and orch. (1946); Livete trad, 
cantata (1947); piano pieces and songs. 

Bergmann, Carl, German conductor; b. 
Ebersbach, Saxony, April 12, 1821; d. New 
York, Aug. 16, 1876. He was a pupil of 
Zimmermann in Zittau, and Hesse in Bres- 
lau; emigrated to the U. S. in 1850 and 
joined the traveling 'Germania' Orch. ; later 
became its conductor until the group dis- 
banded in 1854. Bergmann also conducted 
the Handel and Haydn Society (1852-54). 
In 1854 he was in Chicago; in 1855 became 
associate conductor (with Theodore Eisfeld) 
of the New York Philh. Orch; in 1862 be- 
came its sole conductor, retaining this post 
until his death. He also conducted the 
German male chorus 'Arion'. Bergmann 
played an important role in American music ; 
an ardent admirer of Wagner and Liszt, he 
introduced their works to American audi- 

Bergmans, Paul Jean fitienne Charles, Bel- 
gian musicologist; b. Ghent, Feb. 23, 1868; 
d. there, Nov. 14, 1935. Studied at the Univ. 
of Ghent; Dr. phil., 1887; 1892, assistant 
librarian; 1919, chief librarian and prof, 
there; member of the Royal Academy of 
Belgium. He published a number of very 
valuable studies and books, the most import- 
ant of which are: P. J. Leblan, carilloneur 
de la ville de Gand au XVIII s siecle 
(1884) ; H. Waelput (1886) ; Varietes musi- 
cologiques (3 vols., 1891, 1901, 1920); La 
vie musicale gantoise au XVIII s siecle 
(1897); Peter Philips (1903);_L*5 Musi- 
ciens de Courtrai et du Courtraisis (1912); 
Notice sur Fl. van Duyse (1919); Corn. 
Verdonck (1919); Henri Vieuxtemps 
(1920); Le baron Limnander de Nieuwen- 
hove (1920); Quatorze lettres inedites du 
comp. Philippe de Monte (1921); Tielman 
Susato (1923); Notice sur le chevalier X. 
van Elewyck (1925); De I'histoire de la 
musique (1927); Les origines beiges de 
Beethoven (1927); Une Famille de musi- 
ciens beiges du XV IIP siecle: Les Loeillet 
(Brussels, 1927; establishes for the first time 
accurate biographical data on members of 
the Loeillet family) ; La typographie musi- 
cale en Belgique au XVI s siecle (1930). 
He also wrote an introduction to vol. I 
(1932; piano music, ed. by J. Watelet) of 
'Monumenta musicae Belgicae'. 

Bergner, Wilhelm, organist; b. Riga, Nov. 
4, 1837; d. there, June 9, 1907. He was 



organist of the English church at Riga 
(1861) and at the Riga Cathedral (1868- 
i906) ; exercised great influence on the de- 
velopment of musical culture in Latvia. 

Bergonzi, Carlo, Italian violin maker; b. 
Cremona, c. 1683; d. there, 1747. He began 
manufacturing violins in 1716, modeling 
them after Stradivarius, with whose son he 
was associated. It is doubtful whether Ber- 
gonzi was trained by the master himself. His 
son, Michel Angelo Bergonzi (1722-1770), 
continued the trade, as did his grandsons, 
Carlo, Nicola and Zosimo (sons of Michel 
Angelo Bergonzi). 

Bergson, Michael, composer; b. Warsaw, 
May 20, 1820; d. London, March 9, 1898. 
He studied with Schneider in Dessau and 
with Rungenhagen and Taubert in Berlin. 
He was in Paris in 1840 and in Italy in 
1846; his opera Luisa di Monfort was pro- 
duced in Florence in 1847. He then lived 
in Vienna, Berlin and Leipzig. On his 
second visit to Paris he brought out an 
operetta Qui va a la chasse, perd sa place 
(1859). In 1863 he was appointed professor 
of piano at the Geneva Cons.; later became 
its director. He eventually settled in Lon- 
don as piano teacher. He wrote numerous 
pieces of piano music, clearly in imitation 
of Chopin {Polonaise heroique, 12 Grandes 
Etudes caracteristiques, etc.); also a manual 
Ecole du mecanisme, etc. 

Bergsma, William, American composer; b. 
Oakland, Calif., April 1, 1921. He studied 
at Stanford Univ., and with Hanson and 
Rogers at the Eastman School of Music in 
Rochester; received a Guggenheim Fellow- 
ship in 1946. His works include 2 ballets: 
Paul Bunyan (San Francisco, June 22, 1939) 
and Seiior Commandante (Rochester, May 
1, 1942); symphony for chamber orch. 
(Rochester, April 14, 1943); Music on a 
Quiet Theme for orch. (Rochester, April 
22, 1943); Suite from a Children's Film 
(1945); Symphony No. 1 (1946-49; CBS, 
May 20, 1950) ; choral symph. poem A 
Carol on Twelfth Night (1953) ; 3-act opera 
The Wife of Martin Guerre (N. Y., Feb. 15, 
1956); in smaller forms: a suite for brass 
quartet (1940); 2 string quartets (1942; 
1944) ; 3 Fantasies for piano (1943) ; Show- 
piece for violin and piano (1934); Pieces 
for Renard for recorder and 2 violas (1943) ; 
2 choral pieces, In a Glass of Water (1945) 
and On the Beach at Night (1946). — Cf. A. 
Skulsky, The Music of William Bergsma, in 
'The Juilliard Review' for Spring 1956 (with 
a list of works). 

Bergt, Christian Gottlob August, noted 
German composer; b. Oderan, Saxony, June 

17, 1772; d. Bautzen, Feb. 10, 1837. He 
was organist at Bautzen from 1802; also 
taught music at the Seminary and was con- 
ductor of the singing society. He wrote 6 
operas; several symphonies; chamber music; 
songs, of which a set of Lieder, Conge, be- 
came very popular. His sacred works were 
for a time constantly performed throughout 
Germany; he wrote a Passion; the hymns 
So weit der Sonne Strahlen and Christus ist 
erstanden for 4 voices and orch.; the can- 
ticle Herr Gott, dich loben wir, etc. His book 
Briefwechsel eines alten und jungen Schul- 
meisters (1838) contains a biographical 

Beringer, Oscar, pianist and pedagogue; 
b. Furtwangen, Baden, July 14, 1844; d. 
London, Feb. 21, 1922. His father was a 
political refugee in 1849, and settled in 
London; Oscar Beringer received his rudi- 
mentary education at home; then enrolled in 
the Leipzig Cons., where he studied with 
Plaidy, Moscheles, and Reinecke (1864-66); 
he further studied in Berlin with Tausig; 
in 1869 became prof, in Tausig's Schule des 
hoheren Klavierspiels ; returned to London 
in 1871, and in 1873 established an Aca- 
demy for the Higher Development of Piano- 
forte Playing, organized on the model of 
Tausig's Berlin school. From 1885 he was 
also prof, at the Royal Academy of Music. 
He was a pianist of great perfection of 
method; his book of technical exercises 
is valuable for students. Among his pub- 
lished compositions are a piano concerto; 2 
piano sonatinas; various minor piano pieces; 
songs. He also published Fifty Years' Experi- 
ence of Pianoforte Teaching and Playing 

Beriot (ba-re-oh'), Charles (-Auguste) 
de, celebrated Belgian violinist; b. Louvain, 
Feb. 20, 1802; d. Brussels, April 8, 1870. 
He owed his technical foundation to the 
careful instruction of his guardian, Tiby, a 
provincial teacher; as a boy, he had lessons 
with Viotti, whose concerto he played in 
public at the age of nine. He made a 
triumphant debut in Paris (1821); became 
chamber violinist to the King of France; 
played successfully in many concerts in Eng- 
land; was solo violinist to the King of the 
Netherlands; from 1830-5 made concert 
tours through Europe, many with Mme. 
Garcia-Malibran, whom he married in 1836. 
From 1843-52 he was prof, of violin at 
Brussels Cons. ; failure of eyesight and paral- 
ysis of the left arm necessitated his retire- 
ment. Among his compositions are: 7 violin 
concertos; duos brillants for violin and 
piano; 11 sets of variations for violin. His 



pedagogical works are still useful; he wrote 
Premier guide des violonistes; Methode de 
Violon (3 parts; Paris, 1858; his best work) ; 
many studies for violin, etc. Bibl. : E. Heron- 
Allen, A Contribution towards an Accurate 
Biography of de Beriot and Malibran, in 
No. VI of 'De fidiculis opuscula' (1894) ; A. 
Bachmann, Les grands violonistes du passi 
(Paris, 1913). 

Beriot, Charles-Wilfride de (son of 
Charles-Auguste de Beriot), French pianist; 
b. Paris, Feb. 21, 1883; d. Sceaux du Ga- 
tinais, Oct. 22, 1914. He was a pupil of 
Thalberg (1855); later taught piano at the 
Paris Cons.; wrote a symph. poem, Fernand 
Cortez; overtures; 3 piano concertos; a col- 
lection for violin and piano entitled Operas 
sans paroles, etc. ; was co-author, with his 
father, of a Methode d'accompagnement. 

Berkeley, Lennox, English composer; b. 
Boar's Hill, near Oxford, May 12, 1903. 
He received his education at Merton Col- 
lege, Oxford (1922-26); studied in Paris 
with Nadia Boulanger (1926-32). He was 
attracted from the beginning by the spirit 
of neo-classical music, and his early works 
bear the imprint of the French style, with 
superimposed influences of Stravinsky. He 
succeeded, however, in creating an individ- 
ual manner of writing in his more mature 
compositions. The list of his works includes: 
oratorio Jonah (1935); Overture (I.S.C.M. 
Festival, Barcelona, April 23, 1936) ; Seren- 
ade for strings (1939); symphony (London, 
Promenade Concerts, July 8, 1943, com- 
poser conducting) ; Domini est terra, for 
chorus and orch. (I.S.C.M. Festival, London, 
June 17, 1938); ballet, The Judgment of 
Paris (London, 1938) ; piano concerto 
(1947); opera in 3 acts, Nelson (1951; 
preview with piano accompaniment, London, 
Feb. 14, 1953; first complete performance, 
London, Sept. 22, 1954) ; 4 Sonnets of Ron- 
sard, for 2 tenors and piano (London, 
March 8, 1953) ; 3 Greek Poems, for voice 
and piano (London, March 15, 1953) ; flute 
concerto (London, July 29, 1953) ; opera in 
1 act, A Dinner Engagement (Aldeburgh 
Festival, June 17, 1954) ; also chamber 
music (suite for oboe and cello; 2 violin 
sonatas; viola sonata; string trio; 2 string 
quartets) ; Polka for 2 pianos, etc. 

Berkenhead, John L., blind organist, who 
was active in the U.S. towards the end of 
the 18th century. He arrived in America in 
1795; was organist at Trinity Church in 
Newport from 1796 to 1804. His piece for 
harpsichord, Abolition of the Bastille, was 
invariably featured at his concerts in Boston 
and other New England cities. 

Bcrlijn (ber-lin'), Anton (real name, Aron 
Wolf), Dutch composer; b. Amsterdam, May 
2, 1817; d. there, Jan. 16, 1870. He studied 
with L. Erk in Berlin and with G. W. Fink 
at Leipzig; returning to Amsterdam in 1846, 
he became conductor of the Royal Theater; 
wrote 9 operas, two of which (Die Berg- 
knappen and Proserpina) became popular; 
7 ballets; an oratorio, Moses auf Nebo; 
symphonies; chamber music; etc. 

Berlin, Irving (real name Isidore Balin), 
American composer of popular music; b. 
Temun, Russia, May 11, 1888; brought to 
the U.S. in 1893. He received no formal 
musical training, and never learned to read 
or write music; nonetheless, he succeeded in 
producing lyrical songs (to his own words) 
that are remarkable for their innate feeling, 
for the melodic phrase and the perfect 
blend of words and melodies. His first 
published song was Marie from Sunny Italy 
(1907), for which he wrote only the lyrics; 
he made his mark with the celebrated song 
Alexander's Ragtime Band (1911); in the 
same style were Everybody's Doing It 
(19 1*1 ) ; International Rag (1913) ; Ragtime 
Violin (1911); When that midnight choo- 
choo leaves for Alabam (1912); / want to 
go back to Michigan (1914) ; ballads, When 
I lost you (1912), When I leave the world 
behind (1915). His first musical show, for 
which he composed the entire score, words 
and music, was Watch Your Step (1916); 
1917 brought out his war show, Yip, Yip, 
Yaphank, which included the famous song 

how I hate to get up in the morning. 
He then wrote the first three of his Ziegfeld 
Follies (1918, 1919, 1920; including the 
songs, A pretty girl is like a melody and 
Mandy) ; the Music Box Revues (1921, 1922; 
1923, 1925); built the Music Box Theater 
with Sam Harris in 1921. His other shows 
are: Face the Music (1932); As Thousands 
Cheer (1933, including the songs Easter 
Parade and Heat Wave) ; Louisiana Pur- 
chase (1939); This is the Army (1942); 
Annie Get Your Gun (1946); Miss Liberty 
(1949); Call me Madam (1950). Among 
his songs and ballads that have spread far 
and wide all over the world are: What'll 

1 do (1924); All Alone (1924); Remember 
(1925) ; Always (1925) ; The Song is Ended 
but the Melody Lingers On (1927) ; Russian 
Lullaby (1927); Blue Skies (1927); and 
White Christmas (enormously popular dur- 
ing World War II). He has also composed 
musical scores for the moving pictures: Top 
Hat (1935); Follow the Fleet (1936); On 
the Avenue (1937); Carefree (1938); Sec- 
ond Fiddle (1939); Holiday Inn (1942); 
Blue Skies (1946); Easter Parade (1948); 



etc. To promote the publication and distri- 
bution of his music, he founded in 1919 the 
firm of Irving Berlin, Inc. He was a charter 
member of ASCAP (1914). In July 1954 he 
received the Congressional Medal for his 
patriotic songs, particularly God Bless Amer- 
ica (composed in 1918; revived in 1938 and 
made famous during and after World War 
II). See A. Woollcott, The Story of Irving 
Berlin (N. Y., 1925). 

Berlinski, Jacques, Polish-French con- 
ductor and composer; b. Radom, Dec. 13, 
1913. He went to France in 1931, and 
studied with Nadia Boulanger and Roger 
Ducasse; then conducted concerts in Paris, 
Brussels and in South Africa. He has written 
a symph. poem, Kenaan, a cantata Haba- 
couc, a symphony and chamber music. 

Berlioz, Gabriel Pierre; French composer 
(not related to Hector Berlioz) ; b. Paris, June 
25, 1916. He studied in Paris with Roussel 
and d'Indy. He has written a viola concerto 
(1935); Francezaic, comic opera (1939); 
Symphonie parisienne (1942); Jar din hante 
ballet (1943); piano trio (1944); Divertis- 
sement for violin, cello, piano and string 
orch. (1945); Concerto for kettledrums and 
orch. (1951; Paris, Jan. 25, 1953); bassoon 
concerto (1952); Symphony No. 2 (1953); 
pieces for tuba and piano, saxophone and 
piano, flute and piano, etc. 

Berlioz (bar-le-ohz), Hector (-Louis), 
great French composer; b. Cote-Saint-Andre, 
Isere, Dec. 11, 1803; d. Paris, March 8, 
1869. His father, a physician, sent him to 
Paris to study medicine. But Berlioz took 
little interest in medicine and became deep- 
ly engrossed in music, even though he was 
not proficient on any instrument except the 
guitar. Despite his lack of musical training, 
he entered the Paris Conservatory where he 
studied with Lesueur and Reicha. He soon 
became dissatisfied with the formal training 
given by his teachers and began to com- 
pose music in a romantic manner free from 
all restrictions of the rigorous classical 
school. From the very first Berlioz endeav- 
ored to transcend the limits of practical 
composition and performance; he dreamed 
of huge orchestras which could adequately 
embody his romantic ideas. His first work 
was an orchestral Messe solennelle , which he 
had produced at the church of St. Roch 
(July 10, 1825), employing 150 players. 
Still he was ambitious enough to covet aca- 
demic honors. He submitted a cantata ha 
Mort d'Orphee for the Prix de Rome in 
1827; a performance was tentatively sche- 
duled for July 22, 1828, but was cancelled 

when the music committee declared the 
score unplayable. The cantata was not per- 
formed until a century later, Oct. 16, 1932, 
when Cortot conducted it in Paris (the MS 
was regarded as lost, but was discovered by 
Boschot). Undaunted, Berlioz again applied 
for the Prix de Rome, and obtained second 
prize in 1828; he finally carried first prize 
in 1830 with a more conventional work, 
Sardanapale. In the meantime his overtures 
Waverley and Les Francs-Juges were per- 
formed at a Conservatory concert on May 
26, 1828. He then embarked on his most 
individual work, the Symphonie fantastique, 
subtitled 'episode de la vie d'un artiste.' 
The completion of this score at the age of 
26 signalized the opening of a new era in 
program music; in it Berlioz abandons the 
classical method of thematic development, 
and instead establishes what he himself 
called an 'idee fixe,' a basic theme recurring 
throughout the music. Berlioz gives this des- 
cription of the Symphonie fantastique: "A 
young musician of morbid sensibility and 
ardent imagination poisons himself with 
opium in a fit of amorous despair. The nar- 
cotic dose, too weak to result in death, 
plunges him into a heavy sleep accompanied 
by the strangest visions, during which his 
sensations, sentiments and recollections are 
translated in his sick brain into musical 
thoughts and images. The beloved woman 
herself has become for him a melody, like 
a fixed idea which he finds and hears every- 
where." The titles of the 5 movements are: 
I. Dreams, Passions; II. A Ball; III. Scene 
in the Fields; IV. March to the Scaffold; 
V. W alpur gisnight' s Dream. The genesis of 
the symphony is no less remarkable than 
its form; it was intended to be an offering 
of both adoration and condemnation to the 
Irish actress Harriet Smithson, whose per- 
formances of Shakespeare Berlioz had at- 
tended in Paris (even though he knew no 
English). The first performance of the 
Symphonie fantastique was given in Paris 
on Dec. 5, 1830; Berlioz hoped that Harriet 
Smithson would attend but she was profes- 
sionally occupied on that day. Berlioz wrote 
a sequel to the Symphonie fantastique en- 
titled Lelio; both parts were performed in 
Paris on Dec. 9, 1832, creating a sensation, 
particularly since by that time all Paris knew 
the story of Berlioz's infatuation. Harriet 
Smithson was present herself; they met, and 
over the opposition of both families, they 
were married on Oct. 3, 1833. The marriage 
proved unhappy; they separated; Harriet 
Smithson died in 1854; Berlioz remarried 
that same year; his second wife, Maria 
Recio, died in 1862. 



Berlioz's next significant work was equally 
unconventional, Harold en Italie for solo 
viola and orch. (Paris, Nov. 23, 1834), in- 
spired by Byron's Childe Harold; there fol- 
lowed the dramatic symphony Romeo et 
Juliette for solo voices, chorus and orch. 
(Paris, Nov. 24, 1839) and Le Car naval 
romain (Paris, Feb. 3, 1844), the latter 
destined to become one of the most popu- 
lar works in the orchestral repertory. Less 
successful was Berlioz's opera Benvenuto 
Cellini, to which Le Carnaval romain origin- 
ally served as an orchestral introduction (in 
the 2nd act) ; it was performed at the Paris 
Opera (Sept. 10, 1838) arousing little in- 
terest; however, its production by Liszt in 
Weimar (March 20, 1852) was received 
with great acclaim; Berlioz conducted it in 
London, on June 25, 1853. In the meantime 
Berlioz became a brilliant musical journalist; 
his articles in the 'Journal des Debats' and 
in the 'Gazette Musicale' exercised consid- 
erable influence and helped to arouse inter- 
est in new musical ideas. To eke out his 
earnings, Berlioz accepted the appointment 
as librarian of the Paris Conservatory 
(1852), and held it until his death. His 
Paris obligations did not interfere with his 
travels; he toured Germany and Italy; he 
also visited Austria, Hungary and Russia. 
German musicians, led by Liszt, were parti- 
cularly sympathetic to his music; concerts of 
his music were organized by Liszt in Weimar 
(1855). On Aug. 9, 1862, Berlioz conducted 
in Baden-Baden the premiere of his opera 
Beatrice et Benedict. 

The creative life of Berlioz is not easily 
separable into distinct periods. Sometimes he 
dwelt on a favorite idea for many years be- 
fore its ultimate embodiment. Still at the 
conservatory, he presented a cantata 8 scenes 
de Faust (Nov. 29, 1829) ; much later he ex- 
panded the materials from this work in La 
Damnation de Faust, which Berlioz termed 
an 'opera de concert.' He conducted it in 
concert form at the Opera-Comique on Dec. 
6, 1846; the complete work is seldom per- 
formed, but its symphonic interlude Rdkoczi 
March has become famous; two other ex- 
cerpts from the score, Minuet of the Will-o'- 
the Wisps and Dance of the Sylphs, are also 
widely known. A curious destiny was reserved 
for the opera Les Troy ens, written in 1856- 
59, in 2 parts, La Prise de Troie and Les 
Troyens a. Carthage. Only the 2nd part was 
performed in Berlioz's lifetime (Paris, 
Theatre-Lyrique, Nov. 4, 1863); the 1st 
part was presented for the first time in 
Karlsruhe on Dec. 6, 1890; the whole work 
was produced in Cologne (in German) on 

two successive nights, March 30-31, 1898; 
in France, it was not performed in its entire- 
ty until 1920 when it was given in Rouen. 
Other works are: Messe des Morts (Paris, 
Dec. 5, 1837); a sacred trilogy L'Enfance 
du Christ (Paris, Dec. 10, 1854) ; symphonic 
overtures King Lear (1831), Rob Roy 
(1832) and Le Corsaire (1844); song cycles 
Irlande (1830) and Nuits d'ete (1834-41; 
also with orch.) ; Te Deum for tenor, 3 
choirs, orch., brass band and organ (1849). 
His Traite d 'instrumentation et d'orchestra- 
tion modernes ( 1844), a work of fundament- 
al importance, has been translated into all 
European languages; supplemented editions 
were issued in German by Weingartner 
(1904) and Richard Strauss (1905). This 
treatise, no less than his orchestral music 
itself, led Weingartner to proclaim Berlioz 
the "creator of the modern orchestra." The 
extraordinary versatility of Berlioz's gifts is 
revealed in his literary writings. He publ. 
Voyage musical en Allemagne et Italie 
(1844; 2 vols.); Les Soirees de Vorchestre 
(1853; English translation by Ch. E. Roche, 
with introduction by Ernest Newman; Lon- 
don, 1929; a new translation by J. Barzun, 
N. Y., 1956) ; Grotesques de la musique 
(1859) ; A travers chants (1862) ; Les Musi- 
ciens et la musique (a series of articles col- 
lected from the 'Journal des Debats'; 1903, 
with introduction by Andre Hallays). His 
book of Memoires (1870; 2nd ed., 2 vols., 
1876; English translation, London, 1884; 
annotated and edited by Ernest New- 
man, N. Y., 1932) presents a vivid pano- 
rama of the musical life in Europe as re- 
flected in his mind; factually it is not al- 
ways trustworthy. A complete edition of 
Berlioz's works (with the exception of the 
operas Benvenuto Cellini and Les Troyens) 
has been publ. by Breitkopf & Hartel in 20 
vols, under the editorship of Ch. Malherbe 
and F. Weingartner (but see Supplement 5 
in Jacques Barzun's book Berlioz and the 
Romantic Century for the enumeration of 
musical and other errors). Breitkopf & Har- 
tel also publ. (in German) the literary works 
of Berlioz in 10 vols., including his corre- 
spondence. Cf. C. Hopkinson, A Biblio- 
graphy of the Musical and Literary Works 
of Hector Berlioz (Edinburgh, 1951). 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. I. Biography: E. Hip- 
peau, Berlioz, Vhomme et V artiste (3 vols., 
Paris, 1883-85); A. Jullien, H.B. (Paris, 
1888); L. Pohl, Hector Berlioz's Leben und 
Werke (Leipzig, 1900); K. F. Boult, Ber- 
lioz's Life as Written by Himself in His Let- 
ters and Memoirs (London, 1903) ; R. Louis, 
H.B. (Leipzig, 1904); J.-G. Prod'homme, 
H.B. (Paris, 1905); A. Coquard, Berlioz 



(Paris, 1908); B. Schrader, Berlioz (Leipzig, 
1908); A. Boschot's monumental biography 
in 3 vols.: La Jeunesse d'un romantique; 
H.B., 1803-31 (Paris, 1906); Un Roman- 
tique sous Louis-Philippe; H.B., 1831-42 
(Paris, 1908); and Le Crepuscule d'un ro- 
mantique: H.B., 1842-69 (Paris, 1913); A. 
Boschot, Une vie romantique, H.B. (Paris, 
1919; 27th edition, 1951; complete biogra- 
phy in 1 vol.) ; P.-M. Masson, B. (Paris, 
1923); J. Kapp, H.B. (Berlin, 1922); E. 
Rey, La vie amour euse de B. (Paris, 1929) ; 
L. Constantin, B. (Paris, 1933); W. J. 
Turner, B.; the Man and his Work (Lon- 
don, 1934); Tom Wotton, H. B. (Ox- 
ford, 1935); J. H. Elliot, B. (London, 
1938); G. de Pourtales, B. et I'Europe 
romantique (Paris, 1939) ; J. Barzun, Ber- 
lioz and the Romantic Century (2 vols.; 
Boston, 1950; a most valuable investigation, 
correcting many accepted but erroneous 
data) ; A. W. Ganz, B. in London (London, 
1950) ; H. Kuehner, H.B., Charakter und 
Schbpfertum (Berlin, 1952) ; Henry Barraud, 
H.B. (Paris, 1955). 

II. Correspondence: D. Bernard, Corre- 
spondance inedite de B. (Paris, 1878) ; Ch. 
Gounod, Lettres intimes (Paris, 1882); La 
Mara, Briefe von H.B. an die Fiirstin Car- 
olyne Wittgenstein (Leipzig, 1903) ; J. Tier- 
sot, Les Annies romantiques: Correspond- 
ence d'H.B. (Paris, 1907). All the above- 
mentioned letters are found in vols. III-V 
of the Breitkopf & Hartel edition ; J. Tiersot, 
Le musicien errant (Paris, 1919) ; J. Tiersot, 
Correspondance inedite de B. (Paris, 1930) ; 
J.-G. Prod'homme, Souvenirs de voyage 
(Paris, 1932) ; G. Clarence, Lettres inedites 
a Berlioz in 'La Revue Musicale' (vol. XI, 
1 ) ; S. Ginsburg, Correspondance russe inl- 
dite de Berlioz (ibidem) ; J. Barzun, ed., 
New Letters of Berlioz, 1830-68 (N. Y., 

III. Analysis and Criticism: F. Liszt, 
Berlioz und seine Harold-symphonie (1855; 
reprinted in vol. IV of Liszt's 'Gesammelte 
Schriften') ; A. Ernst, L'oeuvre dramatique 
de H.B. (Paris, 1884); R. Pohl, H.B.: 
Studien und Erinnerungen (Leipzig, 1884) ; 
E. Hippeau, Berlioz et son temps (Paris, 
1892) ; J. Tiersot, Berlioz et la societe 
de son temps (Paris, 1904) ; T. Mantovani, 
La dannazione di Faust d'Ettore Berlioz 
(Milan, 1923) ; J. Tiersot, B. of the Fantas- 
tic Symphony in the 'Mus. Quarterly' 
(1933) ; P. Schlitzer, La messa da requiem di 
Ettore Berlioz (Florence, 1940); N. Slonim- 
sky, Lexicon of Musical Invective (N. Y., 

Berlyn, Anton. See Berlijn. 

Bermudo, Juan, Spanish music theorist; 

b. Ecija, Seville, c. 1510; d. after 1555. He 
first studied theology and devoted himself to 
preaching; later turned to music and studied 
at the Univ. of Alcala de Henares. He 
spent 15 years as a Franciscan monk in 
Andalusia; in 1550 he entered the service of 
the Archbishop of Andalusia, where Cristo- 
bal de Morales was choir director. The writ- 
ings of Bermudo constitute an important 
source of information on Spanish instru- 
mental music of the 16th century. His most 
comprehensive work is the Declaracion de 
Instrumentos Musicales (Osuna, 1549 and 
1555). It deals with theory, in which his 
authorities were Gafurius, Glareanus and 
Ornithoparchus ; instruments, including 
problems of tuning, technique of perform- 
ance, and repertoire; and critical evaluation 
of contemporary composers, showing famil- 
iarity with the works of Josquin, Willaert 
and Gombert. Bermudo also wrote El Arte 
tripharia (Osuna, 1550). 13 organ pieces 
by him are included in F. Pedrell, Salterio 
Sacro-Hispano. Bibl.: O. Kinkeldey, Or gel 
und Clavier in der Musik des 16ten Jahr- 
hundert (1910); H. Collet, Le Mysticisme 
musical espagnol au XV I e siecle (Paris, 
1913) ; R. Mitjana, La Musique en Espagne, 
in Lavignac's Encyclopedic musicale; H. An- 
gles and J. Subira, Catdlogo Musical de la 
Biblioteca Nacional de Madrid (vol. II). 
See also G. Reese, Music in the Renaissance 
(N. Y., 1954). 

Bernabei, (Giuseppe) Ercole, Italian com- 
poser of vocal music; b. Caprarola, Papal 
States, c. 1620; d. Munich, Dec. (buried 
Dec. 6), 1687. He was a pupil of Orazio 
Benevoli, whom he succeeded in 1672 as 
chapel master at the Vatican; 1674, became 
court conductor at Munich. He wrote 5 
operas (produced in Munich) ; published a 
book of madrigals, Concerto madrigalesco 
(1669), etc.; other works (masses, offer- 
tories, psalms) are MS. in various librar- 
ies. — Cf. R. Casimiri, Ercole Bernabei, 
maestro di cappella musicale lateranense 
(Rome, 1920); R. de Rensis, E. Bernabei 
(Rome, 1.920). 

Bernabei, Giuseppe Antonio, Italian com- 
poser, son of the preceding; b. Rome, 1649; 
d. Munich, March 9, 1732. He studied with 
his father and helped him as second chapel 
master in Munich from 1677; after his fa- 
ther's death, he assumed his post (1688). 
He composed 14 operas and much sacred 
music. See Karl Forster, G.A. Bernabei als 
Kirchenkomponist (Munich, 1933). 

Bernac, Pierre (real name Pierre Bertin) ; 
French baritone; b. Paris, Jan. 12, 1899. 



He studied with Rcinhold von Wahrlich in 
Salzburg (1934). Assumed the pseudonym 
Bernac in order to avoid confusion with an- 
other Pierre Bertin, an actor. Bernac special- 
izes in concert recitals of French and Ger- 
man songs; since 1936, has given numerous 
recitals in Europe and America with Francis 
Poulenc. He has also taught master classes 
at the American Cons, in Fontainebleau. Cf. 
R. Gelatt, Music Makers (N. Y., 1953). 

Bernacchi (bar-nahk'-ke), Antonio, cele- 
brated sopranist (musico) ; b. Bologna, June 
(baptized June 23d), 1685; d. there, March, 
1756. He was a pupil of Pistocchi; sang in 
Venice and Bologna (1709-12); then ap- 
peared in London (1716); was again in 
Italy (1717-29), also sang in opera in 
Munich. In 1729 he was specially engaged 
by Handel as a substitute for Senesino for 
the Italian Opera in London; after initial 
successes, Bernacchi lost his following in 
London and returned to Italy, where he con- 
tinued to sing until 1736. He settled in 
Bologna and opened a singing school. He 
revived the style of vocal embellishments 
which the French term 'roulades,' and was 
severely criticized for this practice. He left 
some compositions, among them Grave et 
Fuga a 4; Kyrie a 5; and Justus ut palma 
a 5. Bibl. : L. Frati, Antonio Bernacchi e la 
sua scuola di canto ('Rivista Musicale Itali- 
ana,' Sept. 1922). 

Bernard (bar-nahr'), Jean Emile Auguste, 

French composer and organist; b. Marseilles, 
Nov. 28, 1843; d. Paris, Sept. 11, 1902. 
He studied at the Paris Cons, with Benoist 
(organ) and with Marmontel (piano) ; was 
organist at Notre Dame des Champs until 
1895. He wrote 2 cantatas: Guillaume le 
conquerant and La Captivite de Babylone; 
an overture, Beatrice; piano quartet; piano 
trio; cello sonata; violin sonata; a divertisse- 
ment for wind instruments; etc. 

Bernard, Moritz (Matvey Ivanovitch), 

Russian music publisher and composer; b. 
Mitau, 1794; d. St. Petersburg, May 9, 1871. 
He studied with John Field in Moscow 
(1811) ; was music teacher in the household 
of Count Potocki (1816) ; then taught in St. 
Petersburg, where he opened a music store 
in 1829; his opera, Olga, was performed 
there in 1845. In 1840 he began issuing a 
musical monthly, 'Nouvelliste,' which con- 
tinued publication until 1914, many years 
after his death. He also published collections 
of children's pieces 'L'enfant-pianiste' ; ar- 
ranged Russian folksongs for voice and piano 
(a collection posthumously published in 

Bernard, Paul, French pianist and 
teacher; b. Poitiers, Oct. 4, 1827; d. Paris, 
Feb. 24, 1879. He studied at the Paris Cons, 
with Halevy and Thalberg; wrote criticisms 
for the 'Menestrel' and the 'Revue et Ga- 
zette musicale' ; composed many piano pieces. 

Bernard, Robert, Swiss-born composer, ed- 
itor and writer on music ; b. Geneva, Oct. 
10, 1900; he studied in Geneva with Tem- 
pleton Strong, Barblan and Lauber. In 1926 
he settled in Paris; in 1937 he became a 
lecturer at the Schola Cantorum and a music 
critic; for several years he was editor of 
'La Revue Musicale.' He has published 
monographs on Franck, Aubert, Roussel and 
other French composers. He has written a 
piano concerto; a harp concerto; saxophone 
quartet; piano trio; trio for oboe, clarinet 
and trombone; and a number of piano 

Bernardi, Bartolomeo, composer; b. Bo- 
logna, c. 1660; d. Copenhagen, May, 1732. 
He left Bologna about 1700 and settled in 
Denmark; two of his operas were performed 
in Copenhagen in 1703: II Gige fortunato 
and Diana e la Fortuna. He also wrote an 
opera, Libussa, which was produced in 
Prague; his trio-sonatas were published in 
Bologna (1692; 1696). 

Bernardi, Enrico, Italian conductor and 
composer; b. Milan, March 11, 1838; d. 
there, July 17, 1900. He toured in Italy 
with various opera companies as conductor; 
wrote several operas which he produced 
himself, and nearly 60 ballets, of which the 
first, Illusioni d'un pittore (Milan, 1854), 
was perhaps the most successful. 

Bernardi, Francesco. See Senesino. 

Bernardi, Steffano, Italian composer; b. 
Verona, c. 1576; d. 1636. He served as 
maestro di cappella at the church of the 
Santissima Madonna dei Monti in Rome; 
from 1611-22 was music director at the 
Cathedral of Verona; became Kapellmeister 
at the Salzburg Cathedral (1628); left 
Salzburg in 1634. Among his works are: 2 
books of masses for 8 voices, and one for 4 
and 5 voices; a book of madrigals for 3 
voices ( Rome, 1611) and 2 books for 5 
voices (Venice, 1611; Rome, 1612) ; 2 books 
of madrigaletti; psalms and motets; also in- 
strumental works (trio-sonatas, etc.). Re- 
prints of some of his sacred works are to 
be found in the 'Denkmaler der Tonkunst 
in Osterreich' (vol. XXXVI). Bernardi was 
also the author of the manual Porta musicale 
per la quale il principiante con facile brevita 
all'acquisto delle perfette regole del contrap- 



punto vien introdotto (Verona, 1615; 7 
subsequent editions). Bibl. : F. Posch, Stef- 
fano Bernardis weltliche Vokal- und In- 
strumental-Werke (Munich, 1928). 

Bernasconi, Andrea, composer and con- 
ductor; b. Milan, 1706; d. Munich, Jan. 
29, 1784. He was conductor at the court of 
Munich from 1755; wrote 18 operas, 14 of 
which were produced at Munich; also much 
sacred music. Bibl.: E. J. Weiss, Andrea 
Bernasconi als O pernkomponist (dissertation, 
Munich, 1923). 

Berneker, Constanz, German composer; b. 
Darkehmen, East Prussia, Oct. 30, 1844; d. 
Konigsberg, June 9, 1906. He studied at the 
Royal Academy in Berlin; then was organ- 
ist at the Konigsberg Cathedral; also taught 
at the conservatory. Works: cantatas, Ju- 
dith; Christi Himmelfahrt; Reformations- 
Kantate; Gott unsere Zuflucht; Christus ist 
mein Leben; Das Siegefest; Hero und Le- 
ander; Das hohe Lied; Mila, das Haidekind; 
and many other cantatas. Bibl. : O. Laudien, 
Constanz Berneker (Berlin, 1909). 

Berner, Friedrich Wilhelm, German or- 
ganist and composer; b. Breslau, May 16, 
1780; d. there, May 9, 1827. He taught at 
the Breslau Seminary; later became director 
of the Royal Academic Institute for Church 
Music; wrote church music and published 
theoretical essays on music. A biography of 
him was written by Hientsch (1829). 

Berners, Lord (originally Gerald Tyr- 
whitt), English composer; b. Arley Park, 
Bridgenorth, Sept. 18, 1883; d. London, 
April 19, 1950. He served as a career diplo- 
mat in the British Embassies of Constantin- 
ople (1909-11) and Rome (1911-19); as a 
musician he was largely self-taught; Casella 
and Stravinsky gave him some advice on 
orchestration. His music is in a modern 
idiom, in which a humorous subject is de- 
picted in dissonant harmonies; his set of 
piano pieces, 3 Funeral Marches (For a 
Statesman, For a Canary, For a Rich Aunt), 
is a remarkable example of modernistic gro- 
tesque; his works for the theater are equally 
urbane and sophisticated. He wrote an opera 
Le Carrosse du Saint-Sacrement (Paris, Ap- 
ril 24, 1921); the ballets, The Triumph of 
Neptune (London, Dec. 3, 1926, Diaghi- 
lev's Ballets Russes) ; Luna Park (London, 
1930), A Wedding Bouquet (London, April 
27, 1937), Cupid and Psyche (London, Ap- 
ril 27, 1939) ; Les Sirenes (London, Nov. 
12, 1946). In addition to his Funeral 
Marches, he wrote for piano Fragments 
psychologiques (Hatred, Laughter, A Sigh) ; 
Valses bourgeoises, etc. He published an 

autobiography in 2 consecutive volumes: 
First Childhood (1934) and A Distant 
Prospect (1945). Bibl.: J. Holbrooke, Bern- 
ers in 'Contemporary British Composers' 

Bernet Kempers, Karel Philippus, Dutch 
writer on music; b. Nijkerk, Holland, Sept. 
20, 1897. He studied in Munich with Sand- 
berger; received his Dr. Phil, in 1926; in 
1929 was appointed teacher of music history 
at the Royal Cons, in The Hague and was 
secretary of the Federation of Dutch Com- 
posers. In 1946 he was appointed prof, at 
the Amsterdam Univ. Among his writings 
are: Jacobus Clemens non Papa und seine 
Motetten (1928); Italian Opera, Peri to 
Puccini (1929; English translation, 1947); 
Muziekgeschiedenis (Rotterdam, 1 932 i 4th 
ed., 1946) ; Meesters der Muziek (Rotter- 
dam, 1939; 4th ed., 1948). 

Bernhard, Christoph, German composer; b. 
Danzig, 1627; d. Dresden, Nov. 14, 1692. 
He studied with Paul Siefert in Danzig and 
with Schiitz in Dresden. The Elector sent 
him to study singing in Italy (1649); in 
1655 he became second Kapellmeister in 
Dresden, but was forced to resign through 
the disaffection of his Italian associates. He 
then went to Hamburg, where he served as 
a cantor (1664-74); was recalled by a new 
Elector to Dresden and was appointed first 
Kapellmeister, as successor to Schiitz. He 
enjoyed a great respect as composer, par- 
ticularly for his mastery of counterpoint. He 
published Geistliche Harmonien (Dresden, 
1665) and Prudentia prudentiana (Ham- 
burg, 1669) ; a treatise on composition and 
another on counterpoint are in MS. Some 
of his cantatas were published by M. Seiffert 
in vol. VI of 'Denkmaler Deutscher Ton- 
kunst.' — Cf. J. M. Miiller-Blattau, Die 
Kompositionslehre Heinrich Schiitzens in der 
Fassung seines Schiilers Christoph Bernhard 
(Leipzig, 1926) ; H. Rauschning, Musik- 
geschichte der Stadt Danzig (1926). 

Bernhard der Deutsche (known also as 
Bernardo di Steffanino Murer), celebrated 
organist and the reputed inventor of organ 
pedals; b. Germany, early in the 15th cen- 
tury; d. 1459; was organist of San Marco 
in Venice. — Cf. Michael Praetorius, Syn- 
tagma musicum (Vol. I, part I, chapter 14, 
p. 145; Vol. II, chapter 5, p. 96). 

Bernier (bar-nya'), Nicolas, French com- 
poser; b. Mantes (Seine-et-Oise), June 28, 
1664; d. Paris, Sept. 5, 1734. He studied 
with Caldara in Rome; in 1692 returned to 
France; was organist at Chartres Cathedral 



(1694-98). Bcrnier was one of the first 
French composers to cultivate the secular 
cantata; he published 8 books of such 'can- 
tates profanes,' of which Les nuits de Sceaux 
is the most remarkable. His Te Deum was 
also much admired. 

Bernier, Rene, Belgian composer; b. Saint- 
Gillcs, March 10, 1905. He studied with 
Gilson. For a time taught at the Liege Cons.; 
then became supervisor of schools in Brus- 
sels. He was one of the original members 
of the Belgian group of composers called 
"Synthetistes" whose aim was to combine 
modern technique with classical forms. 
Works: Melopees et rythmes for orch. 
(1933); Epitaphe symphonique (1947); an 
oratorio La Tour de Babel; a lyrical fairy 
tale La fete du vieux tilleul; numerous pieces 
of chamber music and choruses. 

Berno 'Augiensis', German theorist who 
flourished in the 11th century; was abbot of 
Reichenau monastery from 1008 until his 
death on June 7, 1048. He wrote learned 
treatises on music, to be found in J. P. 
Migne's Patrologiae cursus completus (vol. 
142) and in Gerbert's Scriptores (vol. 2). 
A monograph on his system of music was 
published by W. Brambach (Leipzig, 1881). 

Bernoulli (bar-nool'-le), Eduard, Swiss 
music editor; b. Basel, Nov. 6, 1867; d. 
Zurich, April 17, 1927. In 1897 he took the 
degree of Dr. phil., with the thesis Die 
Choralnotenschrift bei Hymnen und Sequen- 
zen im s pater en Mittelalter (Leipzig, 1898) ; 
then edited Heinrich Albert's Arien (vols. 
XII-XIII in 'Denkmaler deutscher Ton- 
kunst'); also edited (with Holz and Saran) 
the Jenaer Liederhandschrift in modern no- 
tation (1901). His lecture, Berlioz ah Asthet- 
iker der Klangfarben, given at Zurich Univ. 
in 1909, was published in that year; from 
1921-27 Bernoulli was professor there. He 
wrote Oratorientexte Handels (1905); Aus 
Liederbuchern der Humanistenzeit (1910); 
many essays for various musical journals. 
He also revised editions of Praetorius' Syn- 
tagma musicum III (1916) and of Euler's 
Tentamen novae theoriae musicae (1926); 
issued facsimile editions of four of Attaign- 
ant's tablatures of dances from the years 
1530-31 (5 vols., 1914; the 5th vol. con- 
tains a commentary by Bernoulli). 

Bernstein, Leonard, American conductor 
and composer; b. Lawrence, Mass., Aug. 25, 
1918. He studied music at Harvard Univ. 
with Walter Piston and E. B. Hill, gradu- 
ating in 1939. In that year he went to the 
Curtis Institute of Music in Philadelphia, 
where he studied piano with Isabelle Venge- 

rova, conducting with Fritz Reiner, and or- 
chestration with Randall Thompson. He also 
entered Kousscvitzky's summer master 
classes in conducting at the Berkshire Music 
Center at Tanglcwood, and in 1942 became 
Kousscvitzky's assistant. After Koussevitzky's 
death in 1951, he took over the conducting 
classes at Tanglcwood. In 1943 he was ap- 
pointed assistant conductor of the N. Y. 
Philh. Symph. Orch. On Nov. 14th of that 
year he was called upon at short notice to 
conduct a difficult program in substitution 
for Bruno Walter, who was ill. His debut 
was marked by instant acclaim, and it was 
followed by engagements as guest conductor 
with major symphony orchestras. For three 
seasons he was conductor of the N. Y. City 
Center Orch. (1945-47); he conducted at 
the International Music Festival in Prague 
in May, 1946; in April, 1947 he toured in 
Europe and in Palestine. As a composer, he 
writes both symphonic and popular music. 
His first important work was the Jeremiah 
Symphony (Pittsburgh Symph. Orch., Jan. 
28, 1944, composer conducting; N. Y. Music 
Critics Circle Award, 1944). This work 
purports to represent the eternal aspirations 
of the Jewish people in modern terms. Still 
more remarkable is his 2nd symphony, The 
Age of Anxiety, after a poem by W. H. Au- 
den, which traverses various styles and 
moods, from the religious to the ultra-mod- 
ern, including a spectacular episode in the 
jazz idiom. Scored for piano and orch., it 
was first performed by Koussevitzky and the 
Boston Symph. Orch., with Bernstein as 
pianist, on April 8, 1949. He conducted his 
Serenade for Violin Solo, Strings and Per- 
cussion (after Plato's Symposium) at the 
Venice Festival, on Sept. 12, 1954, with 
Isaac Stern as soloist. Other works: clari- 
net sonata (1941); 5 Kid Songs (1943); 2 
song cycles, I Hate Music (1943) and La 
Bonne Cuisine (1947); 2 ballets, Fancy 
Free (1944) and Facsimile (1946). In a 
lighter vein, he wrote a 1-act opera to his 
own libretto, Trouble in Tahiti, which he 
conducted at the Festival of Creative Arts, 
Brandeis Univ., Waltham, Mass. (June 12, 
1952). Bernstein is extremely adept at writ- 
ing musical comedies in the popular style. 
His score, On the Town (1944), produced 
several song hits; even more successful was 
Wonderful Town (1952), which enjoyed a 
long run on Broadway. His versatility does 
not affect the excellence of his craftsmanship 
in any of his activities, but it is as a con- 
ductor that Bernstein is best known to the 
public. He was the first American conductor 
to lead a regular performance at La Scala 
(1953, in Cherubini's Medea). He married 



the actress Felicia Montealegre in Boston 
on Sept. 9, 1951. 

Bernstein, Martin, American musicologist; 
b. New York, Dec. 14, 1904. He was edu- 
cated at N. Y. Univ. (grad., 1925; Mus. 
Bac, 1927); played the double-bass in the 
New York Symph. Orch. (1925); the New 
York Philh. Orch. (1926-28) and the Chau- 
tauqua Symph. Orch. (1929-36); in 1924 
joined the faculty at N. Y. Univ.; since 1955, 
head of Music Dept. in its Graduate School. 
He published Score Reading (1932; 2nd ed., 
1949) ; An Introduction to Music (successful 
textbook; N. Y., 1937; 2nd ed., 1951); and 
contributed chapters on music to An Intel- 
lectual and Cultural History of the Western 
World, edited by Harry Elmer Barnes (N.Y., 

Bernuth (bar-noot), Julius von, German 
conductor; b. Rees, Rhine Province, Aug. 8, 
1830; d. Hamburg, Dec. 24, 1902. He was 
a practicing lawyer; studied music with 
Taubert and Dehn in Berlin, and at the 
Cons, of Leipzig, where he founded a cham- 
ber music society 'Aufschwung' (1857) and 
the 'Dilettanten-Orchester-Verein' (1859); 
later became conductor of the Hamburg 
Philh. Orch.; in 1873 founded a conserva- 
tory in Hamburg. 

Berr, Friedrich, clarinetist and bassoonist; 
b. Mannheim, April 17, 1794; d. Paris, 
Sept. 24, 1838. He was bandmaster in vari- 
ous French regiments; settled in Paris 
(1823) as first clarinetist at the Theatre des 
Italiens; from 1831 was prof, at the Paris 
Cons.; in 1836 was appointed Director of 
the new School of Military Music. He was 
the author of a TraitS complet de la clari- 
nette a 14 clefs (1836) ; also composed many 
works for clarinet and bassoon, and 500 
pieces of military music. 

Berre, Ferdinand, Belgian composer, b. 
Ganshoren, near Brussels, Feb. 5, 1843; d. 
Brussels, July 29, 1880. He wrote the operas, 
L'Orage au moulin; Le Couteau de Castille; 
published some 50 songs. 

Bersa, Blagoje, Croatian composer; b. 
Ragusa, Dec. 21, 1873; d. Zagreb, Jan. 1, 
1934. He studied music in Vienna, where 
he remained until 1919. He wrote 2 operas, 
Fire, and The Cobbler of Delft; the symph. 
poems Sunny Fields, Ghosts and Hamlet; a 
string quartet, a piano trio, and songs. Bersa 
was for many years professor of composition 
at the Zagreb Cons., and has influenced the 
development of the new generation of Croat- 
ian composers, several of whom were his 

Bertali, Antonio, composer; b. Verona, 
March, 1605; d. Vienna, April 1, 1669. He 
was a Viennese court violinist from 1637; in 
1649 succeeded Giovanni Valentini as court 
conductor. He produced in Vienna several 
cantatas (1641-46), 8 operas and 2 oratorios 

Berte, Heinrich, Hungarian composer; b. 
Galgocz, May 8, 1858; d. Vienna, Aug. 25, 
1924. He produced the ballets Das Marchen- 
buch (Prague, 1890) ; Amor auf Reisen (Vi- 
enna, 1895) ; Der Karneval in Venedig 
(Vienna, 1900); and Automatenzauber (Vi- 
enna, 1901); the operettas Die Schneeflocke 
(Prague, 1896); Der neue Bur germeister 
(Vienna, 1904) ; Die Millionenbraut (Mu- 
nich, 1905); Der schbne Gardist (Breslau, 
1907 ; Der Heine Chevalier (Dresden, 
1907); Der Glucksnarr (Vienna, 1909); 
Kreolenblut (Hamburg, 1911); Der Mdrch- 
enprinz (Hanover, 1914) ; and Das Drei- 
mdderlhaus (Vienna, Jan. 15, 1916), based 
on Schubert melodies; it was produced in 
English under the title Blossom Time, ar- 
ranged by Romberg (N. Y., Sept. 21, 1921; 
very popular) ; also as Lilac Time (London, 
Dec. 22, 1922), arranged by Clutsam. 

Bertheaume (bar-tohm'), Isidore, violin- 
ist; b. Paris, 1752; d. St. Petersburg, March 
20, 1802. He was first violinist at the Grand 
Opera in Paris (1774); conductor of the 
'Concerts Spirituels' (from 1783); and first 
violinist at the Opera-Comique (from 1788). 
The Revolution forced him to leave Paris 
in 1791; he settled in St. Petersburg as solo 
violinist in the Imperial Orch. He composed 
2 symphonies concertantes for 2 violins; 3 
sonatas for clavecin with violin; violin con- 
certo; many other works for violin. 

Berthold, (Karl Friedrich) Theodor, Ger- 
man organist; b. Dresden, Dec. 18, 1815; d. 
there, April 28, 1882. He was a pupil of 
Julius Otto and Johann Schneider; in 1864 
succeeded Schneider as court organist at 
Dresden. He wrote an oratorio, Petrus; a 
symphony; much sacred music; was co- 
author with Fiirstenau of the pamphlet Die 
Fabrikation musikalischer Instrumente im 
Vogtlande (1876). 

Bertin (bar-tan'), Louise - Angelique, 

French composer, singer and pianist; b. at 
Aux Roches, near Paris, Feb. 15, 1805; d. 
Paris, April 26, 1877. She was a pupil of 
Fetis; composed the operas Guy Mannering; 
Le Loup-garou (Paris, 1827); Faust (after 
Goethe, 1831); La Esmeralda (libretto 
adapted by Victor Hugo from his Notre- 
Dame de Paris, 1836) ; also many minor 
works, of which Six Ballades were published. 



Bertini, Benoit-Auguste, French pianist; 
b. Lyons, June 5, 1780; d. London, after 
1830. He was a pupil of Clementi in London 
(1793) ; later taught piano there; wrote the 
pamphlets Stigrnatographie, ou Vart d'ecrire 
avec des points, suivie de la mHographie, 
nouvel art de noter la musique (Paris, 
1812), and Phonological System for acquir- 
ing extraordinary facility on all musical in- 
struments as well as in singing (London, 

Bertini, Domenico, Italian composer and 
music pedagogue; b. Lucca, June 26, 1829; 
d. Florence, Sept. 7, 1890. He studied at the 
Lucca Music School; later with Michele 
Puccini; in 1857 was director of the music 
institute and maestro di cappella at Massa 
Carrara; settled in Florence (1862) as sing- 
ing teacher and music critic; and became 
director of the 'Cherubini Society.' He con- 
tributed to the 'Boccherini' of Florence, 'La 
Scena' of Venice, and other musical peri- 
odicals; also wrote a Compendio de' principi 
di musica, secondo un nuovo sistema 
(1866); composed 2 operas; masses; other 
sacred music; chamber music. 

Bertini, Henri (-Jerome), known as 'Ber- 
tini le jeune,' pianist and composer; b. Lon- 
don, Oct. 28, 1798; d. Meylau, near Gre- 
noble, Oct. 1, 1876. When six months old, 
he was taken to Paris, where he was taught 
music by his father and his elder brother, 
Benoit-Auguste; at the age of twelve made 
a concert tour through the Netherlands and 
Germany; then studied further in Paris and 
Great Britain; lived in Paris as concert 
pianist from 1821 till 1859, when he retired 
to his estate at Meylau. He wrote valuable 
technical studies, some of which have been 
published in editions by G. Buonamici and 
by Riemann; also arranged Bach's '48 Pre- 
ludes and Fugues' for 4 hands; composed 
much chamber music; many piano pieces. 

Bertoldo, Sperindio (Sper'in Dio), Italian 
organist and composer; b. Modena, c. 1530; 
d. Padua, Aug. 13, 1570. He served as chief 
organist at the cathedral of Padua. His sur- 
viving compositions include two books of 
madrigals in 5 voices, published in Venice 
(book 1, 1561 and book 2, 1562). The first 
book includes an Echo a 6 voci and a Dia- 
logo a 8 voci; several other madrigals are 
included in a collection by Gipriano and An- 
nibale (Venice, 1561). Bertoldo's Toccate, 
ricercari e canzoni francese . . . per sonar 
d'organo (Venice, 1591) was published 
posthumously. Two ricercari for organ are 
included in L. Torchi, L'Arte Musicale in 
Italia (vol. III). 

Berton, Henri-Montan, French composer, 
son of Pierrc-Montan Berton; b. Paris, Sept. 
17, 1767; d. there, April 22, 1844. He was 
a pupil of Rey and Sacchini; in 1782 was 
violinist at the Paris Opera; in 1795 was ap- 
pointed prof, of harmony at the Paris Cons. ; 
and in 1818 succeeded Mehul as professor 
of composition; also conducted the Opera 
buff a (1807) ; was choirmaster at the Opera 
(1809); in 1815 was made a member of 
the Academy. He composed 47 operas, of 
which the best are Montano et Stephanie 
(1799) ; Le Delire (1799) ; and Aline, reine 
de Golconde (1803); he also wrote 5 ora- 
torios; 5 cantatas; ballets; many romances. 
His theoretical works are curious rather 
than valuable. Bibl.: Raoul-Rochette, No- 
tice historique sur la vie et les ouvrages de 
M. Berton (Paris, 1846); H. Blanchard, 
Henri-Montan Berton (Paris, 1839). 

Berton, Pierre-Montan, French composer; 
b. Maubert-Fontaines (Ardennes), Jan. 7, 
1727; d. Paris, May 14, 1780. He was con- 
ductor of the Royal Orch. and of the Grand 
Opera at Paris; wrote additions to operas 
by Lully, Rameau and Gluck; had a signifi- 
cant influence upon the development of the 
French opera. He composed the operas Ero- 
sine (1765) and Tyrtee (1772); also Silvie 
(1765) and Theonis (1767) in collaboration 
with Trial; and Adele de Ponthieu (with 

Bertoni, Ferdinando (Gioseffo), Italian 
organist and composer; b. Island of Said, 
near Venice, Aug. 15, 1725; d. Desenzano, 
Dec. 1, 1813. He was a pupil of Padre Mar- 
tini; in 1752 was appointed first organist 
of San Marco in Venice; made two trips to 
London, where many of his operas were 
produced; finally settled in Venice, where 
he succeeded Galuppi (1784), as maestro di 
cappella of San Marco; was choirmaster at 
the Cons, de' Mendicanti from 1757-97. He 
composed 34 operas, including La vedova 
accorta (Florence, 1745) ; Quinto Fabio 
(Milan, 1778) ; Demofoonte (London, Nov. 
28, 1778); and Nitteti (Venice, 1786); also 
wrote 5 oratorios; much other sacred music; 
6 harpsichord sonatas; chamber music; etc. 
See 'Musica d'oggi' (July, 1927). 

Bertouille, Gerard, Belgian composer; b. 
Tournai, May 26, 1898. While studying 
law he took lessons in music with Francis 
de Bourguignon, Jean Absil, Andre Souris 
and Armand Marsick. He began to compose 
rather late in life; he wrote his first signifi- 
cant work, a violin sonata, in 1936. Since 
then he has developed energetic activity in 
composition; he has written a Symphonie 



Picturale (1947); 2 piano concertos (1946; 
1953) ; violin concerto (1942) ; trumpet con- 
certo (1946); 6 string quartets (1939-54); 
4 violin sonatas (1936-53); 2 string trios 
(1943-45); Requiem des d'au- 
jourd'hui (1950); 2 sets of songs to Baude- 
laire's poems, etc. In his music he occupies 
a moderate position, writing in a contemp- 
orary idiom while avoiding the extremes of 

Bertrand, Aline, notable French harpist; 
b. Paris, 1798; d. there, March 13, 1835. 
She studied at the Paris Cons, with Nader- 
man; then with Bochsa (1815); made her 
debut in 1820; then toured all of Europe, 
winning special acclaim upon her appear- 
ance in Vienna (1828). She published a 
Fantaisie sur la Romance de Joseph (on 
themes of Mehul's opera) for harp, and var- 
ious other arrangements. 

Bertrand, Antoine de, French composer; 
b. Fontanges (Cantal), c. 1545. He com- 
posed 7 books of 4-part chansons: Les 
Amours de P. de Ronsard (2 vols., 1576), 
Sonets chrestiens (2 vols., 1580) and Chan- 
sons (3 vols., 1578); his music shows har- 
monic daring in the use of chromatic pro- 
gressions. Volumes 4-7 of H. Expert's 
Monuments de la musique frangaise au 
temps de la Renaissance are devoted to Ber- 
trand's works. 

Bertrand, Jean-Gustave, French writer on 
music; b. Vaugirard, near Paris, Dec. 24, 
1834; d. Paris, Feb. 9, 1880. He published 
the following books: Histoire ecclesiastique 
de Vorgue (1859); Les origines de Vhar- 
monie (1866) ; De la re forme des etudes du 
chant au Conservatoire (1871); Les na- 
tionality musicales etudiees dans le drame 
lyrique (1872). 

Berutti, Arturo, Argentine opera com- 
poser; b. San Juan, March 27, 1862; d. 
Buenos Aires, Jan. 3, 1938. He studied with 
his father; then in Leipzig with Jadassohn. 
He lived for some time in Italy where he 
produced several operas: La Vendetta (Ver- 
celli, May 21, 1892); Evangelina (Milan, 
Sept. 19, 1893) ; Tar as Bulba (Turin, March 
9, 1895). Returning to Argentina in 1896 
he presented the following operas in various 
theaters of Buenos Aires: Pampa (July 27, 
1897); Yupanki (July 25, 1899); Khrise 
(June 21, 1902) ; and Los Heroes (Aug. 23, 
1919). He also wrote a Sinfonia argentina 
(1890), the first symphony on national 
themes by an Argentine composer. 

Berwald, Franz, Swedish composer; cousin 
of Johann Friedrich Berwald; b. Stockholm, 

July 23, 1796; d. there, April 30, 1868. He 
was a member of a musical family of Ger- 
man extraction that settled in Sweden in 
the 18th century. He studied with his fa- 
ther, Christian Friedrich Berwald; was a 
violinist at the Royal Chapel in Stockholm; 
in 1819 he played in Finland with his bro- 
ther Christian August Berwald. In 1829 he 
was in Berlin; after a brief return to Swe- 
den, he lived in Vienna and Paris. In 1849 
he received the post of musical director at 
the Univ. of Uppsala, succeeding his cousin 
Johann Friedrich Berwald. He taught at the 
Stockholm Academy from 1864-67, and at 
the Stockholm Cons, (from 1867 until his 
death). Berwald wrote the operas Estrella di 
Soria (1841; Stockholm, April 9, 1862; 
modern version by Moses Pergament, G6te- 
borg, March 2, 1931) and Drottningen av 
Golconda (1864). His early operas Gustaf 
Wasa (1827), Leonida (1829) and Der 
Verrater remain unperformed. He wrote 6 
symphonies, of which the most interesting 
are Sinfonie serieuse, Sinfonie capricieuse 
and Sinfonie singuliere (all written between 
1842 and 1845). He also composed 5 can- 
tatas; a violin concerto (1820); Concert- 
stuck for bassoon and orch. (1827) ; a piano 
concerto (1855); 5 piano trios and other 
chamber music. Berwald's music is romantic 
in derivation; his style was determined by 
the influences of Spohr and Weber, and later 
by Beethoven and Mendelssohn. A revival of 
interest in his music in Sweden led to the 
publication of several of his orchestral and 
chamber works. See A. Hillman, Franz Ber- 
wald (Stockholm, 1920). 

Berwald, Johann Friedrich, Swedish vio- 
linist and composer; cousin of Franz Ber- 
wald; b. Stockholm, Dec. 4, 1787; d. there, 
Aug. 26, 1861. Of precocious talent, he 
appeared in public at the age of five ; studied 
theory with Abbe Vogler; gave concerts in 
Finland, Germany and Austria; from 1808- 
12 was concertmaster at the Imperial Chap- 
el in St. Petersburg; appointed chamber 
musician to the King of Sweden (1816), 
and conductor of the Royal Orch. in Stock- 
holm (from 1819). Berwald wrote his first 
symphony when he was nine, but in his 
maturity he devoted himself chiefly to thea- 
ter music. One of his operettas, L'heroine 
de I'amour, was produced in St. Petersburg 
in 1811. 

Berwald, William, German-American com- 
poser; b. Schwerin, Dec. 26, 1864; d. Loma 
Linda, Calif., May 8, 1948. He studied with 
Rheinberger at the Munich Cons. (1882- 
87), and with Faiszt in Stuttgart (1887-88). 
After a series of engagements as orchestral 



conductor in Germany and Russia, he set- 
tled in the U.S. (1892) as instructor of 
piano and theory at Syracuse Univ. ; from 
1921-24 he conducted the Syracuse Orches- 
tra. Among his works are 3 cantatas, Seven 
Last Words of Christ; Crucifixion and 
Resurrection; From Old Japan; a music 
drama Utopia (1936); symph. poem Eros 
and Psyche (1943); numerous choruses and 
instrumental pieces, and about 250 an- 
thems. He received many prizes for his 
works, and continued to compose to the end 
of his life. 

Besard, Jean-Bapriste, French lutenist and 
composer; b. Besancon, 1567; d. probably 
in Augsburg. He studied philosophy at the 
Univ. of Dole; after his marriage in 1602, 
he went to Rome and studied with the 
lutenist Lorenzini. Later lived in Germany, 
publishing at Cologne his Thesaurus har- 
monicus (1603), and at Augsburg his Novus 
partus, sive Concertationes musicae duodena 
trium . . . (1617) and Isagoge in artem 
testudinariam (1617). Some of the com- 
positions in these works have been tran- 
scribed by O. Chilesotti in 'Biblioteca di 
rarita musicali'. See also O. Chilesotti, Di 
G. B. Besardo e del suo Thesaurus harmoni- 
cus (Milan, 1886). 

Besekirsky. See Bezekirsky. 

Besler, Samuel, composer; b. Brieg, Silesia, 
Dec. 15, 1574; d. Breslau, July 19, 1625. 
He was rector (from 1605) of the Gym- 
nasium zum Heiligen Geist in Breslau; wrote 
a large number of sacred pieces, most of 
which are preserved at the library of St. 
Bernardinus in Breslau. 

Besly, Maurice, English composer and 
conductor; b. Normanby, Yorkshire, Jan. 28, 
1888; d. Horsham, March 20, 1945. He 
studied at the Leipzig Cons, with Teichmul- 
ler, Krehl and Schreck; then with Ernest 
Ansermet; taught music at the Tonbridge 
School (1912-14); was organist of Queen's 
College, Oxford (1919) and conducted the 
Oxford Orch. (1920); in 1922 made his 
debut as a conductor in London at Queen's 
Hall; after 1924 was conductor of the 
Glasgow Scottish Orch.; wrote the orches- 
tral works Mist in the Valley and Chelsea 
China; incidental music to The Merchant of 
Venice; A Tune with Disguises and Noc- 
turne for violin and piano; Phaedra, scene 
for soprano and orch.; The Shepherds heard 
an Angel for soprano, chorus and English 
horn; many anthems, songs and motets; 
publ. arrangements of some of J. S. Bach's 
music; also edited the 'Queen's College 
Hymn Book'. 

Besozzi, Alcssandro, celebrated Italian obo- 
ist; b. Parma, July 22, 1702; d. Turin, 1775. 
He was a musician at the ducal chapel, 
Parma (1728-31); made concert tours with 
his brother, Girolamo (see 3 below) ; ap- 
peared with him in Paris in 1735; then lived 
in Turin. He published numerous trio- 
sonatas for flute, violin and cello; 6 violin 
sonatas (with basso continuo), etc. Other 
members of the family who specialized in 
woodwinds were: (1) Antonio, oboist, 
nephew of Alessandro (b. Parma, 1714; 
d. Turin, 1781); (2) Carlo, oboist, son of 
Antonio (b. Naples, c. 1738) ; played in the 
Dresden orch. (1754); wrote several oboe 
concertos; (3) Girolamo, bassoonist, brother 
of Alessandro (b. Parma, April 17, 1704; 
d. Turin, 1778); (4) Gaetano, oboist, 
nephew of Alessandro (b. Parma, 1727; d. 
London, 1794); (5) Girolamo, oboist, son 
of Gaetano (b. Naples, c. 1750; d. Paris, 
1785); (6) Henri, flutist, son of Girolamo; 
played at the Opera-Comique; (7) Louis- 
Desire, son of Henri (b. Versailles, April 3, 
1814; d. Paris, Nov. 11, 1879), a student 
of Lesueur and Barbereau; he won the 
Prix de Rome in 1837, defeating Gounod. 

Bessel, Vassili Vassilievitch, Russian mu- 
sic publisher; b. St. Petersburg, April 25, 
1843; d. Zurich, March 4, 1907. He was 
the founder (1869) of the music publishing 
firm of Bessel & Co. at St. Petersburg, 
which has published works by many dis- 
tinguished Russian composers (Anton Ru- 
binstein, Rimsky-Korsakov, Tchaikovsky, 
Mussorgsky) ; also two short-lived periodi- 
cals: 'Musical Leaflet' (1872-77) and the 
'Russian Musical Review' (1885-89). Bes- 
sel wrote Reminiscences of Tchaikovsky, who 
was his fellow student at the St. Petersburg 
Cons. In 1920 the firm was transferred to 
Paris, where it continued under the direc- 
tion of Bessel's sons, Vassili and Alexander. 

Besseler, Heinrich, German musicologist; 
b. Horde, near Dortmund, April 2, 1900. 
He studied musicology in Freiburg, Vienna 
and Gottingen; was teacher at Freiburg 
(1922-25) ; prof, at the Univ. of Heidelberg 
(1928-45) ; from 1949 at the Univ. of Jena. 
Among his published writings are: Studien 
zur Musik des Mittelalters, in 'Archiv fur 
Musikwissenschaft' (1925-27); Grundfragen 
des musikalischen Horens and Grundfragen 
der Musikdsthetik in 'Peters-Jahrbuch' 
(1925-26); Die Musik des Mittelalters und 
der Renaissance in 'Biicken's Handbuch' 
(1931) ; Bourdon und Fauxbourdon (Leipzig, 
1950); also has contributed articles to 'Die 
Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart.' He 
has edited works by Okeghem, Dufay, Gabri- 
eli, etc. 



Bessems (bes-sahn'), Antoine, Belgian vio- 
linist; b. Antwerp, April 6, 1809; d. there, 
Oct. 19, 1868. He was a pupil of Baillot 
at the Paris Cons. (1826) ; in 1829 was first 
violinist at the Theatre-Italien, Paris; then 
made long concert tours; taught for a time 
in Paris; returned to Antwerp, and, from 
1847-52, conducted the orchestra of the 
'Societe Royale d'Harmonie'. He composed 
a violin concerto; 12 Grandes Etudes for 
violin with piano; 12 Grands Duos de con- 
cert for violin with piano; many other 
violin pieces; also masses; motets; psalms, 

Best, William Thomas, eminent English 
organist; b. Carlisle, England, Aug. 13, 
1826; d. Liverpool, May 10, 1897. He 
studied organ in Liverpool; held various 
posts as church organist in Liverpool and 
London. At his numerous concerts he in- 
troduced arrangements of symphonic works 
thus enabling his audiences to hear classical 
works in musicianly manner at a time when 
orchestral concerts were scarce. As a per- 
former he aroused enthusiasm, and was 
greatly esteemed by his colleagues. His own 
works, popular in type, though classical in 
form, included sonatas, preludes, fugues, 
concert studies, etc. for organ. He pub- 
lished a Handel Album (20 vols.) ; Arrange- 
ments from the Scores of the Great Masters 
(5 vols.); Modern School for the Organ 
(1853); The Art of Organ Playing (1870), 
etc. Bibl.: H. H. Statham, The Organ and 
its Position in Musical Art (London, 1909) ; 
O. A. Mansfield, W. T. Best in the 'Mus. 
Quarterly' (April, 1918) ; J. Mewburn Lev- 
ien, Impressions of W. T. Best (London, 

Betti, Adolfo, Italian violinist; b. Bagni di 
Lucca, March 21, 1873; d. Lucca, Dec. 2, 
1950. Of a musical family, he studied violin 
in Lucca; then with Cesar Thomson in 
Liege (1892-96); later was in Vienna and 
Brussels. In 1903 he became the first violin- 
ist of the famous Flonzaley Quartet, and 
remained with it until it was disbanded in 
1929; this group presented some 2500 con- 
certs in America and about 500 concerts in 
Europe. In 1933 Betti was awarded the 
Coolidge Medal for eminent services to 
chamber music in America. He taught in 
New York before returning to Italy. He 
published La vita e Varte di Francesco 
Geminiani (Lucca, 1933); also edited Schu- 
bert's string quartets, etc. 

Bettinelli, Bruno, Italian pianist and com- 
poser; b. Milan, June 4, 1913. He studied 
with Paribeni and Bossi at the Milan Cons.; 

later taught harmony there. In his music, 
he has experienced influences of Stravinsky 
and Honegger; nonetheless, his style has re- 
mained Italian in its primary sources. He 
has also explored the resources of Gregorian 
Chant. Works: Sinfonia da camera (1939); 
Concerto per orchestra (1940; won the S. 
Cecilia prize) ; Fantasia e Fuga su temi gre- 
goriani for string orch. (1942); Sinfonia 
for strings ( 1 946 ) ; Sinfonia drammatica 
(1943); Messa da requiem for chorus a 
cappella (1945); Fantasia concertante for 
string quartet and orch. (1950); Concerto 
da camera (1952); piano concerto (1952); 
Sinfonia breve (1954); cello sonata; many 
songs; piano pieces, etc. 

Betz, Franz, distinguished German bari- 
tone; b. Mainz, March 19, 1835; d. Berlin, 
Aug. 11, 1900. He sang from 1856-9 at 
Hanover, Altenburg, Gera, Cothen and Ros- 
tock; after his debut as Don Carlos in 
Ernani at Berlin (1859), he was perma- 
nently engaged at the Royal Opera House 
until his retirement in 1897; was best known 
for his performances in Wagner's operas; 
created the roles of Hans Sachs at Munich 
(1868) and Wotan at Bayreuth (1876). 

Beversdorf, Thomas, American composer 
and conductor; b. Yoakum, Texas, Aug. 8, 
1924. He studied at the Univ. of Texas; 
served in the U.S. Air Force (1942-43); 
later studied with Bernard Rogers at 
the Eastman School, Rochester (1946) ; took 
a summer course with Copland and Honeg- 
ger at the Berkshire Music Center (1947); 
in 1950, became a member of the faculty 
of the School of Music at the Univ. of 
Indiana. Beversdorf has written 2 sym- 
phonies (1946; 1950); Symphony for Winds 
and Percussion (Bloomington, Indiana, May 
9, 1954, composer conducting) ; Concerto 
Grosso for chamber orch. with solo oboe 
(1950); Concerto for 2 pianos and orch. 
(1951); Ode for orch. (1952); New Front- 
iers for orch. (Houston, March 31, 1953); 
sonata for horn and piano (1945) ; Suite on 
Baroque Themes for clarinet, cello and 
piano (1947); Cathedral Music for brasses 
(1950); two string quartets (1952; 1955). 

Bevignani (ba-ve-nah'-ne), Enrico (Mo- 
desto), Italian conductor and composer; b. 
Naples, Sept. 29, 1841; d. there, Aug. 29, 
1903. He studied composition with Alban- 
ese, Lillo and others; his first opera, Cater- 
ina Bloom (Naples, 1863), was very success- 
ful; but he gave up his career as a com- 
poser and settled, temporarily, in London 
as conductor at Her Majesty's Theatre 
(1864-70); conducted at Covent Garden 



(1871) and at the Metropolitan Opera 


Bcvin, Elway, Welsh composer and organ- 
ist; b. between 1 560-70 ; d. c. 1640. He was 
a pupil of Tallis; was organist of Bristol 
Cathedral (1589) and Gentleman Extra- 
ordinary of the Chapel Royal (1605). His 
most valuable work is the theoretical 
pamphlet A Briefe and Short Introduction 
to the Art of Musicke (1631) ; also wrote a 
Short Service which is preserved in the col- 
lections of Barnard and Boyce; a song Hark, 
Jolly Shepherds; and an anthem, arranged 
in a canon of 20 voices. 

Bewerunge (ba'-var-ong), Henry, music 
teacher and editor; b. Letmathe, West- 
phalia, Dec. 7, 1862; d. Maynooth, Ire- 
land, Dec. 2, 1923. He studied music at the 
Wurzburg Cons.; was ordained to the priest- 
hood at Eichstatt (1885); then studied at 
the Institute for Church Music at Regens- 
burg; subsequently settled in Ireland as 
prof, of church music at St. Patrick's Col- 
lege in Maynooth (1888-1914); then was 
prof, of music at Dublin College of the 
Irish National Univ. He published Die vati- 
kanische Choralausgabe (2 parts, Dussel- 
dorf, 1906-7; also in English and French); 
many valuable articles for 'Musica Sacra', 
Haberl's 'Kirchenmusikalisches Jahrbuch', 
'The Irish Ecclesiastical Record', and 'The 
Catholic Encyclopedia'; also translated 
Riemann's Katechismus der Musikdsthetik 
and Vereinfachte Harmonielehre into Eng- 
lish. From 1891-3 he edited 'Lyra Ecclesias- 

Bexfield, William Richard, English organ- 
ist; b. Norwich, April 27, 1824; d. London, 
Oct. 29, 1853. He was organist at Boston 
church in Lincolnshire; then at St. Helen's 
in London; took the degrees of Mus. Bac. 
at Oxford (1846) and Mus. Doc. at Cam- 
bridge ( 1 849 ) ; wrote an oratorio, Israel 
Restored (1852) ; a cantata, Hector's Death; 
anthems; organ fugues; songs. 

Beydts, Louis, French composer; b. Bor- 
deaux, June 29, 1895; d. there, Sept. 16, 
1953. He studied in his native city; be- 
came associated with the theater; wrote 
the operetta, Canards Mandarins (Monte 
Carlo, 1931); Le Voyage de Tchong-Li, 
Chinese legend in 3 scenes (1932); many 
songs in the popular manner; film music. 

Beyer (bi-er), Johann Samuel, German 
choir director and composer; b. Gotha, 
1669; d. Karlsbad, May 9, 1744. He was 
cantor at Freiburg, Saxony (1699) and at 
Weissenfels (1722); became Musikdirektor 

at Freiburg (1728). Among his publications 
are: Primae lineae musicae vocalis (1703); 
Musikal. Vorrath neu variirter Vestchoral- 
gesdnge (1716); Geistlich-musikalische See- 
lenjreude (1724); 72 concert arias, etc. 

Beyle, Marie-Henri. See Stendhal. 

Beyschlag, Adolf, German conductor; b. 
Frankfurt, March 22, 1845; d. Mainz, 
March 22, 1914. He was a pupil of Vin- 
cenz Lachner in Mannheim; was theater 
conductor in Cologne, Frankfurt and Mainz 
(1868-80); then lived for a time in Eng- 
land; was deputy-conductor for Halle in 
Manchester, and conductor of the Leeds 
Philh. Society; in 1902 returned to Ger- 
many. He publ. a valuable work Die Orna- 
mentik der Musik (Leipzig, 1908); com- 
posed 4-hand dances for piano, in canon 
form; songs; arrangements. 

Bezekirsky (ba-za-ker'-ske), Vassili, Rus- 
sian violinist; b. Moscow, Jan. 26, 1835; d. 
there, Nov. 8, 1919. In 1858 he went to 
Brussels, where he studied violin with Hu- 
bert Leonard and composition with Damcke; 
then toured throughout Europe. He re- 
turned to Russia in 1871, and continued to 
give concerts. Tchaikovsky wrote about him: 
"He is not a star of the first magnitude, 
but brilliant enough on the dim horizon 
of contemporary virtuosity". Bezekirsky was 
one of the best violin teachers of his time; 
from 1882 he was professor at the Moscow 
Philharmonic School. He wrote a violin 
concerto (Moscow, Feb. 26, 1873) and 
published cadenzas to the concertos of Beet- 
hoven and Brahms. He edited the violin 
sonatas of Bach, with a preface U Art musi- 
cal du violon du XVII s jusqu'au XX" siecle 
(Kiev, 1913). He also published a volume 
of reminiscences, From the Notebook of an 
Artist (St. Petersburg, 1910). 

Bezekirsky, Vassili, Russian-American 
violinist, son and pupil of the preceding; b. 
Moscow, Jan. 15, 1880; made his debut in 
Moscow at the age of twelve. After several 
years in Europe, he came to the U.S. in 
1914, and played in various orchestras. 
From 1916-28, he taught in Providence; 
from 1930-47, at the Univ. of Michigan, 
Ann Arbor. In 1955 he was living in retire- 
ment at East Windham, N.Y. 

Biaggi (b'yah'-je), Girolamo Alessandro, 

Italian writer on music; b. Milan, Feb. 2, 
1819; d. Florence, March 21, 1897. He 
studied violin and composition at the Milan 
Cons. (1829-39); after a short visit to 
France, he returned to Milan as maestro di 
cappella; wrote an opera, Martino della 



Scala; was for some years editor of the 
'Italia Musicale' ; settled in Florence as prof, 
of music history and esthetics at the newly 
established Reale Istituto Musicale; wrote 
articles for the 'Gazetta d'ltalia', under the 
pen-name Ippolito d'Albano. He published 
an essay Delia musica religiosa e delle ques- 
tioni inerenti (Milan; Ricordi, 1856) ; also 
La riforma melodrammatica fiorentina; 
Su gli istrumenti a pizzico; and La Musica 
del Secolo XVII (1894); a Vita di Rossini 
was left unfinished. 

Bial (be-ahl), Rudolf, violinist and con- 
ductor; b. Habelschwerdt, Silesia, Aug. 26, 
1834; d. New York, Nov. 13, 1881. He 
was a member of the Breslau orch.; then 
toured Africa and Australia with his brother 
Karl; settled in Berlin as conductor of the 
Kroll Orch. and conductor of the Wallner 
Theater, where his numerous farces, oper- 
ettas, etc. were performed; later conducted 
at the Italian opera in Berlin. In 1878 he 
settled in New York. 

Bialosky, Marshall, American composer; b. 
Cleveland, Oct. 30, 1923. He studied at 
Syracuse Univ. (Bac. Mus., 1949) ; then 
took courses with Roy Harris, Ernst Bacon 
and Luigi Dallapiccola; held Fulbright Fel- 
lowship for study of composition in Italy 
(1954-56). He has composed works for vari- 
ous ensembles ; some of his choral pieces have 
been published. 

Bianchi (b'yahn'-ke), Bianca (real name 
Bertha Schwarz), German soprano; b. Heid- 
elberg, June 27, 1855; d. Salzburg, Feb., 
1947. She studied in Heidelberg and Paris; 
made her debut as Barberina in The Mar- 
riage of Figaro at Karlsruhe (1873); sang 
in Vienna and London; in 1905 settled in 
Salzburg as a vocal teacher. She married 
her manager, Pollini, in 1897. 

Bianchi (b'yahn'-ke), Francesco, composer 
and conductor, b. Cremona, 1752; d. (by 
suicide) at Hammersmith, Nov. 27, 1810. 
He lived in Paris from 1775-8 as maestro al 
cembalo at the Comedie-Italienne, where 
his first opera, La reduction de Paris, was 
produced (Sept. 30, 1775); up to 1800 he 
wrote 47 operas of pleasing but ephemeral 
quality; went to Florence in 1780; then to 
Venice (1785) as organist at San Marco; 
also to London (1793) as conductor at the 
King's Theatre; from 1797-1801 was opera 
conductor in Dublin. His treatise Dell' at- 
trazione armonica was never published. He 
was the teacher of Henry Bishop. 

Bianchi (b'yahn'-ke), Valentine, singer; b. 
Vilna, 1839; d. Candau, Kurland, Feb. 28, 

1884. She studied at the Paris Cons.; made 
her debut as a soprano in Frankfurt (1855) ; 
sang at Schwerin (1855-61); St. Petersburg 
(1862-5) ; and Moscow (until 1867) ; retired 
in 1870. She married chief forester von 
Fabian in 1865. Her range was extraordin- 
ary, extending from low alto through high 
soprano notes. 

Biber, Heinrich Ignaz Franz von, violinist 
and composer; b. Wartenberg, Bohemia, 
Aug. 12, 1644; d. Salzburg, May 3, 1704. 
He was successively in the service of the 
Emperor Leopold I (who ennobled him), 
the Bavarian court, and the Archbishop of 
Salzburg; was one of the founders of the 
German school of violin playing, and among 
the first to employ the 'scordatura', a system 
of artificial mistuning for purposes of vir- 
tuoso performance. He published a number 
of violin sonatas (reprints in David's 'Hohe 
Schule'; some others in 'Denkmaler der 
Tonkunst in Osterreich,' V, 2; and XII, 2). 
There are also preserved in MS. the scores 
of 2 operas, Chi la dura la vince (Salzburg, 
1681), and L'ossequio di Salisburgo (Salz- 
burg, 1699) ; 2 requiems; offertories a 4; 
etc. Bibl. : A. Moser, Geschichte der Violin- 
spiels (p. 127 ff.) and an article by Moser 
in 'Archiv fur Musikwissenschaft', I; C. 
Schneider, Biber als O pernkomponist in 
'Archiv fur Musikwissenschaft', VIII ; articles 
by P. Nettl in 'Zeitschrift fur Musikwissen- 
schaft', IV and in 'Studien zur Musik- 
wissenschaft', VIII; also Thomas Russell, 
The Violin 'Scordatura' in the 'Mus. Quar- 
terly' (Jan., 1938). 

Bibl, Rudolf, Austrian organ virtuoso and 
composer for the organ; b. Vienna, Jan. 6, 
1832; d. there, Aug. 2, 1902. He was a 
pupil of his father, Andreas Bibl (organist; 
b. Vienna, April 8, 1807; d. there, April 30, 
1878), and of Simon Sechter; was organ- 
ist at St. Peter's (1850) and at St. Stephen's 
Cathedral (1859); appointed court organist 
at Vienna in 1863, and from 1897 was 
court conductor. His works include : 4 masses 
with orch.; 1 mass a cappella; 2 requiems; 
a concerto for organ and orch. ; preludes and 
fugues for organ solo ; also a sonata for violin 
and piano, and many piano pieces. He was 
the author of an Orgelschule. 

Bie (be), Oskar, German teacher and 
writer on music; b. Breslau, Feb. 9, 1864; 
d. Berlin, April 21, 1938. He studied phil- 
ology and art in Leipzig; then music with 
Philipp Scharwenka in Berlin, where he 
settled as teacher and musical journalist 
(1890): wrote many articles on the fine 
arts; published a number of brilliant books 



on music; in the spring of 1914, he accom- 
panied Koussevitzky on a concert tour of the 
Volga, and reported his impressions in a 
book published in a limited edition in 1920. 
Other writings: Das Klavier und seine Mei- 
ster (Munich, 1898; 2nd cd., 1900); Intime 
Musik (Berlin, 1904) ; Tanzmusik (Berlin, 
1904); Der Tanz (Berlin, 1906; 2nd ed., 
1925) ; Die moderne Musik und Richard 
Strauss (Berlin, 1906; 2nd cd., 1916); Kla- 
vier, Or gel, und Harmonium (Leipzig, 1910; 
2nd ed., 1921); Die Oper (Berlin, 1913; 
10th ed., 1923); Das Klavier (Berlin, 
1921); Das Rdtsel der Musik (Leipzig, 
1922); Franz Schubert (Berlin, 1925); Das 
deutsche Lied (Berlin, 1926); Richard 
Wagner und Bayreuth (Ziirich, 1931). His 
first book, Das Klavier und seine Meister, 
was publ. in English as A History of the 
Pianoforte and Pianoforte Players (London, 
1899) ; his monograph on Schubert appeared 
in English under the title Schubert the 
Man (N. Y., 1928). 

Biedermann (be-der-mahn), Edward Ju- 
lius, American organist and composer; b. 
Milwaukee, Wis., Nov. 8, 1849; d. Freeport, 
N. Y., Nov. 26, 1933. He was the son and 
pupil of A. Julius Biedermann; also studied 
piano, organ and theory in Germany from 
1858-64; then lived in New York as teacher 
and organist at various churches; retired in 
1918. He composed 6 grand masses for soli, 
chorus, organ and orch.; other sacred music; 
choruses for male voices; etc. 

Biehle, Johannes, German organ theorist, 
b. Bautzen, June 18, 1870; d. there, Jan. 
4, 1941. He studied at the Dresden Cons.; 
was appointed cantor at the Cathedral of 
Bautzen (1898), and music dir. (1908). He 
is best known for his Theorie der pneumati- 
schen Orgeltraktur und die Stellung des 
Spieltisches (on organ building; Leipzig, 
1911); and Theorie des Kirchenbaues vom 
Standpunkte des Kirchenmusikers und des 
Redners . . . mit einer Glockenkunde (on 
the acoustics of church construction; Wit- 
tenberg, 1913). His son, Herbert Biehle (b. 
Dresden, Feb. 16, 1901), is the author of 
several publications on vocal technique, 
among them, Die Stimmkunst, in 2 vols. 
(1931; 1933). 

Bierey (be'-rl), Gottlob Benedikt, German 
conductor and composer; b. Dresden, July 
25, 1772; d. Breslau, May 5, 1840. He was 
a pupil of Christian E. Weinlig at Dresden; 
then was director of a traveling opera 
troupe. He was appointed Kapellmeister at 
Breslau (1808), succeeding Weber; retired in 
1828. He composed 26 operas and operettas; 

10 cantatas; masses; orchestral and chamber 
music; etc. 

Biggs, Edward Power, organist; b. Wcst- 
clifT-on-Sea, Essex, March 29, 1906. He 
studied at the Royal Academy of Music in 
London, graduating in 1929; came to the 
U.S. and became an American citizen 
(1938). He rapidly acquired a fine reputa- 
tion as a scholar and performer; presented 
all of Bach's organ works in a series of 
consecutive recitals at Harvard Univ. He 
is known to the general public through his 
weekly broadcasts of organ music. 

Bignami (be-fiah'-me), Carlo, renowned 
Italian violinist; b. Cremona, Dec. 6, 1808; 
d. Voghera, Aug. 2, 1848. He was in turn 
opera conductor at Cremona (1827), Milan, 
and Verona (1833); returned to Cremona 
(1837) as director and first violinist of the 
orchestra, and made it one of the best in 
Lombardy. Paganini called him 'il primo 
violinista d'ltalia'. He composed many 
works for his instrument, including a con- 
certo; a Capriccio ; Studi per violino; Grande 
Adagio; Polacca; fantasias; variations, etc. 

Bigot (bi-goh'), Marie {nee Kiene, pian- 
ist; b. Colmar, Alsace, March 3, 1786; d. 
Paris, Sept. 16, 1820. After her marriage in 
1804, she lived in Vienna, where she was 
known and esteemed by Haydn and Beet- 
hoven; went to Paris in 1808, where she gave 
piano lessons from 1812 on; Mendelssohn 
was briefly her pupil in Paris at the age of 7. 

Bilhon (or Billon) (be-yohn'), Jean de, 
French composer who flourished c. 1530. 
He was the author of several masses, mag- 
nificats and motets, which are included in 
collections of church music published be- 
tween 1534 and 1554. 

Billings, William, pioneer American com- 
poser of hymns and anthems; popularizer of 
'fuguing tunes'; b. Boston, Oct. 7, 1746; d. 
there, Sept. 26, 1800. A tanner apprentice, 
he acquired the rudiments of music from 
treatises by Tans'ur; he compensated for his 
lack of education by a wealth of original 
ideas and a determination to put them into 
practice. His first musical collection The 
New England Psalm Singer (Boston, 1770) 
contained what he described at a later date 
as "fuguing pieces . . . more than twenty 
times as powerful as the old slow tunes." 
The technique of these pieces was canonic 
with "each part striving for mastery and 
victory." His further published books were: 
The Singing Master's Assistant (1776); 
Music in Miniature (1779); The Psalm 
Singer's Amusement (1781); The Suffolk 



Harmony (1786) and The Continental Har- 
mony (1794). In one instance, he harmon- 
ized a tune, Jargon, entirely in dissonances; 
this was prefaced by a 'Manifesto' to the 
Goddess of Discord. There was further a 
choral work Modern Music in which the 
proclaimed aim was expressed in the opening 
lines: "We are met for a concert of modern 
invention — To tickle the ear is our present 
intention." Several of his hymns became 
popular, particularly Chester and The Rose 
of Sharon; an interesting historical work 
was his Lamentation over Boston written 
in Watertown while Boston was occupied by 
the British. However, he could not earn a 
living by his music; appeals made to provide 
him and his large family with funds bore 
little fruit, and Billings died in abject pov- 
erty. The combination of reverence and 
solemnity with humor makes the songs of 
Billings unique in the annals of American 
music, and aroused the curiosity of many 
modern American musicians; Henry Cowell 
has written a series of 'fuguing tunes' for 
orch. Bibl. : O. G. Sonneck, Early Concert 
Life in America (Leipzig, 1907; reprinted, 
1949); E. H. Pierce, The Rise and Fall of 
the Fugue tune in America, in the 'Mus. 
Quarterly' (April, 1930) ; Frank J. Metcalf, 
American Writers and Compilers of Sacred 
Music (1925; pp. 54-55) ; I. Goldberg, The 
First American Musician in the 'American 
Mercury' (vol. 14) ; P. Scholes, The Puritans 
and Music in England and New England 
(Oxford, 1934); G. E. Lindstrom, William 
Billings and his Times, in the 'Mus. Quart- 
erly' (Oct., 1939); J. T. Howard, Our 
American Music (N. Y., 1946, pp. 49-57). 

Billington, Elizabeth {nee Weichsel), Eng- 
lish operatic soprano, b. London, c. 1765; 
d. near Venice, Aug. 25, 1818. Her mother, 
a singer, was a pupil of Johann Christian 
Bach. She received her early musical train- 
ing from her father, a German oboist. She 
also studied with James Billington, a double- 
bass player by profession, whom she mar- 
ried on Oct. 13, 1783. Her operatic debut 
took place in Dublin (1784) as Eurydice in 
Gluck's opera; went to London, where 
she appeared as Rosetta in Love in a Village 
at Covent Garden on Feb. 13, 1786. Her 
success was immediate; she was reengaged 
at Covent Garden and also sang at the 
Concerts of Ancient Music in London. Her 
career was briefly disrupted by the publica- 
tion, in 1792, of anonymous 'Memoirs' at- 
tacking her private life. This was imme- 
diately followed by an equally anonymous 
rebuttal 'written by a gentleman' defending 
her reputation. In 1794 she went to Italy 
where she sang for the King of Naples. He 

made arrangements for her appearances at 
the San Carlo, where she appeared in 
operas by Bianchi, Paisiello, Paer and Him- 
mel, all written specially for her. Her hus- 
band died in 1794; she remained in Italy 
for two more years; then lived in France, 
where she married M. Felissent. Returning 
to London in 1801, she sang alternately at 
Drury Lane and Covent Garden, with great 
acclaim, at 4,000 guineas a season. This 
period was the, peak of her success. She 
retired in 1809, except for occasional per- 
formances. After a temporary separation 
from Felissent, she returned to him in 1817, 
and they settled at their estate at St. Artien, 
near Venice. 

Billroth (bil-roht), Theodor, eminent sur- 
geon and amateur musician; b. Bergen, on 
the island of Rugen, April 26, 1829; d. 
Abazzia, Feb. 6, 1894. He received a thor- 
ough musical education; was an intimate 
friend of Hanslick and Brahms; the musical 
soirees at his home in Vienna were famous. 
Almost all the chamber music of Brahms 
was played there (with Billroth as violist), 
before a public performance. He wrote a 
treatise Wer ist musikalisch? (1896, edited 
by Hanslick). Bibl.: J. Fischer, Theodor 
Billroth und seine Zeitgenossen (1929); A. 
Frankel, Th. Billroth (1931); Otto Gottlieb, 
Billroth und Brahms (1934). See also Brief e 
Billroths (1895). 

Bilse, Benjamin, German conductor; b. 
Liegnitz, Aug. 17, 1816; d. there, July 13, 
1902. He was 'Stadtmusikus' at Liegnitz 
(1843), and brought his orchestra to a 
remarkable degree of perfection; then lived 
in Berlin (1868-84) and conducted at the 
'Concerthaus' ; retired in 1894 with the title 
of 'Hofmusikus'. He composed salon music. 

Bilstin, Youry (real name, Bildstein), 
Russian cellist; b. Odessa, Russia, Feb. 10, 
1887; d. New York, Dec. 15, 1947. He 
studied at the Tiflis Cons.; then at St. 
Petersburg. After the Russian Revolution he 
lived in Paris; in 1932 settled in the U.S. 
as a teacher. He wrote several works for 
cello; also Invocation to the light for viola 
da gamba, flute, and piano (1932); Varia- 
tions diaboliques for cello and piano; and a 
Methode Psycho-Physiologique d'Enseigne- 
ment Musical. 

Bimboni, Alberto, Italian-American pianist 
and composer; b. Florence, Aug. 24, 1882. 
He studied in Florence; came to the U.S. 
in 1912 as opera conductor. In 1930 ap- 
pointed to the faculty of the Curtis Institute 
in Philadelphia; taught opera classes at the 
Juilliard School of Music, N.Y., from 1933; 



has appeared as a pianist in concerts with 
Ysaye, John McCormack and other cele- 
brated artists. He has written the operas 
Winona (Portland, Oregon, 1926); Karina 
(Minneapolis, 1928); In the Name of Cul- 
ture (Rochester, 1949) ; numerous songs 
(many of them published). See E. E. Hip- 
sher, American Opera and its Composers 
(Philadelphia, 1927; pp. 72-76). 

Binchois (ban-shwah') (de Binche) , Gilles, 
Burgundian composer; b. Mons in Hainaut, 
c. 1400; d. Soignies, near Mons, Sept. 20, 
1460. His father was Jean de Binche, coun- 
sellor to two rulers of Hainaut. Binchois 
was in the service of William de la Pole, 
Earl of Suffolk in Paris (1424). From 1430 
he was at the Burgundian court; advanced 
from fifth to second chaplain; probably 
visited Italy at some time. Tinctoris con- 
sidered him the equal of Dunstable and 
Dufay. He is best known for his secular 
works; his chansons rank with the finest. 
Modern reprints of his works are contained 
in: J. Marix, Les musiciens de la cour de 
Bourgogne au XV siecle (1937); L. Fein- 
inger (ed.), Documenta polyphoniae litur- 
gicae Sanctae Ecclesiae Romanae, Ser. I 
(1947); W. Gurlitt (ed.), Gilles Binchois, 
16 weltliche Lieder zu 3 Stimmen in 'Das 
Chorwerk' (vol. XXII); J. Stainer (ed.), 
Dufay and his Contemporaries (1898); 
'Denkmaler der Tonkunst in Osterreich' 
(vols. VII, XI, XXXI); A. W. Ambros, 
Geschichte der Musik, vol. II (1862-78, 
1882); E. Droz and G. Thibault (eds.), 
Poetes et musiciens du XV siecle (1924); 
A. Schering (ed.) Geschichte der Musik in 
Beispielen (Leipzig, 1931; reprinted, N.Y., 
1950) ; E. Droz, G. Thibault and Y. Rokseth 
(eds.), Trois chansonniers francais du XV 
siecle (1927); H. Besseler, Die Musik des 
Mittelalters und der Renaissance in Biicken's 
'Handbuch' series (1931); C. van den 
Borren (ed.), Polyphonia Sacra: A Contin- 
ental Miscellany of the Fifteenth Century 
(1932); O. Dischner (ed.), Kammermusik 
des Mittelalters. Chansons der 1. und 2. 
niederlandischen Schule fur drei bis vier 
Streichinstrumenten herausgegeben (1927); 
A. Davison and W. Apel (eds.), Historical 
Anthology of Music, vol. I (Cambridge, 
Mass., 1950); H. E. Wooldridge, Oxford 
History of Music, vol. II (1932) ; G. Parrish 
and J. F. Ohl, Masterpieces of Music before 
1750 (N.Y., 1951); G. de Van, A recently 
discovered Source of Early Fifteenth Cen- 
tury Polyphonic Music, the Aosta Manu- 
script, in 'Musica Disciplina', vol. II 
(1948); J. Wolf, Geschichte der Mensural- 
Notation von 1250-1460, vol. Ill (1904); 
J. Wolf (ed.), Music of Earlier Times 

(1946). Bibl. : E. Closson, L'Origine de 
Gilles Binchois in 'Revue de Musicologie', 
vol. V (1924); A. Pirro, Histoire de la 
musique de la fin du XIV siecle a la 
fin du XVI e (1940); Aurelio Gotti, 
L'Ars Nova e il Madrigale in 'Atti della 
Reale Accademia di Scienze, Lcttere, e 
Arti di Palermo' (ser. IV, Vol. IV, Part 
II) ; W. Gurlitt in 'Basler Kongressbcricht' 
(1924); H. Funk, in 'Acta musicologica' 
(vol. IV) ; H. Riemann, in 'Handbuch der 
Musikgeschichte' (Vol. Ill) ; G. Reese, 
Music in the Renaissance (N.Y., 1954). 

Binder, Abraham Wolfe, American com 
poser and conductor; b. New York, Jan 
13, 1895. He studied at Columbia Univ 
(Mus. Bac, 1926) ; taught liturgical music 
at the Jewish Institute of Religion, N.Y 
conducted in Tel Aviv in 1931; has com- 
posed the symphonic works Ha Chalutsim 
(The Pioneers, 1931); Holy Land Impres- 
sions (1932), The Valley of Dry Bones 
(1935); violin pieces; songs on Jewish 
themes. He has compiled a New Palestinian 
Song Book; has written many articles on 
the history and development of Jewish 

Binder, Christlieb Siegmund, German or- 
ganist and composer; b. Dresden, July (bap- 
tized July 29), 1723; d. there, Jan. 1, 1789. 
He was organist at the court church in 
Dresden from 1753; wrote prolifically, in an 
'elegant style' akin to that of K. Ph. E. 
Bach; published sonatas for harpsichord 
solo, and for harpsichord in various com- 
binations with violin and cello; also 76 
organ preludes, harpsichord concertos, quar- 
tets with harpsichord, and trio-sonatas for 
2 violins with basso continuo, which have 
been preserved in MS.; some of his com- 
positions have been reprinted by O. Schmid 
in 'Musik am sachsischen Hofe.' See H. 
Fleischer, C. S. Binder (Regensburg, 1941). 

Binder, Karl, Austrian composer; b. Vien- 
na, Nov. 29, 1816; d. there, Nov. 5, 1860. 
He was a theater conductor by profession; 
composed mostly for the stage: a melo- 
drama Der Wiener Schusterhut (1840); an 
opera, Die Drei Wittfrauen (1841); a 
vaudeville comedy Purzel ( 1 843 ) ; overture 
and choruses to the drama Elmar; a parody 
on Tannhauter (1857); etc. 

Binet, Jean, Swiss composer; b. Geneva, 
Oct. 17, 1893. He studied with Ernest 
Bloch and Otto Barblan in Geneva. From 
1919-23 lived in the U.S.; from 1923-29 in 
Brussels. Returning to Switzerland he be- 
came active as a member of the Society of 



Swiss Composers. Binet has written a num- 
ber of works for the dance, drama and 
motion pictures: the 3 ballets Die Strasse 
(1934); L'lle enchantee (1947) and La 
Naissance du printemps (1949) ; incidental 
music to The Merry Wives of Windsor 
(1940); radio operetta La Chatte blanche 
(1944); numerous choral works, including 
Psaumes de delivrance for baritone, chorus 
and orch. (1952); a number of songs with 
orchestral accompaniment, among them L'or 
perdu (1953); several orchestral suites of 
Swiss dances; Divertissement for violin and 
orch. (1934); string quartet (1929); 
Dialogues for flute and violin (1937); song 
cycles. Binet's musical idiom is largely de- 
termined by the practical considerations of 
performance, and does not transcend the 
limits of traditional harmonies; he makes 
effective use of national Swiss melodies. 

Bing, Rudolph, international operatic 
impresario; b. Vienna, Jan. 9, 1902. He 
first studied singing, but soon entered the 
managerial field. He was successively with 
a Vienna concert agency (1923-27); Darm- 
stadt State Theater (1928-30) and the 
Municipal Opera at Charlottenburg-Berlin 
(1930-33). In 1934 he went to England; 
managed the Glyndebourne Opera Co. from 
1935-39 and 1946-49. He became a British 
subject in 1946. He was one of the most 
active organizers of the Edinburgh Festivals 
in 1947 and was musical director for three 
seasons. On May 25, 1949, he was appointed 
general manager of the Metropolitan Opera, 
N. Y. 

Bingham, Seth, American organist and 
composer; b. Bloomfield, N. J., April 16, 
1882. He studied with Horatio Parker; 
later in Paris with d'Indy, Widor (com- 
position) and Guilmant (organ). Returning 
to America, he graduated from Yale Univer- 
sity (B.A., 1904) where he won the organ 
and composition awards. He became (Pres- 
byterian) church organist in New York and 
elsewhere; took his M.B. at Yale in 1908, 
and taught there until 1919; instructor and 
associate prof, at Columbia University (until 
1954). His works include: Wall Street Fan- 
tasy (1912; performed as Symphonic Fan- 
tasy by the N. Y. Philharmonic, Feb. 6, 
1916) ; La Charelzenn, opera (1917) ; Tame 
Animal Tunes for 18 instruments (1918); 
Memories of France, orchestral suite (1920) ; 
Wilderness Stone for narrator, soli, chorus 
and orchestra (1933); Concerto for organ 
and orchestra (Rochester, Oct. 24, 1946) ; 
Connecticut Suite for organ and strings 
(Hartford, March 26, 1954) ; Concerto for 
brass, snare drum and organ (Minneapolis, 

July 12, 1954). Among his compositions for 
organ the following have been frequently 
performed: Suite (1926); Pioneer America 
(1928); Harmonies of Florence (1929); 
Carillon de Chateau-Thierry (1936) ; Pastor- 
al Psalms (1938); 12 Hymn-Preludes 
(1942) ; Variation Studies (1950) ; 36 Hymn 
and Carol Canons (1952). 

Birchall, Robert, English music publisher; 
b. (?); d. London, 1819. He founded a 
music publishing firm in London; published 
several of Beethoven's works for the first 
time in England; letters from Beethoven 
to Birchall are contained in Nohl's collec- 
tion. The firm, which later became Birchall, 
Lonsdale & Mills, had one of the first cir- 
culating music libraries ever established. 

Birchard, Clarence C, American music- 
publisher; b. Cambridge Springs, Pa., July 
13, 1866; d. Carlisle, Mass., Feb. 27, 1946. 
He established his firm in Boston in 1901 
and specialized in educational books for 
public schools; of these, a ten-book series, 
A Singing School, introduced lavish profusion 
of color in design and illustration; the 
firm has also issued community song books, 
of which the most popular is Twice 55 Com- 
munity Songs (several million copies sold). 
The catalogue includes orchestral scores by 
many American composers (Berezowsky, 
Bloch, Converse, Hadley, Ives, Janssen, Jos- 
ten, Kelley, Loeffler, Mason, Morris, Shep- 
herd and Sowerby) ; also cantatas by Cad- 
man, Converse, Hanson, Rogers and Whit- 
horne; and Copland's school opera Second 
Hurricane. After Birchard's death Thomas 
M. Moran succeeded to the presidency; after 
his death in 1949, Donald F. Malin became 
president. The firm publishes a house organ, 
'The Birchard Broadsheet.' 

Bird, Arthur, American composer; b. Bel- 
mont, Mass., July 23, 1856; d. Berlin, Dec. 
22, 1923. He studied in Berlin with Loesch- 
horn; spent several months with Liszt at 
Weimar in 1885; returned to America brief- 
ly in 1886, and then lived in Berlin, identify- 
ing himself with conservative circles there. 
He was Berlin correspondent of American 
music magazines; in his articles he violently 
attacked Richard Strauss and other modern 
composers. Among his own works is a sym- 
phony; 2 Decimettes for wind instruments 
(won Paderewski prize in 1901). He also 
wrote a comic opera Daphne (N.Y., 1897) 
and many piano pieces. Bibl. : W. L. Loring, 
Arthur Bird, American Composer in the 
'Mus. Quarterly' (Jan., 1943). 

Bird, Henry Richard, eminent English 
organist; b. Walthamstow, Nov. 14, 1842; 



d. London, Nov. 21, 1915. He was a pupil 
of his father; then studied with James 
Turlc; came to London in 1859, where he 
held various positions as organist, and con- 
ducted the Chelsea Choral and Orchestral 
Society; was appointed organist at St. Mary 
Abbott's in Kensington, and occupied this 
post until his death; was also prof, of 
piano at the Royal College of Music and 
at Trinity College from 1896. He was 
famous throughout England as an unex- 
celled accompanist, and was in constant de- 
mand by the foremost artists; in 1891 was 
appointed permanent accompanist of the 
'Popular Concerts.' 

Bird, William. See Byrd. 

Biriukov, Youri Sergeyevitch, Russian 
composer; b. Moscow, April 14, 1908. He 
studied at the Moscow Cons, with Mias- 
kovsky (composition) and Feinberg (piano), 
graduating in 1937. His first published work 
was a piano toccata (1936); in 1938 he 
published 24 Preludes for piano; has also 
written a piano concerto and several song 

Birnbach (bern-bah), (Joseph Benjamin) 
Heinrich, German pianist and music peda- 
gogue, son of Karl Joseph Birnbach; b. 
Breslau, Jan. 8, 1793; d. Berlin, Aug. 24, 
1879. He studied piano with his father; 
taught in Breslau from 1814-21; settled in 
Berlin as music teacher and founded a music 
institute. Among his pupils were Nicolai, 
Kiicken and Dehn. He composed 2 sym- 
phonies; 2 overtures; concertos for oboe, 
clarinet and guitar; piano concertos; a 
piano quintet; piano sonatas; piano duos; 
etc.; also published a treatise, Der vollkom- 
mene Kapellmeister (1845). 

Birnbach, Karl Joseph, German composer; 
b. Kopernick, Silesia, 1751; d. Warsaw, May 
29, 1805. During the last years of his life 
he was conductor at the German Theater 
in Warsaw. A prolific composer, he wrote 
2 operas; 10 symphonies; 16 piano con- 
certos; 10 violin concertos; cantatas; masses; 
chamber music; piano pieces. 

Bisaccia (be-zaht'-chah), Giovanni, Italian 
singer and composer; b. 1815; d. Naples, 
Dec. 20, 1897. He studied singing with 
Crescentini and composition with Rai- 
mondi and Donizetti; sang in the Nuovo 
and San Carlo theaters; later taught sing- 
ing, and was maestro di cappella at the 
church of San Fernando, for which he 
wrote some music. In 1838 he brought out 
2 musical farces, I tre scioperati and 11 figlio 
adottivo; and in 1858 an opera buffa Don 

Taddeo, ovvero lo Solachianiello di Cesoria. 

Bischoff, Georg Friedrich, German music 
director; b. Ellrich, Harz Mountains, Sept. 
21, 1780; d. Hildesheim, Sept. 7, 1841. He 
was music director at Hildesheim from 
1816; arranged the first Thuringian Festival 
at Frankenhausen (July 20 and 21, 1810), 
at which Spohr acted both as conductor and 

Bischoff, Hans, German pianist and teach- 
er; b. Berlin, Feb. 17, 1852; d. Nieder- 
schonhausen, near Berlin, June 12, 1889. 
He was a pupil of Theodor Kullak and 
Richard Wiierst; also studied at Berlin 
Univ. (Dr. phil., 1873); taught piano and 
other subjects at Kullak's Academy from 
1873; conducted Monday Concerts of the 
Berlin Singakademie. He edited the 2nd 
and 3rd editions of Adolf Kullak's Asthetik 
des Klavierspiels (Berlin, 1876 and 1889; 
English translation, N.Y., 1895); also pub- 
lished an Auswahl HandeVscher Klavier- 
werke; Kritische Ausgabe von J. S. Bach's 
Klavierwerken; etc. 

Bischoff, Hermann, German composer; b. 
Duisburg, Jan. 7, 1868; d. Berlin, Jan. 25, 
1936. He was a pupil of Jadassohn at the 
Leipzig Cons.; lived for a time in Munich, 
where he was associated with Richard 
Strauss; then went to Berlin as director of 
the 'Musikschutzverband' and member of 
the board of directors of the 'Allgemein 
deutscher Musikverein'. He composed 2 
symphonies; the first symph. had its world 
premiere in Essen, May 24, 1906; was given 
by the Boston Symph. under Karl Muck 
twice in one season (Jan. 4, 1908 and Feb. 
29, 1908) ; attracted a great deal of atten- 
tion at the time, but sank into oblivion later 
on. He also composed the symph. poems 
Pan and Gewittersegen; published an essay, 
Das deutsche Lied (1905). 

Bischoff, Kaspar Jakob, German composer 
and teacher; b. Ansbach, April 7, 1823; d. 
Munich, Oct. 26, 1893. He was a pupil of 
Franz Lachner in Munich (1842); studied 
in Leipzig (1848); settled in Frankfurt, 
where he taught singing, and founded an 
'Evangelical Sacred Choral Society' in 1850. 
He wrote an opera, Maske und Mantilla 
(Frankfurt, 1852); 3 symphonies; overture 
to Hamlet; chamber music; church music; 
also published a manual of harmony (1890). 

Bischoff, Ludwig Friedrich Christian, Ger- 
man editor of music periodicals; b. Dessau, 
Nov. 27, 1794; d. Cologne, Feb. 24, 1867. 
He was teacher at Wesel (1823-49); 
then settled in Cologne, where he founded 



and edited the 'Rheinische Musikzeitung' 
(1850) and the 'Niederrheinische Musik- 
zeitung' (1853); translated OulibichefFs 
Beethoven into German. 

Bishop, Anna, English soprano; b. Lon- 
don, Jan. 9, 1810; d. New York, March 18, 
1884. She was of French descent (her maid- 
en name was Riviere). She studied at the 
Royal Academy of Music in London; in 
1831 married Henry Bishop. She made her 
London debut in 1834; in 1839 made an 
extensive concert tour with the harpist, 
Bochsa; soon afterwards abandoned her hus- 
band and went with Bochsa to France; 
however, she continued to use her married 
name, and appeared in concerts as Madame 
Bishop. She sang at Naples and in Ireland. 
In 1847 she went to America; in 1858 she 
married Martin Schultz of New York. In 
1866 she toured China and Australia; the 
ship she was on became grounded on a coral 
reef in the Marianas for 21 days; but des- 
pite this experience she completed her tour, 
eventually returning to New York. She was 
extremely successful with the public, particu- 
larly in England and the U.S. 

Bishop, Sir Henry Rowley, noted English 
composer; b. London, Nov. 18, 1786; d. 
there, April 30, 1855. He was a pupil of 
Francesco Bianchi; attracted attention with 
his first opera, The Circassian Bride (Drury 
Lane, Feb. 23, 1809) ; was engaged as com- 
poser and conductor at Covent Garden from 
1810-11; in 1813 was alternate conductor 
of the Philharmonic; in 1819 oratorio con- 
ductor at Covent Garden; in 1825 conductor 
at the Drury Lane Theatre; in 1830 Musical 
Director at Vauxhall; took the degree of 
Mus. Bac. at Oxford (1839); from 1840 
was music director at Covent Garden; then 
Prof, of Music at Edinburgh (1841-3); was 
knighted in 1842; engaged as conductor of 
the Ancient Concerts from 1 840-8 ; then ap- 
pointed Prof, of Music at Oxford (succeed- 
ing Dr. Crotch), where he received the 
degree of Mus. Doc. in 1853. He was a 
remarkably prolific dramatic composer, hav- 
ing produced about 130 operas, farces, bal- 
lets, adaptations, etc. His operas are gen- 
erally in the style of English ballad-opera; 
some of the best are: Cortez or The Con- 
quest of Mexico (1823); The Fall of Al- 
giers (1825); The Knight of Snowdoun 
(after Walter Scott, 1811); Native Land 
(1824). His Clari, or the Maid of Milan 
(Covent Garden, May 8, 1823) contains the 
famous song Home Sweet Home, with text 
by the American, John Howard Payne; it 
appears repeatedly throughout the opera. 
The tune, previously published by Bishop 

to other words, was thought to have been of 
Sicilian origin, but after much litigation was 
accepted as Bishop's original composition 
(the MS. is owned by the Univ. of Roches- 
ter, N.Y. ). A version of the melody was 
used by Donizetti in his opera Anne Boleyn, 
thereby causing the erroneous belief that 
Donizetti was its composer. Bishop also 
wrote The Fallen Angel, an oratorio (never 
performed) ; The Seventh Day, cantata 
(1834); many additions to revivals of older 
operas, etc.; his glees and other lyric vocal 
compositions are deservedly esteemed. (An 
article on the Glees, by G. A. Macfarren, 
is in the 'Mus. Times' of 1864, April et seq.) 
Bishop also published vol. I of Melodies of 
Various Nations; and 3 vols, of National 
Melodies, to which Moore wrote the poems. 
See F. Corder, The Works of Sir Henry 
Bishop in the 'Mus. Quarterly' (Jan., 1918) ; 
R. Northcott, The Life of Sir Henry R. 
Bishop (London, 1920). 

Bispham (bisp'h'm), David (Scull), Amer- 
ican baritone; b. Philadelphia, Jan. 5, 1857; 
d. New York, Oct. 2, 1921. He first sang 
as an amateur in the principal choruses of 
Philadelphia, in the choirs of Holy Trinity 
and St. Mark's churches, and in private 
theatricals; then went to Milan (1886) 
where he studied with Vannuccini, and 
Francesco Lamperti; later studied in London 
with Shakespeare and Randegger; made his 
professional operatic debut as Longueville 
in Messager's Basoche (Royal Opera, Lon- 
don, Nov. 3, 1891), in which his comic act- 
ing ability, as well as his singing, won 
praise; made his first appearance in serious 
opera as Kurwenal in Tristan und Isolde 
(Drury Lane, June 25, 1892). He was par- 
ticularly effective in the Wagnerian baritone 
roles; made his American debut with the 
Metropolitan Opera as Beckmesser (Nov. 
18, 1896). He also was very successful in 
recitation (Enoch Arden, with incidental 
music by Richard Strauss; A Midsummer 
Night's Dream with Mendelssohn's music, 
etc.). He also gave numerous recitals in 
London and New York, in programs of 
German Lieder sung in English. He was a 
strong advocate of opera in English; a 
Society of American Singers was organized 
under his guidance, presenting light operas 
in the English language. Bispham published 
an autobiography A Quaker Singer's Recol- 
lections (N.Y., 1920). A Bispham Memorial 
Medal Award was established by the Opera 
Society of America in 1921 for an opera in 
English by an American composer; among 
its winners were Walter Damrosch, Victor 
Herbert, Henry Hadley, Deems Taylor, 
Charles Cadman, Louis Gruenberg, Howard 



Hanson, Otto Luening, Ernst Bacon, George 
Antheil and George Gershwin. Bispham left 
all the biographical and bibliographical ma- 
terial dealing with his career to the Music 
Division of the N. Y. Public Library. 

Bitsch, Marcel, French composer; b. Paris, 
Dec. 29, 1921. He entered the Paris Cons, 
in 1939, studied composition with Busser, 
and won the second Prix de Rome, 1943; 
first Prix de Rome, 1945. He has written Six 
Esquisses Symphoniques (1949); Sinfonietta 
(1950) ; cantata La Farce du Contrebandier 
(1946); Divertissement for flute, clarinet, 
oboe and bassoon (1947); 3 Sonatinas for 
flute and piano (1952); Concertino for 
piano and orch. (Paris, Nov. 28, 1954), etc. 

Bitter, Karl Hermann, German writer on 
music; b. Schwedt-on-Oder, Feb. 27, 1813; 
d. Berlin, Sept. 12, 1885. He studied at the 
Berlin Univ.; then in Bonn; pursued a 
career in government; served in the finance 
dept. ; in 1879 was appointed by Bismarck 
as Prussian Minister of Finance. He re- 
tired in 1882. He was the author of the 
following books on music: /. S. Bach (2 
vols., Berlin, 1865; 2nd ed., 1881; abridged 
English ed., 1873) ; Mozarts Don Juan und 
Glucks Iphigenie (Berlin, 1866) ; C. Ph. E. 
Bach und W. Fr. Bach und deren Bruder 
(2 vols., Berlin, 1868); Beitr'dge zur Ge- 
schichte der Oper (1872); Die Reform der 
Oper durch Gluck und Wagner (1884); 
edited Karl Loewe's autobiography (1870). 

Bittner, Julius, Austrian composer; b. 
Vienna, April 9, 1874; d. there, Jan. 10, 
1939. He first studied law; then music with 
Bruno Walter and Josef Labor; was a 
magistrate in Vienna until 1920. At the 
same time he composed industriously. He 
devoted most of his energy to opera and 
also wrote his own librettos; composed 2 
symphonies; sacred choruses; and numerous 
songs for his wife, Emilie Bittner, a con- 
tralto. During his last years, he suffered 
from a crippling illness, necessitating the 
amputation of both legs. Operas: Die rote 
Gret (Frankfurt, Oct. 26, 1907); Der Mus- 
ikant (Vienna, April 12, 1910) ; Der Bergsee 
(Vienna, Nov. 9, 1911; revised, 1938); 
Der Abenteurer (Cologne, Oct. 30, 1913); 
Das hollisch Gold (Darmstadt, Oct. 15, 
1916) ; Das Rosengdrtlein (Mannheim, 
March 18, 1923); Mondnacht (Berlin, 
Nov. 13, 1928); Das Veilchen (Vienna, 
Dec. 8, 1934) ; also operettas, ballets and 
mimodramas. See R. Specht, Julius Bittner 
(Munich, 1921). 

Bizet (be-za'), Georges (baptismal names 
Alexandre-Cesar-Leopold), French opera 

composer; b. Paris, Oct. 25, 1838; d. Bougi- 
val, June 3, 1875. His parents were both 
professional musicians, his father a singing 
teacher and composer; his mother an ex- 
cellent pianist. Bizet's talent developed 
early in childhood; at the age of nine he 
entered the Paris Cons., his teachers being 
Marmontcl (piano), Bcnoist (organ), Zim- 
mcrmann (harmony) and Halevy (composi- 
tion), whose daughter, Genevieve, he mar- 
ried in 1869. In 1852 he won a first prize 
for piano, in 1855 for organ and for fugue, 
and in 1857 the Grand Prix de Rome. In 
the same year he shared (with Lecocq) a 
prize offered by Offenbach for a setting of 
a 1-act opera Le Docteur Miracle; Bizet's 
setting was produced at the Bouffes-Parisiens 
on April 9, 1857. Instead of the prescribed 
mass, he sent from Rome during his first 
year a 2-act Italian opera buffa, Don 
Procopio (not produced until March 10, 
1906 when it was given in Monte Carlo 
in an incongruously edited version) ; later he 
sent 2 movements of a symphony, an over- 
ture (La Chasse d'Ossian) ; and a 1-act 
opera (La Guzla de I'Emir; accepted by 
Paris Opera-Comique, but withdrawn by 
Bizet prior to production). Returning to 
Paris, he produced a grand opera, Les 
Pecheurs de perles (Th.-Lyrique, Sept. 30, 
1863); but this work, like La jolie fille de 
Perth (Dec. 26, 1867) failed to win popular 
approval. A 1-act opera, Djamileh (Opera- 
Comique, May 22, 1872) fared no better. 
Bizet's incidental music for Daudet's play 
L'Arlesienne (Oct. 1 1872) was ignored 
by the audiences and literary critics; it was 
not fully appreciated until its revival in 
1885. But an orchestral suite from L'Arles- 
ienne brought out by Pasdeloup (Nov. 10, 
1872) was acclaimed; a 2nd suite was made 
by Guiraud after Bizet's death. Bizet's next 
major work was his masterpiece Carmen 
(based on a tale by Merimee, text by Halevy 
and Meilhac), produced after many difficul- 
ties with the management and the cast, at 
the Opera-Comique (March 3, 1875). The 
reception of the public was not enthusiastic, 
and several critics attacked the opera for its 
lurid subject and the music for its supposed 
adoption of Wagner's methods. Bizet re- 
ceived a generous sum (25,000 francs) for 
the score from the publisher Choudens and 
won other honors (he was named chevalier 
of the Legion d'honneur on the eve of the 
premiere of Carmen) ; although the attend- 
ance was not high, the opera was main- 
tained in the repertory. There were 37 perfs. 
before the end of the season; the original 
cast included Galli-Marie as Carmen, Lherie 
as Don Jose and Bouhy as Escamillo. Bizet 



was chagrined by the controversial reception 
of the opera, but it is a melodramatic in- 
vention to state (as has been asserted by 
some biographers) that the alleged failure of 
Carmen precipitated the composer's death 
(he died on the night of the 31st perf. of 
Carmen). Soon the opera became a triumph- 
ant success all over the world; it was staged 
in London (in Italian at Her Majesty's 
Theatre, June 22, 1878); St. Petersburg, 
Vienna, Brussels, Naples, Florence, Mainz, 
New York (Academy of Music, Oct. 23, 
1878), etc. The Metropolitan Opera pro- 
duced Carmen first in Italian (Jan. 9, 
1884), then in French, with Calve as Car- 
men (Dec. 20, 1893). It should be pointed 
out that the famous Habanera is not Bizet's 
own, but a melody by the Spanish composer, 
Yradier, which Bizet inserted in Carmen 
(with slight alterations) mistaking it for a 
folk song. Bizet also wrote an operetta, La 
Pretresse (1854); the operas Numa (1871) 
and Ivan le Terrible, in 4 acts (Bordeaux, 
Oct. 12, 1951; the score was believed to 
have been destroyed by Bizet, but was dis- 
covered among the manuscripts bequeathed 
to the Paris Cons, by the second husband 
of Bizet's widow) ; the cantatas David 
(1856) and Clovis et Clothilde (1857); 
Vasco da Gama, symph. ode with chorus 
(1859) ; Souvenirs de Rome, symph. suite in 
3 movements (Paris, Feb. 28, 1869; publ. 
in 1880 as a 4-movement suite, Roma) ; 
orchestral overture Patrie (Paris, Feb. 15, 
1874) ; Jeux d'enfants (suite for piano 4- 
hands) ; about 150 piano pieces of all kinds 
(Bizet was a brilliant pianist) ; etc. Bizet's 
first symphony, written at the age of 17, 
was published for the first time in 1935 
from the MS preserved at the Paris Cons, 
and proved to be an astonishingly brilliant 
work. Bizet also completed Halevy's biblical 
opera Noe (1869). Bibl.: E. Galabert, 
Georges Bizet (Paris, 1877); Ch. Pigot, 
Bizet et son Oeuvre (1886; new ed. 1911); 
C. Bellaigue, Bizet (1891); P. Voss, Bizet 
(Leipzig, 1899) ; A. Weissmann, Bizet (Ber- 
lin, 1907); O. Sere, Georges Bizet in Musi- 
ciens frangais d'aujourd'hui (Paris, 1911); 
H. Gauthier-Villars, Bizet; biographie cri- 
tique (Paris, 1911); R. Brancour, La vie et 
I'ceuvre de Bizet (Paris, 1913); P. Lan- 
dormy, Bizet in 'Les Maitres de la Musique' 
(1924); Julius Rabe, Bizet (Stockholm, 
1925); D. C. Parker, Bizet, His Life and 
Works (London, 1926) ; E. Istel, Bizet und 
Carmen (Stuttgart, 1927); J. Tiersot, Bizet 
and Spanish Music, in the 'Mus. Quarterly' 
(Oct., 1925); J. W. Klein, Nietzsche and 
Bizet, in the 'Mus. Quarterly' (Oct., 1925); 
M. Delmas, Bizet (1930) ; R. Laparra, Bizet 
et I'Espagne (Paris, 1934); Bizet issue of 

the 'Revue de musicologie' (Nov., 1938) ; 
M. Cooper, Bizet (London, 1938); W. 
Dean, Bizet (London, 1948); Mina Curtiss, 
Unpublished Letters by Georges Bizet, in the 
'Mus. Quarterly' (July, 1950). 

Bjelinski (byel-in'-ske), Bruno, Croatian 
composer; b. Trieste, Nov. 1, 1909. He 
studied law at the Univ. of Zagreb, and 
music at the Cons, with Bersa. In 1945, 
appointed prof, at the Zagreb Cons. He has 
written concertos for piano, violin, cello 
and bassoon; 2 string quartets; 3 violin son- 
atas; a piano trio and other chamber music. 

Bjorkander, Nils (Frank Frederik), Swed- 
ish composer; b. Stockholm, June 28, 1893. 
He studied at the Stockholm Cons.; in 1917 
he established a music school of his own. 
He is the author of many piano pieces that 
have achieved considerable popularity; he 
has also written a piano quintet; flute son- 
ata; violin sonata, etc. 

Bjorling (byor'-ling), Jussi, Swedish tenor; 
b. Stora Tuna, Feb. 2, 1907. He studied 
voice with John Forsell and Jullio Voghera 
at the Royal Opera School, Stockholm 
(grad. 1929) ; made his debut in Stock- 
holm (1930) as Don Ottavio in Don Gio- 
vanni; since then has been principal tenor 
of the Stockholm opera; guest appearances 
in Vienna, Dresden and Prague; came to 
the U. S. first as a boy tenor in the Bjorling 
Quartet (with his father and two brothers) ; 
returned to the U. S. in 1937 when he sang 
at the Chicago Civic Opera; made his Met- 
ropolitan Opera debut in 1938. His reper- 
tory includes 54 operatic roles. 

Blacher, Boris, outstanding modern com- 
poser; b. Newchwang, China (of Estonian- 
German parentage), Jan. 3, 1903. His family 
moved to Irkutsk, Siberia, remaining there 
from 1914-20; in 1922 he went to Berlin 
where he studied with F. E. Koch. He was 
subsequently active as a pedagogue in Berlin 
and in Dresden; after 1945 wrote incidental 
music for the Berlin Radio; in 1948 ap- 
pointed prof, at the Hochschule fur Musik 
in West Berlin; and in 1953, its director 
(succeeding W. Egk). His music is cast in a 
terse effective style; he has developed a sys- 
tem of 'variable meters' according to arith- 
metical progressions, with permutations con- 
tributory to variety. Works: Operas, Furstin 
Tarakanowa (Wuppertal, Feb. 5, 1 941 ) ; Die 
Flut, chamber opera (Dresden, March 4, 
1947; first radio performance, Berlin, Dec. 
20, 1946); Die Nachtschwalbe, 'a dramatic 
nocturne' (Leipzig, Feb. 29, 1948; aroused 
considerable protest on account of its bold 
subject) ; Das preussisches Marchen, opera- 
ballet (Berlin, Sept. 22, 1952); Abstract 



Opera No. 1 , for 3 soloists, 2 reciters, chorus 
and orch. (Frankfurt, June 28, 1953; pro- 
duced a 'succes dc scandalc'). Blachcr was 
also the author of the librettos for Einem's 
operas Dantons Tod and Der Prozess. Bal- 
lets: Fest im Suden (1936); Chiarina (Ber- 
lin, Jan. 22, 1950); Hamlet (Munich, Nov. 
19, 1950); Lysistrata (Berlin, Sept. 30, 
1951). For orch: concerto for 2 trumpets 
and 2 string orchs. (1931); Kleine Marsch- 
musik (1932); Capriccio (1934); Concert- 
ante Musik (Berlin, Dec. 6, 1937); symph. 
(1939); concerto for string orch. (1942); 
Partita for string orch. and percussion 
(1945); 16 Orchestra Variations on a 
Theme by Paganini (Leipzig, Nov. 27, 
1947); 1st piano concerto (1948); violin 
concerto (1950); concerto for clarinet, bas- 
soon, horn, trumpet, harp and strings 
(1950); 2nd piano concerto (Berlin, Sept. 
15, 1952); Ornaments, based on 'variable 
meters' (Venice Fest., Sept. 15, 1953) ; viola 
concerto (Cologne, March 14, 1955). Cham- 
ber music: Jazz-Koloraturen, for saxophone 
and bassoon (1929); 3 string quartets 
(1941-49); _ violin _ sonata (1947); also 
songs and piano pieces. Cf. Karl H. W6r- 
ner, Neue Musik in der Entscheidung 
(Mainz, 1954; p. 237 et seq.). 

Black, Andrew, British baritone singer, 
originally an organist; b. Glasgow, Jan. 15, 
1859; d. Sydney, Australia, Sept. 15, 1920. 
He studied in Milan; won his first success 
in London at a Crystal Palace concert 
(July 30, 1887); then appeared at festivals 
in Leeds (1892), Gloucester (1895), Nor- 
wich (1896), Birmingham (1903), etc. He 
also gave concerts in the U. S. and Australia, 
where he settled in 1913. 

Black, Frank, American conductor; b. 
Philadelphia, Nov. 28, 1894; he studied 
music and chemistry at Haverford College; 
later studied piano under Raphael Joseffy 
in New York, and wrote songs for vaude- 
ville acts; from 1923-34 was conductor at 
the Fox Theater in Philadelphia; also served 
as music director of the Brunswick Record 
Corp. (1925-32); from 1925-38 was coach 
and accompanist for the Revellers' Quartet; 
in 1928 was appointed music director of 
NBC, conducting a string orchestra and or- 
ganizing the entire music dept. Black holds 
an honorary Mus. Doc. from Missouri Valley 
College in Marshall. He is editor of the 
collection Rhythmic Classics. 

Blackstone, Milton, American violinist and 
teacher; b. N. Y., Nov. 27, 1894. He toured 
the U. S. as a child violinist (1904) ; settled 
in Toronto (1912); graduated from the 

Canadian Academy of Music (1914); was 
a violin teacher at the Toronto Cons. 
(1920-23); joined the Hart House String 
Quartet as violist (1924) and toured the 
U. S. and Europe. 

Blagrove, Henry Gamble, English violin- 
ist; b. Nottingham, Oct. 20, 1811; d. Lon- 
don, Dec. 15, 1872. He was a pupil of his 
father, and gave public performances as a 
very young child; was the first pupil of the 
Royal Academy of Music (opened 1823) 
where he won the silver medal in 1824 
later studied with Spohr at Kassel (1833-34) 
then gave many concerts in London and at 
provincial festivals. 

Blaha-Mikes (blah'-hah-me'-kesh), Zaboj, 
Czechoslovakian composer; b. Prague, Nov. 
22, 1887. He was a pupil of Vitezslav No- 
vak; has composed the choral cycles Man 
for male chorus and Song of Solomon for 
female chorus and orch.; many other song 
cycles of popular or biblical content; Japan- 
ese songs; 2 orchestral suites; melodramas 
(Tagore, with orch.) ; Nocturnes and Visions 
for piano. 

Blahetka, Marie Leopoldine, pianist and 
composer; b. Guntramsdorf, near Vienna, 
Nov. 15, 1811; d. Boulogne, Jan. 12, 1887. 
She studied piano with Josef Czerny, Kalk- 
brenner and Moscheles; also composition 
with Sechter. She made very successful tours 
on the continent; finally settled in Boulogne 
in 1840. She composed a romantic opera Die 
Rduber und die Sanger (Vienna, 1830) ; 
also many works for piano, including con- 
certos, sonatas, polonaises, etc.; songs. 

Blainville (blan-veT), Charles-Henri, 

French cellist, music theorist and com- 
poser; b. in a village near Tours, 1711; d. 
Paris, 1769. He mistakenly supposed him- 
self to have discovered a third 'mode hellen- 
ique' (actually the Phrygian mode) and 
composed a symphony (1751) in which he 
used it. The 'discovery' was much admired 
by Rousseau, but was flatly discredited by 
Serre. Blainville also composed about 5 
other symphonies; 2 ballets; cantatas; a vol. 
of sonatas 'pour le dessus de viole avec la 
basse continue' ; also arranged Tartini's son- 
atas as concerti grossi. He published L'har- 
monie theorico-pratique (1746); Essai sur 
un troisieme mode (1751); U esprit de I'art 
musical (1754; German transl. in Hiller's 
Nachrichten) ; and Histoire generate, cri- 
tique et philologique de la musique (1767). 

Blake, Dorothy Gaynor, American song 
composer and pedagogue; b. St. Joseph, 
Mo., Nov. 21, 1893. She studied piano with 



her mother Jessie S. Gaynor (q.v.) ; and 
theory with Thomas Tapper and Rudolph 
Ganz; in 1911, settled in Nashville, Tenn. 
She married R. E. Blake on July 24, 1912. 
She has written mostly for voice; her songs 
have been frequently performed in recitals. 
In 1948 she was living in Webster Groves, 
Mo. She has publ. 28 collections of simple 
exercises and tunes for schools. 

Blamont (bla-mohn'), Francois Colin de, 

French composer; b. Versailles, Nov. 22, 
1690; d. there, Feb. 14, 1760. He was a 
pupil of Lalande; became superintendent of 
the King's music; wrote many court ballets, 
'fetes,' operas; also cantatas and motets; 
published an Essai sur les gouts anciens et 
modernes de la musique franqaise (1754). 

Blanc (blahn), Adolphe, French com- 
poser; b. Manosque, Basses-Alpes, June 24, 
1828; d. Paris, May 1885. He studied at 
the Paris Cons, and privately with Halevy; 
for a short time he was conductor at the 
Theatre-Lyrique. In 1862 he was awarded 
the Prix Chartier for chamber music. He 
wrote a 1-act comic opera, Une Aventure 
sous la Ligue (1857); 2 operettas, Les deux 
billets (1868) and Les Reves de Marguerite; 
a burlesque symphony; an overture; trios, 
quartets, quintets and septets for strings, 
with and without piano; piano pieces. 

Blanc, Giuseppe, Italian composer; b. 
Bardonecchia, April 11, 1886. He was a 
pupil of Bolzoni (comp.) ; has written vari- 
ous operettas, including La festa dei fiori 
(Rome, Jan. 29, 1913), pantomimes, songs, 
etc. His song Giovinezza was adopted as a 
Fascist anthem during the Mussolini regime. 

Blancafort, Manuel, Spanish composer; b. 
Barcelona, Aug. 12, 1897. He studied in 
Barcelona with Lamote de Grignon and 
Malats; has been awarded various composi- 
tion prizes. Works: For orch., Matin de 
Fete a Puig-Gracios (Barcelona, 1929) and 
El Rapto de las Sabines; for chorus and 
orch., Cami de Siena (Barcelona, 1928) ; 2 
piano concertos; piano sonata and descrip- 
tive pieces (Le pare d' attractions, Chants 
intimes, Pastorale en Sol, Chemins, etc.,) ; 
songs; etc. 

Blan chard (blahn-shahr'), Henri-Louis, 
French musician; b. Bordeaux, Feb. 7, 1778; 
d. Paris, Dec. 18, 1858. He studied the 
violin; was conductor at the Theatre des 
Varietes in Paris (1818-29); wrote music 
criticism; produced several operettas. 

Blanchet (blahn-sha'), Einile R., Swiss 
pianist and composer; b. Lausanne, July 17, 

1877; d. Pully, March 27, 1943. He studied 
with his father Charles Blanchet (1833- 
1900) ; with Seiss, Franke and Strasser at 
the Cologne Cons.; and with Busoni in Wei- 
mar and Berlin. From 1904-17 he was 
teacher of piano at the Lausanne Cons. 
Among his works are 64 Preludes for Piano- 
forte in Contrapuntal Style, a valuable peda- 
gogic work; Konzertstiick for piano and 
orch.; violin sonata; a Ballade for 2 pianos; 
many etudes and other piano works; songs; 

Blanck, Hubert de, conductor and edu- 
cator; b. Utrecht, June 11, 1856; d. Ha- 
vana, Nov. 28, 1932. He studied at the 
Liege Cons, with Ledent (piano) and Dupuy 
(comp.) ; subsequently served as theater con- 
ductor in Warsaw (1875) ; toured Europe as 
a pianist; with the violinist E. Dengremont, 
visited South America (1880). After teach- 
ing at the N. Y. College of Music, he set- 
tled in Havana (1883), and founded the 
first conservatory in Cuba, based upon Euro- 
pean models (1885). He was exiled in 
1896 for participation in the revolution; 
after the re-establishment of peace, he re- 
opened his school in Havana and established 
branches in other towns. He composed piano 
pieces and songs; but it is as an enlightened 
educator that he is honored in the annals 
of Cuban music. 

Blangini ( blahn- je'-ne), Giuseppe Marco 
Maria Felice, Italian composer; b. Turin, 
Nov. 18, 1781; d. Paris, Dec. 18, 1841. In 
1789 he was choirboy at the Turin cathe- 
dral, and by the age of twelve played the 
organ, composed sacred music and was a 
skillful cellist. In 1799, his family moved to 
Paris, where Blangini gave concerts, wrote 
fashionable romances, and came into vogue 
as an opera composer when he completed 
Delia-Maria's opera La fausse duegne 
(1802); he was also popular as a singing 
teacher. After producing an opera in Mu- 
nich, he was appointed court Kapellmeister 
(1806); later was General Music Director 
at Kassel (1809); and upon his return to 
Paris in 1814, was made superintendent of 
the King's music, Court composer, and 
prof, of singing at the Cons., positions 
which he held until 1830. His works include 
30 operas; 4 masses with orch; 170 noc- 
turnes for 2 voices; 174 romances for one 
voice; etc. See his autobiography, Souvenirs 
de F. Blangini, ed. by M. de Villemarest 
(Paris, 1834). 

Blankenburg, Quirin van, Dutch organist 
and writer; b. Gouda, 1654; d. The Hague, 
c. 1740. He was organist of the Reformed 



Church in The Hague; wrote Elementa 
musica (1729), and Clavicembel en Orgel- 
boek der gereformeerde Psalmen en Kerkge- 
zangen (1732; 3rd edition, 1772); also a 
method for flute. 

Blanter, Matvey Isaacovitch, Russian com- 
poser of popular songs; b. Potchcp, Tcher- 
nigov district, Feb. 10, 1903. He studied in 
Moscow with G. Conius; then devoted him- 
self exclusively to the composition of light 
music. He wrote an operetta On the Banks 
of the Amur (1939) and some incidental 
music. Among his songs the most popular 
is Katyusha (famous during World War II), 
which combines the melodic inflection of 
the typical urban ballad with the basic 
traits of a Russian folk song. Blanter is re- 
garded in Russia as a creator of the new 
Soviet song style. 

Blaramberg, Pavel Ivanovitch, Russian 
composer; b. Orenburg, Sept. 26, 1841; d. 
Nice, March 28, 1907. His father was a 
geographer, of French origin; his mother 
was Greek. At the age of fourteen he came 
to St. Petersburg; later became a function- 
ary of the Central Statistical Committee 
there. He was largely self-taught in music, 
apart from occasional advice from Balakirev 
and Rimsky-Korsakov. In 1878 he settled in 
Moscow as instructor at the newly founded 
Philharmonic Institute. In 1898 he went 
to the Crimea, then to France. He was 
primarily an opera composer; wrote stage 
music for Ostrovsky's Voyevoda (1865) and 
for Lermontov's Demon (1869); the operas 
The Mummers (1881); Russalka (Moscow, 
April 15, 1888) ; Maria Tudor, after Hugo 
(produced as Mary of Burgundy on account 
of the censor's objection to the original li- 
bretto; Moscow, Oct. 29, 1888); Tushintsy 
(Moscow, Feb. 5, 1895; his most successful 
opera; had several revivals) ; and The Waves 
(1902). He also wrote a symphonic poem 
The Dying Gladiator (1882), a symphony 
(1886), and songs. 

Blaserna, Pietro, Italian music theorist; b. 
Fiumicello, near Aquileja, Feb. 29, 1836: 
d. Rome, Feb. 26, 1918. He studied natural 
sciences in Vienna and Paris; later taught 
physics at the Univs. of Palermo (1863) 
and Rome (1872). An exponent of the 
acoustic purity of intervals, he made import- 
ant scientific contributions in the field of 
acoustics. His principal work is La teoria 
del suono nei suoi rapporti colla musica 
(1875; German translation, 1876; French 
translation, 1877). 

Blasius, Mathieu-Frederic, composer; b. 
Lauterburg, Alsace, April 23, 1758; d. Ver- 

sailles, 1829. He was a violinist, clarinetist, 
flutist and bassoonist; taught wind instru- 
ments at the Paris Cons. (1795-1802); 
conducted at the Opera-Comique (1802- 
16). He wrote 3 operas; 3 violin concertos; 
many popular pieces for wind instruments 
in various combinations. 

Blauvelt, Lillian Evans, American soprano; 
b. Brooklyn, N. Y., March 16, 1874; d. Chi- 
cago, Aug. 29, 1947. After studying violin 
for several years she took vocal lessons in 
N. Y. and Paris; gave concerts in France, 
Belgium and Russia; made her operatic de- 
but at Brussels, in Gounod's Mireille 
(1893) ; sang before Queen Victoria (1899) ; 
sang the coronation ode and received the 
coronation medal from King Edward 
(1902); appeared for several seasons at 
Covent Garden. She married the composer, 
Alexander Savine, in 1914; created the title 
role in his opera Xenia (Zurich, 1919). 

Blaze (blahz), (called Castil-Blaze), Fran- 
cois-Henri-Joseph, French writer on music; 
b. Cavaillon, Vaucluse, Dec. 1, 1784; d. 
Paris, Dec. 11, 1857. He studied with his 
father, a lawyer and amateur musician ; went 
to Paris in 1799 as a law student; held vari- 
ous administrative posts in provincial towns 
in France. At the same time he studied 
music and compiled information on the 
opera in France. The fruit of this work 
was the publication in 2 volumes of his book 
De V opera en France (Paris, 1820; 1826); 
this work dealt not only with the historical 
aspects of French opera, but also with the 
esthetic principles of composition and the 
libretti. He became music critic of the 'Jour- 
nal des Debats' in 1822, signing his articles 
'XXX', and exercised considerable influence 
on musical affairs in Paris. He resigned from 
this post in 1832, but continued to publish 
books on music, of factual and critical na- 
ture, including valuable compilations of mu- 
sical lexicography: Dictionnaire de musique 
moderne (1821, 2 vols.; 2nd ed., 1825; 3rd 
ed., edited by J. H. Mees, with historical 
preface and a supplement on Netherlands 
musicians, 1828, in 1 vol.) ; Chapelle- 
musique des Rois de France (1832); La 
Danse et les Ballets depuis Bacchus jusqu'a 
Mile. Taglioni (1832); Memorial du Grand 
Opera (from Cambert, 1669, down to the 
Restoration) ; Le Piano; histoire de son in- 
vention ('Revue de Paris,' 1839-40); 
Moliere musicien (1852); Theatres lyriques 
de Paris in 2 vols., on the Grand Opera 
(1855), and on the Italian opera (1856); 
Sur I'opera franqais; verites dures mais utiles 
(1856); L'art des jeux lyriques (1858); 
translated into French many libretti of Ger- 



man and Italian operas. He himself wrote 
3 operas; compiled a collection of Chants de 
Provence; some of his popular ballads at- 
tained considerable popularity. 

Blaze, Henri, Baron de Bury (son of 
Frangois Blaze), French music critic; b. 
Avignon, May 17, 1813; d. Paris, March 15, 
1888. He wrote many essays for the 'Revue 
des Deux Mondes' and other periodicals; 
these essays were subsequently collected as 
Musiciens contemporains (1856) ; Meyerbeer 
et son temps (1865); Musiciens du passe, 
du present, etc. (1880) ; Goethe et Beethoven 
(1882); his most valuable book is La Vie 
de Rossini (1854). 

Blech, Leo, eminent German opera con- 
ductor and composer; b. Aachen, April 21, 
1871. After leaving school he tried a mer- 
cantile career; then studied briefly at the 
Hochschule fur Musik in Berlin; returned to 
Aachen to conduct at the Municipal Theater 
(1893-99); also took summer courses in 
composition with Humperdinck (1893-96). 
He was engaged as opera conductor in 
Prague (1899-1906); at the Berlin Opera 
from 1906 to 1923, and again from 1926 
until 1936. He conducted in Riga (1938-41) 
and in Stockholm (1941-49). In 1949 he re- 
turned to Berlin, and soon retired. His works 
include the operas Aglaja (1893) and 
Cherubina (1894); 'opera-idyl' Das war ich 
(Dresden, Oct. 6, 1902; his most successful 
stage work) ; Alpenkonig und Menschenfeind 
(Dresden, Oct. 1, 1903; rewritten and pro- 
duced as Rappelkopf at the Royal Opera, 
Berlin, in 1917) ; opera Aschenbrodel 
(Prague, 1905); short opera Versiegelt 
(Hamburg, 1908; N. Y., 1912) ; an operetta 
Die Strohwitwe (Hamburg, 1920) ; 3 sym- 
phonic poems, Die Nonne, W aldwanderung, 
Trost in der Natur; choruses, songs, piano 
pieces; 10 Kleinigkeiten for piano 4 hands; 
music for children, etc. His music is in the 
Wagnerian tradition; his knowledge and un- 
derstanding of instrumental and vocal re- 
sources enabled him to produce highly effect- 
ive works. Bibl. : E. Rychnowsky, Leo Blech 
(Prague, 1905); id., Leo Blech, in vol. Ill 
of 'Monographien moderner Musiker' (Leip- 
zig, 1909) ; W. Jacob, Leo Blech (1931). 

Bledsoe, Jules, American Negro baritone 
singer and composer; b. Waco, Texas, Dec. 
29, 1902; d. Hollywood, July 14, 1943. He 
studied at Chicago Mus. College (B. A., 
1919) ; took singing lessons in Paris and 
Rome. He sang in the premiere of J. Kern's 
Show Boat (1927) and other musical plays; 
from 1932 appeared in grand opera as Rigo- 
letto, Boris and the title role in Gruenberg's 
opera Emperor Jones. He wrote an African 

Suite for orch. and several songs in the 
style of Negro spirituals. 

Bleichmann, Yuly Ivanovitch, Russian 
composer; b. St. Petersburg, Dec. 6, 1868; 
d. there, Dec. 5, 1909. He studied with 
Soloviev and Rimsky-Korsakov at the St. 
Petersburg Cons.; later with Jadassohn and 
Reinecke in Leipzig. Returning to St. Peters- 
burg, he founded the Popular Symph- 
ony Concerts in 1893; also conducted the 
Philharmonic Symphony Concerts. He com- 
posed 2 operas, greatly influenced by Wag- 
ner: St. Sebastian and The Dream-Princess 
(Moscow, Oct. 23, 1900); also songs. 

Blessinger, Karl, German musicologist; b. 
Ulm, Sept. 21, 1888. He studied in Heidel- 
berg and Munich; was theater conductor in 
Bremen and Bonn; was on the staff of the 
Akademie der Tonkunst in Munich (1920- 
45) ; since 1945 teaching privately. Among 
his published writings are: Ulmer Musikge- 
schichte im 17. Jahrhundert (dissertation; 
Ulm, 1913); Die musikalischen Probleme 
der Gegenwart (1920); Die Vberwindung 
der musikalischen Impotenz (1920); Grund- 
ziige der musikalischen Formenlehre (1926) ; 
Melodielehre als Einfiihrung in die Musik- 
theorie (1930); a pamphlet, Mendelssohn, 
Meyerbeer, Mahler (1938); Judentum und 
Musik; Ein Beitrag zur Kultur- und Ras- 
senpolitik (Berlin, 1944; an exposition of the 
antisemitic policy of the Nazi regime ) . 

Blewitt, Jonathan, English composer; b. 
London, July 19, 1782; d. there Sept. 4, 
1853. He studied with his father, and with 
Battishill; was organist in several churches; 
served as conductor at the Theatre Royal 
in Dublin. Returning to London (1825), he 
was appointed music director at Sadler's 
Wells Theatre; produced several operas, 
stage pieces with incidental music, panto- 
mimes, etc., at Drury Lane and elsewhere. 
He composed many popular ballads; was 
the author of a treatise on singing, The 
Vocal Assistant. 

Bleyle, Karl, German composer, b. Feld- 
kirch, Vorarlberg, May 7, 1880. He studied 
with Wehrle (violin) and S. de Lange 
(comp.) in Stuttgart and with Thuille 
(comp.) in Munich. He was active as teach- 
er and theater conductor in Graz, Weimar 
and Munich; in 1923 returned to Stuttgart, 
where he was still living in 1954. Works: 2 
operas, Hannele und Sannele (Stuttgart, 
1923) and Der Teufelssteg (Rostock, 1924) ; 
many works for soli, chorus and orch. (An 
den Mistral, Lernt Lachen, Mignons Beiset- 
zung, Heilige Sendung, Die Hollenfahrt 
Christi, Ein Harfenklang, Prometheus, Tri- 
logie der Leidenschaft, Requiem, etcj; or- 



chestral pieces Flagellantenzug, Gnomen- 
tanz, Sicgesouverture, Reinecke Fuchs, Le- 
gende ; a symphony; violin concerto; string 
quartet; violin sonata; songs; piano pieces; 

Bliss, Sir Arthur (Edward Drummond), 

eminent English composer, b. London, Aug. 
2, 1891. He studied at Pembroke College, 
Cambridge; then at the Royal College of 
Music in London with Stanford, Vaughan 
Williams and Hoist. He was an officer of 
the British Army during World War I ; was 
wounded in 1916, and gassed in 1918. Re- 
turning to England after the war, he re- 
sumed his musical studies; his earliest works, 
Madam Noy, for soprano and 6 instruments 
(1918) and Rout, for soprano and chamber 
orch. (1919; Salzburg Festival, Aug. 7, 
1922) were highly successful, and established 
Bliss as one of the most brilliant composers 
in the modern style. From 1923-25, Bliss was 
in the U. S.; on a later visit, lived in Holly- 
wood, where he wrote the musical score for 
the motion picture Things to Come, after 
H. G. Wells (1935). He returned to Lon- 
don; during World War II he was Musical 
Director of the B.B.C. (1942-44); he was 
knighted in 1950; was named Master of 
the Queen's Musick in 1953 as successor to 
Sir Arnold Bax. His works include: opera, 
The Olympians (London, Sept. 29, 1949); 
ballets, Checkmate (Paris, June 15, 1937); 
Miracle in the Gorbals (London, Oct. 26, 
1944) ; and Adam Zero (London, April 8, 
1946); for orch.: Melee fantasque (1920); 
Colour Symphony (the title refers to 4 her- 
aldic colors: purple, red, blue and green; 
1st perf., Gloucester, Sept. 7, 1922 under 
the composer's direction) ; concerto for 2 
pianos and orch. (1933); Hymn to Apollo 
(1926); Morning Heroes (symphony in 6 
movements for chorus, orator and orch., 
dedicated to his brother killed in action; 1st 
perf., Norwich, Oct. 6, 1930) ; Music for 
Strings (1935); piano concerto (commis- 
sioned by the British Council for the British 
Week at the N. Y. World's Fair, dedicated 
"to the people of the United States of Amer- 
ica"; N. Y., June 10, 1939) ; violin concerto 
(London, May 11, 1955). His vocal music 
includes (besides Madam Noy and Rout) : 
Rhapsody for soprano, tenor, flute, English 
horn, string quartet and double-bass (1919; 
Salzburg Festival, Aug. 5, 1923) ; 2 Nursery 
Rhymeg for soprano, clarinet and piano 
(1921); The Women of Yueh, song cycle 
for soprano and small orch. (1923) ; Pastoral 
for mezzo-soprano, chorus, strings, flute and 
drums (1928); Serenade for baritone and 
orch. (1929) ; The Enchantress for contralto 
and orch. (1951); A Song of Welcome for 

soprano, baritone, chorus and orch., com- 
posed for the return of Queen Elizabeth II 
from her Australian voyage (1st perf., Lon- 
don, July 29, 1954); several song cycles (3 
Romantic Songs; The Ballads of the Four 
Seasons; 7 American Poems). Chamber mu- 
sic: Conversations for violin, viola, cello, 
flute and oboe, in 5 movements (1919; a 
humorous work); 3 string quartets (1924; 
1941; 1950); quintet for oboe and strings 
(1927; Vienna Festival, June 21, 1932); 
quintet for clarinet and strings (1931) ; viola 
sonata (1932); piano pieces. Bibl. : Percy 
A. Scholes, Notes on a Colour Symphony 
(London, 1922); Alan Frank, Arthur Bliss 
in Modern British Composers (London, 

Bliss, P. Paul, American organist and 
music editor; b. Chicago, Nov. 25, 1872; d. 
Oswego, N. Y., Feb. 2, 1933. He studied in 
Philadelphia; then went to Paris where he 
was a pupil of Guilmant (organ) and Mas- 
senet (comp.). Returning to America, he 
was active as organist in Oswego, N. Y. ; 
served as music director with the John 
Church Co. (1904-10) and the Willis Music 
Co. (from 1911). He composed 3 operettas, 
Feast of Little Lanterns, Feast of Red Corn, 
In India; cantatas, Pan on a Summer Day, 
Three Springs, The Mound-Builders ; piano 
suite, In October; many songs and choruses; 
also compiled a 'Graded Course for Piano' 
(4 vols.) 

Blitzstein, Marc, American composer; b. 
Philadelphia, March 2, 1905. He studied 
piano and organ at the Univ. of Pennsyl- 
vania; also composition with Scalero at the 
Curtis Institute, and piano with Siloti in 
New York. He went to Europe in 1926, 
where he took courses with Nadia Boulanger 
in Paris and Schoenberg in Berlin. Return- 
ing to the U. S., he devoted himself to 
composition; also taught at the New School 
for Social Research. In 1940 he was awarded 
a Guggenheim Fellowship; during World 
War II he was stationed in England with 
the U. S. Army. Blitzstein is particularly 
successful in writing for the theater. Stage 
works: Triple Sec, opera-farce (Philadel- 
phia, 1928) ; Parabola and Circula, 1-act 
opera-ballet (1929); Cain, ballet (1930); 
The Harpies, 1-act opera, commissioned by 
the League of Composers (1931; 1st pro- 
duction, Manhattan School of Music, N. Y., 
May 25, 1953); The Cradle Will Rock, 1- 
act opera of 'social significance' (N. Y., 
June 16, 1937, with the composer cond. 
from the piano) ; No For An Answer, short 
opera (N. Y., Jan. 5, 1941); also musical 
revues, one of which, Regina, to Lillian 



Hellman's play The Little Foxes, he ex- 
panded into a full-fledged opera (Boston, 
Oct. 11, 1949). Vocal works: Gods for 
mezzo-soprano and string orch. (1926); 
oratorio The Condemned (1930); Airborne, 
cantata (N. Y., March 23, 1946) ; Cantatina 
for women's voices and percussion; songs to 
words by Whitman and Cummings, etc. Or- 
chestral works : Jig-Saw, ballet-suite (1927); 
Romantic Piece (1930); piano concerto 
(1931); Variations (1934); Freedom Morn- 
ing, symph. poem (London, Sept. 28, 1943). 
Chamber music: string quartet (1930); 
Serenade for string quartet (1932), etc.; 
also Percussion Music for piano (1929); 
piano sonata and minor pieces of various 
descriptions. His Americanized version of 
Kurt Weill's Three-Penny Opera (1954) has 
scored great success. — Cf. H. Brant, Marc 
Blitzstein, in 'Modern Music' (July, 1946). 

Bloch, Andre, French composer; b. Wis- 
sembourg, Alsace, Jan. 18, 1873. He studied 
at the Paris Cons, with Guiraud and Mas- 
senet; received Premier Grand Prix de Rome 
in 1893. He was conductor of the orchestra 
of the American Cons, at Fontainebleau. His 
works include the operas Maida (1909); 
Une Nuit de Noel (1922); Brocellande 
(1925) ; Guignol (1949) ; the ballet Femina- 
land (1904); the symphonic poems Kaa 
(1933) and L'isba nostalgique (1945); Les 
maisons de Veternite for cello and orch. 
(1945); Concerto-Ballet for piano and 
orch. (1946), etc. 

Bloch, Ernest, eminent composer; b. Gen- 
eva, July 24, 1880. He studied solfeggio 
there with Jaques-Dalcroze and violin with 
L. Rey (1894-97); later (1897-99) at Brus- 
sels Cons, with Ysaye (violin) and Rasse 
(comp.) ; in 1900 took courses in composi- 
tion with Iwan Knorr in Frankfurt and with 
Thuille in Munich. After a brief sojourn in 
Paris, he returned to Geneva in 1904 as 
lecturer at the Geneva Cons.; conducted 
symph. concerts at Lausanne and Neuchatel 
(1909-10); then was prof, of comp. and 
esthetics at the Geneva Cons. (1911-15). 
In 1916 he made his first American tour 
as conductor for the dancer Maud Allan; in 
1917 settled in New York where he taught 
at the Mannes School; conducted his 
own works with the leading orchestras in the 
U.S.; won the Coolidge prize for his viola 
suite (1919); from 1920-25 was director of 
the Institute of Music in Cleveland; from 
1925-30, director of the San Francisco Cons. 
When the magazine 'Musical America' an- 
nounced a contest for a symph. work (1927) 
Bloch won first prize for his 'epic rhapsody in 
three parts' with a choral ending, entitled 

America; however, the score did not measure 
up to Bloch's other music in artistic value. 
After 1930 Bloch lived mostly in Switzer- 
land; returned to the U. S. in 1939; settled 
in Oregon in 1943; taught summer classes 
at the Univ. of Calif., Berkeley; then de- 
voted himself entirely to composition. The 
sources of Bloch's inspiration are threefold: 
modern European, during his early period; 
racially Jewish, representing his most intense 
feelings and his greatest power of expression ; 
structural, in a neo-classical manner, charac- 
teristic of his later period. Works: opera 
Macbeth (1904-09; Opera-Comique, Paris, 
Nov. 30, 1910; Naples, March 1, 1938); 
an unfinished opera Jezabel (about 1918). 
For voice and orch.: Poemes d'Automne, 
songs for mezzo soprano and orch. (1906); 
Prelude and 2 Psalms (Nos. 114 and 137) 
for soprano and orch. (1912-14); Israel, 
symphony with 2 sopranos, 2 contraltos and 
bass (1912-16; 1st perf. N. Y., May 3, 

1917, composer conducting); Psalm 22 for 
baritone and orch. (1914). For orch.: Vivre 
et Aimer, symph. poem (1900); Symphony 
in C# m. (1901; perf. in part at Basel, June 
1903; 1st complete perf. at Geneva, 1910; 
1st American perf. by N. Y. Philh., May 8, 

1918, composer conducting); Hiver-Prin- 
temps, symph. poem (1904-05; N. Y., Dec. 
3, 1917) ; Trois Poemes Juifs (1913; 1st perf., 
Boston with composer conducting, March 23, 
1917; very successful); Schelomo, Hebrew 
rhapsody for cello and orch. (1916; 1st perf. 
N. Y., May 3, 1917, Kindler soloist, com- 
poser conducting) ; Concerto Grosso No. 1 
for strings and piano (1924-25; 1st perf. 
Cleveland, June 1, 1925, composer conduct- 
ing) ; America, symph. poem (1926; 1st 
perf. N. Y., Dec. 20, 1928; next day simul- 
taneously in Chicago, Philadelphia, Boston 
and San Francisco) ; Helvetia, symph. poem 
(1928; Rome, Jan. 22, 1933); Voice in the 
Wilderness, with cello obbligato, in 6 move- 
ments (1936; 1st. perf. Los Angeles, Jan. 21, 
1937); Evocations, symph. suite in 3 move- 
ments (1937; San Francisco, Feb. 11, 1938) ; 
violin concerto (1938; 1st perf. by Szigeti, 
Cleveland, Dec. 15, 1938) ; Suite sympho- 
nique (Philadelphia, Oct. 26, 1945); Con- 
certo symphonique for piano and orch. (Edin- 
burgh, Sept. 3, 1949) ; Scherzo Fantasque for 
piano and orch. (Chicago, Dec. 2, 1950) 
In Memoriam (1952); Suite hebralque for 
viola and orch. (Chicago, Jan. 1, 1953) 
Sinfonia breve (B.B.C., London, April 11 
1953); Concerto Grosso No. 2 for string 
orch. (B.B.C., London, April 11, 1953) 
Symphony for trombone solo and orch 
(1953-54; Houston, Texas, April 4, 1956) 
Symphony in E-flat (1954-55; London 
Feb. 15, 1956) ; Proclamation for trum 



pet and orch. (1955). Chamber music: 
4 Episodes for chamber orch. (1926) ; Quin- 
tet for piano and strings, with use of quarter- 
tones (1923; N. Y. League of Composers, 
Nov. 11, 1923); 1st string quartet (N. Y., 
Dec. 29, 1916); 2 suites for string quartet 
(1925); 3 Nocturnes for piano trio (1924); 
suite for viola and piano (Coolidge prize, 
1919; perf. Pittsfield, Mass., 1919; also ar- 
ranged for orch.) ; 1st violin sonata (1920) ; 
2nd violin sonata, Poeme mystique, in 1 
movement (1924); Baal Shem, for violin 
and piano (1923; also arranged for orch., 
1939) ; Meditation hebraique and From Jew- 
ish Life, for cello and piano (1925); piano 
sonata (1935); 2nd string quartet (1946; 
received the N. Y. Music Critics Circle 
Award for chamber music, 1947); 3d string 
quartet (1951); 4th string quartet (1953); 
other compositions for violin and piano (Mel- 
ody, Exotic Night, etc. ) ; further piano works 
(Poems of the Sea, In the Night, both ar- 
ranged for orch. ; Nirvana, Five Sketches in 
Sepia, etc J; a modern Hebrew ritual Sacred 
Service (1930-33; world premiere at Turin, 
Jan. 12, 1934; N. Y., April 11, 1934); 
Historiettes au crepuscule, 4 songs for mezzo 
soprano and piano (1903). Bloch has also 
written Man and Music, in the 'Mus. Quar- 
terly' (Oct., 1933); other articles in various 
musical journals. In order to develop a 
greater interest in the music of Bloch, the 
Ernest Bloch Society was founded in 1937. 
Cf. Paul Rosenfeld, in Musical Portraits 
(1920); G. M. Gatti, Ernest Bloch, in the 
'Mus. Quarterly' (1921); Roger Sessions, 
Ernest Bloch, in 'Modern Music' (1927); 
R. Stackpole, Ernest Bloch, in 'Modern Mu- 
sic' (1927); Mary Tibaldi Chiesa, Biblio- 
grafia delle opere musicali di Ernest Bloch 
(Turin, 1931) and Ernest Bloch (Turin, 
1933); D. Newlin, The Later Works of 
Ernest Bloch, in the 'Mus. Quarterly' (Oct., 

Bloch, Suzanne, lutenist and harpsichord- 
ist, daughter of Ernest Bloch; b. Geneva, 
Aug. 7, 1907. She came to the U. S. with 
her father; studied with him and with 
Roger Sessions; then in Paris with Nadia 
Boulanger. She became interested in early 
polyphonic music and began to practice on 
old instruments so as to be able to perform 
the music on instruments for which it was 
written. She has appeared in numerous 
lecture recitals, at museums and colleges in 
America and Europe. 

Blockx (blohx) , Jan, Flemish composer; b. 
Antwerp, Jan. 25, 1851; d. there May 26, 
1912. He studied piano at the Flemish Music 
School with Callaerts and composition with 

Bcnoit. In 1886, became teacher of harmony 
at the Antwerp Cons.; also was musical di- 
rector of the 'Cercle artistiquc' and other 
societies. With Bcnoit, he is regarded as the 
strongest representative of the Flemish school 
in Belgium; however, in his music, he fol- 
lowed traditional European methods; his 
operas betray a Wagnerian influence. He 
wrote the operas Jets vergeten (Antwerp, 
1877); Maitre Martin (Brussels, Nov. 30, 
1892); Herbergprinses (Antwerp, Oct. 10, 
1896; perf. in French as Princesse d'Au- 
berge, N. Y., March 10, 1909) ; Thyl Uylen- 
spiegel (Brussels, Jan. 18, 1900) ; De Bruid 
der Zee (Antwerp, Nov. 30, 1901; his best 
work) ; De Kapel (Antwerp, Nov. 7, 1903) ; 
Baldie (Antwerp, Jan. 25., 1908; revised 
and perf. in Antwerp, Jan. 14, 1912, under 
the title Chanson d' amour) ; a ballet Mil- 
enka (1887); Rubens, overture for orch.; 
Romance for violin and orch. ; many choral 
works with orch.: Vredezang; Het droom 
vant paradies; De klokke Roelandt; Op den 
stroom; Scheldezang. See L. Solvay, Notice 
sur Jan Blockx (1920); F. Blockx, Jan 
Blockx (1943). 

Blodek, Wilhelm, Czech composer; b. 
Prague, Oct. 3, 1834; d. there, May 1, 
1874. He studied with J. B. Kittl and A. 
Dreyschock; taught for three years in Pol- 
and; then returned to Prague, and became 
prof, of flute-playing of the Prague Cons. 
(1860-70). In 1870 he became insane and 
spent the rest of his life in an asylum. His 
opera in the Czech language V Studni (In 
the Well) was produced with excellent suc- 
cess in Prague (Nov. 17, 1867) ; it was also 
given in German under the title Im Brun- 
nen (Leipzig, 1893). His second opera, Zitek, 
remained unfinished; it was completed by 
F. X. Vana, and prod, in Prague at Blodek's 
centennial (Oct. 3, 1934). Blodek also 
wrote a flute concerto (1862) and a sym- 
phony (1866). 

Blodgett, Benjamin Colman, American 
organist; b. Boston, March 12, 1838; d. 
Seattle, Sept. 22, 1925. He studied in Bos- 
ton; played the organ in churches there. In 
1878 he was appointed prof, of music at 
Smith College, where he established and 
was director of the Department of Music; 
then organist at Stanford Univ. (1906-14); 
finally settled in Seattle. 

Blom, Eric, eminent English writer on 
music; b. Bern, Switzerland, Aug. 20, 1888; A L>i 
of Danish and British extraction on his fa- &pr. 
ther's side; his mother was Swiss. Fie was VI S*] 
educated in England ; wrote program notes 
for the Queen's Hall Concerts in London 



(1919-26) in collaboration with Rosa New- 
march. He was the London music corres- 
pondent of the 'Manchester Guardian' 
( 1923-31 ); music critic of the 'Birmingham 
Post' (1931-46) and of 'The Observer' (from 
1949) ; was editor of 'Music & Letters' 
from 1937-50, and again from 1954; also 
ed. the new series 'Master Musicians.' In 
1946 he was elected member of the Music 
Committee of the British Council; in 1948 
became member of the Royal Musical As- 
sociation. In 1955 he received the order of 
Commander of the British Empire in recog- 
nition of his services to music, and the hon. 
D. Litt. from Birmingham Univ. In his writ- 
ing he combines an enlightened penetration 
of musical esthetics with a capacity for pre- 
senting his subjects in a brilliant journal- 
istic style. His books include: Stepchildren 
of Music (1923); The Romance of the 
Piano (1927); A General Index to Modern 
Musical Literature in the English Language 
(1927; indexes periodicals for the years 
1915-26); The Limitations of Music 
(1928); Mozart (in 'Master Musicians,' 
1935) ; Beethoven's Pianoforte Sonatas Dis- 
cussed (1938) ; A Musical Postbag (collected 
essays; 1941); Music in England (1942; re- 
vised edition, 1947) ; Some Great Composers 
( 1 944 ) ; also contributed articles to the 
'Sibelius Symposium' (1947), etc. In 1946 
Blom published his first lexicographical 
work, Everyman's Dictionary of Music (2nd 
revised ed., 1954), comprising, in one com- 
pact volume, a great number of biographical 
and terminological entries. In 1946 he was 
entrusted with the preparation of a newly 
organized and greatly expanded edition of 
Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians. 
It was brought out under his editorship in 
1954, in 9 volumes, to which Blom himself 
contributed hundreds of articles, and trans- 
lated articles by foreign contributors. This 
monumental edition is by far the most com- 
prehensive reference work on music in the 
English language. 

Blomdahl, Karl-Birger, Swedish composer; 
b. Vaxjo, Oct. 19, 1916. He studied compo- 
sition with Hilding Rosenberg in Stock- 
holm; then studied in Paris and Rome. In 
his works he has adapted a progressive idiom 
of the neo-classical type. He has written 3 
symphonies (1943; 1947; 1948); viola con- 
certo (1941); violin concerto (1947); and 
several works for various chamber groups. 

Bloomfield, Fannie. See Zeisler, Fannie 

Blondeau (blohn-doh') , Pierre- Auguste- 
Louis, French violinist and composer; b. 

Paris, Aug. 15, 1784; d. there, 1856. He 
studied at the Paris Cons, with Baillot, Gos- 
sec and Mehul; won the Prix de Rome in 
1808 with his cantata, Maria Stuart; was 
viola player in the Grand Opera Orch. until 
1842. He wrote an opera, Alia fontana; a 
ballet; 3 overtures; church music; chamber 
music; piano pieces and songs; also a num- 
ber of theoretical works. 

Blow, (Dr.) John, great English com- 
poser and organist; b. Newark-on-Trent, 
Nottinghamshire, Feb. (baptized 23rd), 
1648/9; d. Westminster (London), Oct. 1, 
1708. In 1660-61 he was a chorister at the 
Chapel Royal, under Henry Cooke; he 
later studied organ with Christopher Gib- 
bons. His progress was rapid, and on Dec. 
3, 1668, he was appointed organist of 
Westminster Abbey. In 1679 he left this 
post and Purcell, who had been Blow's stu- 
dent, became his successor. After Purcell's 
untimely death in 1695, Blow was reap- 
pointed, and remained at Westminster Abbey 
until his death; he was buried there, in the 
north aisle. He married Elizabeth Bradcock 
in 1673; she died in 1683 in childbirth, 
leaving five children. Blow held the rank of 
Gentleman of the Chapel Royal from March 
16, 1673/4; on July 13, 1674, he succeeded 
Humfrey as Master of the Children; was 
Master of the Choristers at St. Paul's (1687- 
1702/3). He held the honorary Lambeth 
degree of Mus. Doc, conferred on him in 
1677 by the Dean of Canterbury. Still as a 
young chorister of the Chapel Royal, Blow 
began to compose church music; in col- 
laboration with Humfrey and William Tur- 
ner, he wrote the Club Anthem ('I will 
always give thanks') ; at the behest of 
Charles II, he made a two-part setting of 
Herrick's 'Goe, perjur'd man.' He wrote 
many secular part-songs, among them an 
ode for New Year's day, 1681/82 ('Great 
sir, the joy of all our hearts' ) , an ode for St. 
Cecilia; 2 anthems for the coronation of 
James II; Epicedium for Queen Mary 
(1695) and Ode on the Death of Purcell 
(1696). Blow's collection of 50 songs, Am- 
phion Anglicus, was published in 1 700. His 
best known work is Masque for the Enter- 
tainment of the King: Venus and Adonis, 
written about 1685; this is his only com- 
plete score for the stage, but he contributed 
separate songs for numerous dramatic plays. 
Purcell regarded Blow as "one of the great- 
est masters in the world." 14 large works 
by Blow, anthems and harpsichord pieces, 
have been preserved ; 1 1 anthems are printed 
in Boyce's Cathedral Musick (1760-78). The 
vocal score of his masque Venus and Adonis 
was published by G. E. P. Arkwright in the 



Old English Edition (No. 25; 1902); the 
complete score was published by the 'Edi- 
tions dc l'Oiseau Lyre' as edited by Anthony 
Lewis (Paris, 1939). Bibl.: G. E. P. Ark- 
wright's introduction to 'Six Songs by Dr. 
John Blow' in the Old English Edition (No. 
23; 1900) ; H. W. Shaw's John Blow, Doctor 
of Music, in the 'Musical Times' (Oct.-Dcc, 
1937; also separately, London, 1943); id., 
Blow's Use of the Ground Bass, in 'Mus. 
Quarterly' (Jan., 1938) ; id., John Blow's 
Anthems, in 'Music & Letters' (Oct. 1938); 
H. L. Clarke, John Blow; a Tercentenary 
Survey, in the 'Mus. Quarterly' (July, 1949). 

Blum, Robert, Swiss composer, b. Zurich, 
Nov. 27, 1900. He studied at the Zurich 
Cons, with Andreae, Jarnach and others; 
later went to Berlin where he studied with 
Busoni (1923). Upon his return to Switzer- 
land, he devoted himself to choral conduct- 
ing. In 1943 he was appointed prof, at the 
Music Academy in Zurich. As a composer, 
he cultivates polyphonic music in the old 
style, embanked within a modern harmonic 
framework. Works: operas Amarapura, Res- 
urrection and Susanna; 4 symphonies; Lam- 
entatio Angelorum for orch. ; P assionskonzert 
for organ and string orch. (1943); viola 
concerto (1950) ; chamber music; many fine 
choral works. 

Blume, Clemens, German music scholar; 
b. Billerbeck, Jan. 29, 1862; d. Konigstein, 
April 8, 1932. He studied theology; then 
taught it at the Catholic Univ. in Frank- 
furt. He was regarded as an outstanding au- 
thority on texts of medieval Latin hymns. 
His books include Cursus Sanctus Benedicti 
(liturgic hymns of the 6th to 9th centuries; 
1908) ; Guide to Chevalier's Repertorium 
Hymnologicum (1911); Analecta hymnica 
medii aevi (his standard work; 1896-1922; 
vols. 1-48, co-ed. with C. M. Dreves; some 
vols, with H. M. Bannister). A selection 
from this valuable source book of hymnologi- 
cal research was extracted as Ein Jahrtau- 
send lateinischer Hymnendichtung (2 vols., 
1909). Blume also published Unsere litur- 
gischen Lieder (Pustet, 1932). 

Blume, Friedrich, eminent German music- 
ologist and editor; b. Schluchtern, Jan. 5, 
1893. He was the son of a Prussian govern- 
ment functionary; first studied medicine in 
Eisenach (1911); then philosophy in Mu- 
nich, and music in Munich and Berlin. Dur- 
ing World War I he was in the German 
army; was captured by the British and 
spent three years in a British prison camp. 
In 1919 he resumed his studies at the Univ. 
of Leipzig, where he presented his disserta- 

tion Studien zur Vorgeschichte der Orches- 
ter suite im 15. und 16. Jahrhundert (1921). 
He was appointed lecturer (1923) and 
then privatdozent (1925) at the Univ. of 
Berlin; published the treatise Das mono- 
dische Prinzip in der protestantischen Kirch- 
enmusik (1925). Further writings: Die Kul- 
lur der Abtei Reichenau (1925); Die 
evangelische Kirchenmusik in Biicken's 
'Handbuch der Musikwissenschaft' (1931); 
Hermann Abert und die Musikwissenschaft 
in 'Abert-Festschrift' (1928) and Abert's 
Gesammelte Schriften und Vortrdge (1929), 
both edited by Blume. He prepared a col- 
lected edition of works by M. Praetorius 
(20 vols, in 155 installments; 1928-40) ; also 
edited a Passion by Demantius, Sacri con- 
certi by Schiitz; piano sonatas of Wilhelm 
Friedemann Bach, and Geistliche Musik am 
Hofe des Landgrafen Moritz; published mi- 
nor studies on Mozart's piano concertos, on 
the works of Josquin des Prez (1929), and 
on Haydn's string quartets (1931). He was 
general editor of the valuable collection of 
old polyphonic music Das Chorwerk (until 
1939, 50 vols.; includes works of Pierre de 
la Rue, Demantius, Josquin des Prez, Pur- 
cell, etc.). In 1943 he was entrusted with 
the preparation of the encyclopedia Die 
Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart, which 
began appearing in 1949. Under Blume's 
direction this work has assumed monumen- 
tal proportions; 50 installments in 5 vols, 
were publ. before 1957, reaching the let- 
ter K. 

Blumenfeld, Felix Michailovitch, Russian 
composer and conductor; b. Kovalevska, 
Govt, of Kherson, April 19, 1863; d. Mos- 
cow, Jan. 21, 1931. He studied at the St. 
Petersburg Cons. (1881-85); taught there 
until 1897. He was conductor of the Im- 
perial Operas at St. Petersburg (1898-1912). 
In 1918 he became professor at the Moscow 
Cons. His works, from op. 1 to op. 46, are 
published by Belaiev. They include a sym- 
phony, To the Memory of the Beloved Dead; 
a string quartet, piano pieces and songs. 

Blumenschein, William Leonard, composer 
and choral conductor; b. Brensbach, Ger- 
many, Dec. 16, 1849; d. Dayton, Ohio, 
March 27, 1916. He studied various instru- 
ments and theory at the Leipzig Cons, with 
Wenzel and Reinecke (1869-72) ; then came 
to the U. S. and settled in Dayton, Ohio 
as organist and director of several choral 
societies. He published 50 effective piano 
pieces in the salon style; 60 anthems and 
sacred songs; secular songs and choruses. 

Blumenthal, Jacob (Jacques), pianist; b. 



Hamburg, Oct. 4, 1829; d. London, May 
17, 1908. He studied music in Hamburg 
and Vienna; then at the Paris Cons. (1846) 
with Herz and Halevy; settled in London 
( 1 848 ) as teacher ; also held the post of 
pianist to the Queen. He composed many 
melodious piano pieces in the salon style. 

Blumer, Theodor, German conductor; b. 
Dresden, March 24, 1882. He was a pupil 
of Draeseke; occupied various posts as radio 
conductor in Germany; has written several 
comic operas, among them Der Funf-Uhr-Tee 
(Five o'clock Tea) and Trau schau wem! ; 
also the orchestral pieces Carnivals-Episode, 
Erlbsung, Legende der Tanzerin Thais, and 
Heiteres Spiel. After World War II he lived 
in Berlin. 

Blumner, Martin, German choral con- 
ductor and composer; b. Furstenberg, Meck- 
lenburg, Nov. 21, 1827; d. Berlin, Nov. 16, 
1901. He studied philosophy and mathemat- 
ics at Berlin Univ.; then music with Sieg- 
fried Dehn. In 1847 he became a member 
of the Berlin Singakademie ; appointed asso- 
ciate conductor (1853) and chief conductor 
(1876). He composed the oratorios Abra- 
ham (1860) and Der Fall Jerusalems 
(1874); the cantatas Columbus (1852), In 
Zeit und Ewigkeit (1885), and Festival Can- 
tata (1891) ; a Te Deum in 8 parts; motets; 
psalms; etc. — Cf. E. Dryander, Zum Ge- 
dachtnis Martin Blumner (Berlin, 1901). 

Bliithner, Julius (Ferdinand), celebrated 
German piano maker; b. Falkenhain, near 
Merseburg, March 11, 1824; d. Leipzig, 
April 13, 1910. In 1853 he founded his 
establishment at Leipzig with three work- 
men; by 1897 it had grown to a sizable 
company, producing some 3,000 pianos year- 
ly. Bliithner's specialty was the 'Aliquot- 
fliigel,' a grand piano with a sympathetic 
octave-string stretched over and parallel with 
each unison struck by the hammers. He was 
awarded many medals for his contributions 
to the advancement of piano construction. 
He was co-author, with H. Gretschel, of Der 
Pianofortebau (1872; 3d ed. revised by R. 
Hannemann, Leipzig, 1909). 

Boccherini (bok-ka-re'-ne), Luigi, famous 
Italian composer; b. Lucca, Feb. 19, 1743; 
d. Madrid, May 28, 1805. He was a 
pupil of Abbate Vannucci, and later studied 
in Rome (1757); returned to Lucca for a 
time as cellist in the theater orchestra. He 
then undertook a concert tour with the vio- 
linist Filippo Manfredi; the high point of 
their success was in Paris, when they ap- 
peared at the Concerts Spirituel. So popular 

was Boccherini as a performer, that his com- 
positions were solicited by the leading Paris 
publishers; his first publications were 6 
string quartets and 2 books of string trios. 
In 1796 Boccherini received a flattering invi- 
tation to the Madrid court, and became 
chamber composer to the Infante Luis, and, 
after Luis' death (1785), to King Carlos 
III. From 1787 he was also court composer 
to Friedrich Wilhelm II of Prussia, an 
amateur cello player. In this capacity, 
Boccherini was in Germany for a time; after 
the King's death (1797), he returned to 
Madrid. In 1800 he enjoyed the patronage 
of Napoleon's brother, Lucien Bonaparte, 
French ambassador to Madrid. Boccherini's 
last years were spent in ill health and pov- 
erty. He was buried in Madrid; in 1927 his 
remains were transferred to Lucca, and re- 
interred with great solemnity. Boccherini 
was an exceptionally prolific composer of 
chamber music. The list includes 20 cham- 
ber symphonies; 2 octets; 16 sextets; 125 
string quintets; 12 piano quintets; 18 quin- 
tets for strings and flute (or oboe); 102 
string quartets; 60 string trios; 21 violin 
sonatas; 6 cello sonatas; also 4 cello concer- 
tos. He further wrote 2 operas; a Christmas 
cantata; a Mass; etc. A full catalogue was 
compiled by L. Picquot in his monograph on 
Boccherini ( Paris, 1851). His music is mark- 
ed by natural melody and fluency of instru- 
mental writing, if not by originality of style. 
He had profound admiration for the music 
of Haydn; indeed, so close is Boccherini's 
style to Haydn's that the affinity gave rise 
to the saying "Boccherini is the wife of 
Haydn." Bibl. : D. M. Ceru, Cenni intorno 
alia vita e le opere di Luigi Boccherini 
(Lucca, 1864) ; H. M. Schletterer, Boccher- 
ini (Leipzig, 1882); G. Malfatti, Luigi 
Boccherini neW arte, nella vita e nelle opere 
(Lucca, 1905) ; R. Sondheimer, Boccherini 
e la sinfonia in do maggiore, in 'Rivista 
Musicale Italiana' (1920); C. Bouvet, 
Boccherini inconnu in 'Revue de musico- 
logie' (Nov., 1929) ; Georges de Saint-Foix, 
La correspondance de Boccherini avec I. 
Pleyel in 'Revue de musicologie' (Feb., 
1930) ; L. Parodi, Luigi Boccherini (1930) ; 
A. Bonaventura, Boccherini (Milan, 1931). 

Bochsa, Robert-Nicolas-Charles, celebrated 
harpist; son of Karl Bochsa, a Bohemian 
flute player (d. 1821); b. Montmedy, 
Meuse, Aug. 9, 1789; d. Sydney, Australia, 
Jan. 6, 1856. He first studied music with 
his father; played in public at the age of 
seven; wrote a symphony when he was nine, 
and an opera Trajan at fifteen. He then 
studied with Franz Beck in Bordeaux, and 



later at the Paris Cons, with Mehul and 
Catel (1806). His harp teachers were Nadcr- 
mann and Marin. Of an inventive nature, 
Bochsa developed novel technical devices for 
harp playing, transforming the harp into a 
virtuoso instrument. He was the court harp- 
ist to Napoleon, and to Louis XVIII. He 
wrote 8 operas for the Opera-Comique 
(1813-16) ; several ballets, an oratorio, and a 
great number of works for the harp; also a 
Method for harp. In 1817 he became in- 
volved in some forgeries, and fled to London 
to escape prison. He became very popular as 
a harp teacher in London Society; organ- 
ized a series of oratorio productions with Sir 
George Smart (1822). He was also the first 
professor of harp playing at the Academy 
of Music in London, but lost his position 
when the story of his dishonest conduct 
became widely known. However, he obtained 
a position as conductor of the Italian Opera 
at the King's Theatre (1826-32). Another 
scandal marked Bochsa's crooked road to 
success and notoriety when he eloped with 
the soprano singer Ann Bishop, the wife of 
Sir Henry Bishop. He gave concerts with 
her in Europe, America, and Australia, where 
he died. See a series of articles on Bochsa 
by Arthur Pougin under the title Un musi- 
cien voleur, faussaire et bigame in 'Le 
Menestrel' (Jan. 19 to March 9, 1907). 

Bockelmann, Rudolph, German baritone; 
b. Bodenteich, April 2, 1892. He studied 
singing with Oscar Lassner in Leipzig; ap- 
peared as a baritone at the Neues Theater 
(1921-26) ; at the Stadttheater in Hamburg 
(1926-32), and at the Staatsoper in Berlin 
(1932-45). After World War I he settled in 
Hamburg as a singing teacher. He also sang 
with the Chicago Opera (1930-31); was 
particularly noted for his interpretation of 
Wagnerian baritone roles. 

Bockh, August, German authority on 
Greek literature and music; b. Karlsruhe, 
Nov. 24, 1785; d. Berlin, Aug. 3, 1867. He 
studied philology at the Univ. of Halle; re- 
ceived his doctorate with the treatise De 
harmonice veterum (1807). In 1811 he be- 
came professor at the Univ. of Berlin, a 
position which he retained until his death, 
56 years later. He edited the works of Pin- 
dar with an introduction De metris Pindari 
from which modern research on old Greek 
music received a new impetus. Bibl. : M. 
Hoffmann, A. Bockh (Leipzig, 1901); G. 
Lehmann, Theorie und Geschichte der grie- 
chischen Harmonik in der Darstellung durch 
August Bockh (Wiirzburg, 1935). 

Bocquillon-Wilhem (boh-ke-yohn'), G. L. 
See Wilhem. 

Bodanzky, Artur, famous Austrian con- 
ductor; b. Vienna, Dec. 16, 1877; d. New 
York, Nov. 23, 1939. He studied at the 
Vienna Cons., and later with Zemlinsky. He 
began his carer as a violinist at the Vienna 
Opera. In 1900 he received his first appoint- 
ment as conductor, leading an operetta sea- 
son in Budweis; in 1902 he became assist- 
ant to Mahler at the Vienna Opera; con- 
ducted in Berlin (1905) and in Prague 
(1906-9). In 1909 he was engaged as mu- 
sic director at Mannheim. In 1912 he ar- 
ranged a memorial Mahler Festival, con- 
ducting a huge ensemble of 1,500 vocalists 
and instrumentalists. He conducted Parsifal 
at Covent Garden, London, in 1914; his 
success there led to an invitation to conduct 
the German repertory at the Metropolitan 
Opera House; he opened his series with 
Gbtterdammerung (Nov. 17, 1915). From 
1916 to 1931 he was director of the Society 
of Friends of Music in New York; in 1919 
he also conducted the New Symph. Orch. 
He made several practical arrangements of 
celebrated operas (Oberon, Don Giovanni, 
Fidelio, etc.) which he used for his pro- 
ductions with the Metropolitan Opera. His 
style of conducting was in the Mahler tra- 
dition, with emphasis on climactic effects 
and contrasts of light and shade. 

Bodenschatz, Erhard, German theologian 
and music editor; b. Lichtenberg, 1576; d. 
Gross-Osterhausen, near Querfurt, 1636. He 
was a pupil of Calvisius in Pforta; then 
studied theology in Leipzig. In 1600 he be- 
came cantor in Schulpforta; in 1603 was 
pastor in Rehausen, and in 1608, in Gross- 
Osterhausen, where he remained until his 
death. He publ. several valuable collections 
of motets and hymns; particularly important 
is Florilegium Portense in 2 parts, of which 
the first was publ. in Leipzig in 1603 (1st 
ed. with 89 motets; 2nd ed. in 1618 with 
120 motets); 2nd part (Leipzig, 1621) con- 
tained 150 motets, all by contemporary com- 
posers. There have been several reprints. He 
also publ. Florilegium selectissimorum hymn- 
orum in 4 vols. (Leipzig, 1606). Boden- 
schatz's own compositions are not distinctive. 
Bibl. : Otto Riemer, Erhard Bodenschatz und 
sein Florilegium Portense (Leipzig, 1928). 

Bodky, Erwin, German-American harp- 
sichordist and music scholar; b. Ragnit, 
March 7, 1896. He studied in Berlin with 
Busoni and Richard Strauss. From 1926-33 
he was prof, at the Academy for Church 



Music and School Music in Berlin; in 1933 
went to Amsterdam; in 1938 came to Amer- 
ica. He taught at the Longy School of Music, 
Cambridge, Mass. (until 1948) ; in 1949 was 
appointed prof, at Brandeis Univ. at Wal- 
tham. He is the founder of the Cambridge 
Society for Early Music; has appeared on 
television as lecturer and harpsichord play- 
er; made recordings for various phonograph 
companies. He publ. a valuable treatise, Der 
Vortrag alter Klaviermusik (Berlin, 1932 ) , 
dealing with the use of the clavichord in 
Bach's works; has contributed to various 
music magazines. 

Boeckh, August. See Bockh. 

Boehe, Ernst, German composer and con- 
ductor; b. Munich, Dec. 27, 1880; d. Lud- 
wigshafen, Nov. 16, 1938. He studied with 
Rudolf Louis and Thuille in Munich; in 
1907 was associate conductor, with Courvoi- 
sier, of the Munich 'Volkssymphoniekon- 
zerte'; from 1913-20 was court conductor 
at Oldenburg; then conducted concerts in 
Ludwigshafen. His works are of a program- 
matic type, the orchestration emphasizing 
special sonorities of divided strings, massive 
wind instruments, and various percussive ef- 
fects; his tone-poems show a decisive Wag- 
nerian influence, having a system of identi- 
fication motifs. His most ambitious work 
was an orchestral tetralogy on Homer's 
Odyssey, under the general title Odysseus' 
Fahrten, comprising: Odysseus' Ausfahrt 
und Schiffbruch (Munich, Feb. 20, 1903; 
Philadelphia, Dec. 3, 1904), Die Insel der 
Kirke, Die Klage der Nausikaa, and Odys- 
seus' Heimkehr; also the symph. poem 
Taormina (Essen, 1906; Boston Symph., 
Nov. 29, 1907); several songs with orch.; 
etc. — Cf. Edgar Istel, Ernst Boehe in 'Mon- 
ographien moderner Musiker' (Leipzig, 

Boehm. See Bohm. 

Boehme. See Bohme. 

Boekelman (boo'-kel-mahn), Bernardus, 
pianist; b. Utrecht, Holland, June 9, 1838; 
d. New York, Aug. 2, 1930. He studied with 
his father; and at the Leipzig Cons, with 
Moscheles, Richter, and Hauptmann. In 1864 
he emigrated to Mexico; in 1866 settled in 
New York and then taught in various private 
schools. He published some piano pieces, 
edited the collection 'Century of Music' His 
analytical edition of Bach's Well-Tempered 
Clavichord and 2-part Inventions in colors 
(to indicate part-writing) is unique. 

Boellmann, Leon, French composer; b. 
Ensisheim, Alsace, Sept. 25, 1862; d. Paris, 
Oct. 11, 1897. He studied organ with Gi- 
gout; later was organ teacher in Paris. He 
left 68 published works, of which his Vari- 
ations symphoniques for cello and orch. be- 
came part of the repertoiy of cello players. 
He wrote a symphony, Fantaisie dialoguee 
for organ and orch.; Suite gothique for or- 
gan; piano quartet; piano trio; cello sonata; 
Rapsodie carnavalesque for piano 4 hands; 
published a collection of 100 pieces for organ 
under the title Heures mystiques. Bibl. : P. 
Locard, L. Boellmann (Strasbourg, 1901). 

Boely, Alexandre Pierre Francois, French 
organist and composer; b. Versailles, April 
19, 1785; d. Paris, Dec. 27, 1858. His father, 
a court musician, gave him his first instruc- 
tion in music. Boely studied piano and or- 
gan; occupied various positions as church 
organist in Paris. As a teacher he exercised 
a profound influence; Franck and Saint- 
Saens owed much to him in the development 
of their style of organ writing. Bibl. : A. 
Gastoue, A Great French Organist A. Boely 
and His Works in the 'Mus. Quarterly' 
(July, 1944); this article gives a list of 
works and a bibliography of the principal 
studies on Boely. 

Boelza, Igor, Russian composer and music- 
ologist; b. Kielce, Poland, Feb. 8, 1904. He 
studied at the Kiev Cons.; taught there 
(1929-41). He was editor of the Sovietskaya 
Musica (1938-41); member of the board of 
the State Music Publishing House in Mos- 
cow (1941-48). He has written 5 symphon- 
ies, an overture, Lyric Poem, a piano con- 
certo, an organ concerto, chamber music 
and songs. He published Handbook of Soviet 
Musicians (London, 1943); Czech Opera 
Classics (Moscow, 1951); History of Polish 
Musical Culture (Moscow, 1954). 

Boepple, Paul, choral conductor and peda- 
gogue; b. Basel, Switzerland, July 19, 1896. 
He studied at the Basel Univ.; then took 
courses at the Dalcroze Institute in Geneva, 
and adopted the Dalcroze system in his own 
teaching of music; was a member of the 
faculty of the Dalcroze Institute (1918-26). 
In 1926 he settled in the U. S. ; was director 
of the Dalcroze School of Music in New 
York (1926-32); taught at the Chicago 
Musical College (1932-34) and at West- 
minster Choir School in Princeton (1935- 
38) ; in 1936 he assumed the direction of the 
Dessoff Choirs and the Motet Singers in 
New York. He conducted the world premiere 
of Honegger's King David in Switzerland 
(1921) and many other choral works of the 
modern school. 



Boer (boor), Coenrad Lodcwijk Walthcr, 
Dutch cellist; b. The Hague, Sept. 2, 1891. 
He studied at the Amsterdam Cons.; gradu- 
ated with honors; in 1920 appointed instruc- 
tor ; has also conducted a military band ; 
toured in Europe as a cellist. He has pub- 
lished several valuable papers on old music. 

Boero, Felipe, Argentine opera composer; 
b. Buenos Aires, May 1, 1884. He studied 
with Pablo Berutti; received a government 
prize for further study in Europe and at- 
tended the classes of Vidal and Faure at 
the Paris Cons. (1912-14). Returning to 
Buenos Aires he became active as a teacher. 
Among his operas the following were pro- 
duced at the Teatro Colon: Tucumdn 
(June 29, 1918) ; Ariana y Dionisios (Aug. 
5, 1920); Raquela (June 25, 1923); Las 
Bacantes (Sept. 19, 1925); El Matrero 
(July 12, 1929) and Siripo (June 8, 1937). 

Boers (boors), Joseph Karel, Dutch music 
scholar; b. Nimwegen, Aug. 4, 1812; d. 
Delft, Nov. 1, 1896. He was a pupil of 
Liibeck at The Hague Cons.; then was 
theater conductor in Holland and in 
France; in 1841 returned to Nimwegen as 
teacher and choral conductor; in 1853 set- 
tled in Delft as music director. He wrote 
an interesting History of Musical Instru- 
ments in the Middle Ages; also a complete 
bibliography of ancient and modern musi- 
cal works produced in the Netherlands. 

Boesset (bwehs-sa.'), Antoine, Sieur de 
Villedieu, French composer; b. c. 1585; d. 
Paris, Dec. 8, 1643. He was court musician 
to Louis XIII; celebrated as the composer 
of many Airs du cour in 4 or 5 parts, pub- 
lished from 1617 to 1642; reprinted by 
H. Expert in 'Chants de France et dTtalie.' 

Boetius (bo-a'ti-us) (or Boethius), Anicius 
Manlius Torquatus Severinus, Roman phil- 
osopher and mathematician; b. Rome, c. 
480 A.D.; executed in 524 on suspicion of 
treason, by the Emperor Theodoric, whose 
counsellor he had been for many years. 
Boetius wrote a treatise in 5 books, De In- 
stitutione Musica, which was the chief 
source book for the theorizing monks of the 
Middle Ages; this treatise was published 
at Venice (1491; 1499), at Basel (1570), 
at Leipzig (1867), and in a German trans- 
lation by Oscar Paul (Leipzig, 1872); a 
French translation, by Fetis, remains in MS. 
Whether the notation commonly called 'Boe- 
tian" (using the letters A to P for the two 
octaves from our A to a') is properly at- 
tributable to him, has been questioned for 
about three centuries (cf. Meibom, Antiquae 

rnusicae auctores septem; page 7 of intro- 
duction on Alypius). For a defense of its 
authenticity, sec F. Cclcntano, La Musica 
presso i Romani in 'Rivista musicalc itali- 
ana' (1913). L. Schrade has written several 
essays on Boetius: Das propddeutische Ethos 
in der Musikanschauung des Boetius in 
'Zcitschrift fur Gcschichte der Erziehung und 
des Unterrichts' (1930); Die Stellung der 
Musik in der Philosophic des Boetius in the 
'Archiv fur Geschichtc der Philosophic' 
(1932); and Music in the Philosophy of 
Boetius in the 'Mus. Quarterly' (April, 

Bogatyrev, Anatoly Vasilievitch, Russian 
composer; b. Vitebsk, Aug. 13, 1913. He 
studied at the Belorussian Cons, in Minsk 
with Zolotarev; became instructor there and 
finally was appointed director. Bogatyrev has 
written two patriotic operas, In the Forests 
of Polesye (Moscow, Aug. 28, 1939) and 
Nadezhda Durova (1947); two symphonies; 
the cantatas White Russia and The Lenin- 
graders. Many of his works are inspired 
by the folk music of Belorussia (White 

Boghen, Felice, Italian music editor; b. 
Venice, Jan. 23, 1869; d. Florence, Jan. 25, 
1945. He studied with Martucci, Sgambati 
and Wolf-Ferrari; conducted orchestral con- 
certs and theatrical productions in many 
Italian cities; was director of the School 
of Music at Reggio Emilia, and later taught 
theory at the Royal Music Institute in Flor- 
ence; was pianist of the 'Trio Fiorentino' 
(Boghen, Tignani, and Coen). He edited 
Anciennes chansons de France; Fughe 
d'antichi Maestri italiani; Partite e Cor- 
renti; and selected works of Nardini, Cima- 
rosa, Frescobaldi, Porpora, Tartini, Pasquini, 
Alessandro Scarlatti, Bach, Clementi, Liszt, 
etc.; was co-author with Sgambati of Ap- 
punti ed esempi per I'uso dei pedali del 
Pianoforte (Milan, 1915); also published 
L'Arte di Pasquini (1931); numerous arti- 
cles on piano playing and technique. He 
wrote an opera, Alcestis, which has never 
been performed; also composed some piano 

Bohlmann, Theodor Heinrich Friedrich, 

pianist; b. Osterwieck, Germany, June 23, 
1865; d. Memphis, Tenn., March 18, 1931. 
He was a pupil of Eugene d'Albert and 
Moszkowski; made his debut in Berlin in 
1890; in the same year he emigrated to 
America and settled in Cincinnati as a 



Bohm, Georg, German organist; b. Hohen- 
kirchen, Thuringia, Sept. 2, 1661; d. Liine- 
burg, May 18, 1733. He studied at the 
Univ. of Vienna (1684); was in Hamburg 
in 1693; became organist at the Johannes- 
kirche in Liineburg (1698). His organ pre- 
ludes and harpsichord pieces rank high 
among keyboard works of the time; un- 
doubtedly Bach was influenced by Bohm's 
style of writing. A complete edition of 
Bohm's works was begun by Johannes Wol- 
gast; vol. I containing piano and organ 
works (Leipzig, 1927); vol. II, vocal works 
(Leipzig, 1932). Bibl.: J. Wolgast, Georg 
Bohm (Berlin, 1924) ; also R. Buchmayer, 
Nachrichten iiber das Leben Georg Bohms 
in 'Programm-Buch des 4. Bachfestes' 
(1908); W. Wolffheim, Die Mollersche 
Handschrift in 'Bach-Jahrbuch' (1912). 

Bohm, Joseph, violinist; b. Budapest, 
March 4, 1795; d. Vienna, March 28, 1876. 
He was a pupil of his father; at eight years 
of age he made a concert tour to Poland 
and St. Petersburg, where he studied for 
some years under Pierre Rode. His first con- 
cert at Vienna (1815) was very successful ; 
after a trip to Italy, he was appointed 
(1819) violin professor at the Vienna Cons.; 
retired in 1848. He formed many disting- 
uished pupils, including Joachim, Ernst, 
Auer, Hellmesberger (Sr.), Rappoldi and 

Bohm, Karl, German pianist; b. Berlin, 
Sept. 11, 1844; d. there, April 4, 1920. 
He studied with Loschhorn; lived most of 
his life in Berlin. He wrote a number of 
piano pieces in the salon genre; also songs, 
of which Still wie die Nacht became popular. 

Bohm, Karl, German conductor and 
music director; b. Graz, Aug. 28, 1894. He 
was a pupil of Eusebius Mandyczewski in 
Vienna; also studied law. His successful 
career as a conductor has included engage- 
ments at Graz (1917), the Munich Staats- 
oper (1921), Darmstadt (1927), Hamburg 
(1931), the Dresden State Opera (1934- 
43), the Vienna State Opera (1943-45); 
from 1 945-54 he was guest conductor at var- 
ious European opera houses; in 1954 as- 
sumed the directorship of the Vienna State 
Opera, but the pressure of other engage- 
ments forced him to resign in March 1956. 
He made his first appearance in America 
with the Chicago Symph. Orch., Feb. 9, 

Bohm, Theobald, German flutist and in- 
ventor of the 'Bohm flute' ; b. Munich, April 
9, 1794; d. there, Nov. 25, 1881. He was 

the son of a goldsmith and learned mechan- 
ics in his father's workshop; studied flute 
playing, achieving a degree of virtuosity 
that made him one of the greatest flute 
players of his time; he was appointed court 
musician in 1818; gave concerts in Paris 
and London. His system of construction 
marks a new departure in the making of 
woodwind intruments. To render the flute 
acoustically perfect, he fixed the position 
and size of the holes so as to obtain, not 
convenience in fingering, but purity and full- 
ness of tone; all holes are covered by keys, 
whereby prompt and accurate 'speaking' is 
assured; and the bore is modified, render- 
ing the tone much fuller and mellower. 
Bohm published Vber den Flotenbau und die 
neuesten Verbesserungen desselben (Mainz, 
1847; English transl. by W. S. Broadwood, 
London, 1882); Die Flote und das Floten- 
spiel (Munich, 1871). Cf. Charles Welch, 
History of the Boehm Flute (London, 1883) ; 
V. Mahillon, Etude sur le doigte de la flute 
Boehm (1885); R. Rockstro, A Treatise on 
the Construction, the History and the Prac- 
tice of the Flute (London, 1890). 

Bohme, Franz Magnus, German writer on 
music; b. Willerstedt, near Weimar, March 
11, 1827; d. Dresden, Oct. 18, 1898. He 
was a pupil of Hauptmann and Rietz at 
Leipzig; taught at Dresden (1859-78) and 
at the Hoch Cons, in Frankfurt (1878-85); 
spent the remaining years of his life in Dres- 
den. Writings: Das Oratorium, eine his- 
torische Studie (Leipzig, 1861 ; revised ed., 
Giitersloh, 1887, under the title Geschichte 
des Oratoriums) ; Altdeutsches Liederbuch, 
a collection of German folksongs of the 12th 
to 17th centuries (Leipzig, 1877; later eds. 
1913 and 1925) ; Aufgaben zum Studium 
der Harmonie (Mainz, 1880) ; Kursus in 
Harmonie (Mainz, 1882); Geschichte des 
Tanzes in Deutschland (2 vols., Leipzig, 
1886) ; Volkstiimliche Lieder der Deutschen 
im 18. und 19. Jahrhundert (Leipzig, 
1895) ; Deutsches Kinderlied und Kinder- 
spiel (1897). He edited Erk's Deutscher 
Liederhort (3 vols., 1893-94; new ed., 
1925); also published several books of 
sacred songs and male choruses. 

Bohn, Emil, German music bibliographer; 
b. Bielau, near Neisse, Jan. 14, 1839; d. 
Breslau, July 5, 1909. He studied philology 
at Breslau, and then music; was organist 
of the Breslau Kreuzkirche and founder 
(1881) of the Bohn Choral Society; was 
professor at the Univ. of Breslau, and music 
critic of the 'Breslauer Zeitung' (from 
1884). Publications: Bibliographic der Mu- 
sikdruckwerke bis 1700, welche auf der 



Stadtbibliothek . . . zu Breslau aufbewahrt 
werden (1883); Die musikalischen Hand- 
schriften des 16. und 17. Jahrhunderts in 
der Stadtbibliothek zu Breslau (1890); Die 
Nationalhymnen der europdischen Volker 
(1908); edited piano works of Mendelssohn 
and Chopin. He also published the annota- 
ted chronicle of his choral society: Bohn'- 
scher Gesangverein; 100 historische Konzerte 
in Breslau (1905). 

Bohn, Peter, German organist and teach- 
er; b. Bausendorf, Nov. 22, 1833; d. Trier, 
June 11, 1925. He was organist and teacher 
at Trier from 1852-1905; prepared German 
translations of Franco's Ars cantus mensur- 
abilis (1880); Dialogus de musica of Odo 
de Clugny (1880); Glareanus' Dodecachor- 
don (2 vols., 1888-89) ; and Der Einfluss des 
tonischen Akzents auf die melodische und 
rhythmische Struktur der gregorianischen 
Psalmodie (from 'Paleographie musicale,' 
Solesmes, 1894); also published Das litur- 
gische Rezitativ und dessen Bezeichnung in 
den liturgischen Buchern des Mittelalters 
(1887) and Philipp von Vitry (1890). 

Bolinen, Michael, German bass singer; b. 
Keulen, Jan. 23, 1886. He studied at the 
Keulen Cons.; made his debut at Diisseldorf 
(1910); sang at the Berlin State Opera 
(1912) and at the Bayreuth Festival (1914) ; 
made guest appearances in London, Vienna, 
Barcelona, Stockholm and Buenos Aires; 
made his American debut at the Metropoli- 
tan Opera as Francesco in Mona Lisa 
(March 1, 1923); created the leading part 
in the American performance of Krenek's 
Jonny spielt auf (Jan. 19, 1929); remained 
with the Metropolitan Opera until 1933; 
from 1934-45 was with the Berlin Opera. 

Bohner, Ludwig, German composer; b. 
Tottelstedt, Gotha, Jan. 8, 1787; d. there, 
March 28, 1860. He studied with his father 
and with Johann Christian Kittel, a pupil 
of Bach. Having achieved considerable fame 
as pianist and composer, he failed to estab- 
lish himself socially and economically, owing 
to his personal eccentricities. He wandered 
through Germany, often on foot, and worked 
irregularly as theatrical conductor and con- 
cert pianist. The claim he advanced that 
other composers plagiarized him, is sup- 
ported by the fact that Weber had unin- 
tentionally borrowed one of the themes in 
Der Freischiitz from Bohner's piano con- 
certo. Bohner's life and character are under- 
stood to have inspired the figure of the 
eccentric genius, Kreisler, in E. T. A. Hoff- 
mann's Capellmeister Kreisler, and by the 
same token Schumann's Kreisleriana. — Cf. 

K. F. Bolt, /. L. Bohner. Leben und Werk 
(Hildburghauscn, 1940). 

Bohnke, Emil, viola player and composer; 
b. Zdunska Wola, Poland, Oct. 11, 1888; d. 
Pasewalk, Pomerania, May 11, 1928 (in an 
automobile accident, en route from Berlin to 
Swinemunde). He studied at the Leipzig 
Cons.; then was violist in various chamber 
music groups. He wrote a violin concerto, a 
piano trio, a string quartet, and several 
violin sonatas. 

Boieldieu (bwahl-dyo'), Francois- Adrien, 

celebrated French opera composer; b. 
Rouen, Dec. 16, 1775; d. Jarcy, near Gros- 
bois, Oct. 8, 1834. His father was a func- 
tionary who at one time served as secretary 
to Archbishop Larochefoucauld ; his mother 
had a millinery shop; the family was fairly 
prosperous until the Revolution; the par- 
ents were divorced in 1794. Young Boieldieu 
received excellent instruction from Charles 
Broche, organist and pupil of Padre Martini ; 
stories of Broche's brutality and of Boiel- 
dieu's flight to Paris are fabrications not 
supported by any evidence. At the age of 
fifteen, Boieldieu became assistant organist 
to Broche at the church of St. Andre in 
Rouen. He began to compose piano pieces 
and songs; he was only 17 when his first 
opera La fille coupable (to his father's 
libretto) was successfully produced in Rouen 
(Nov. 2, 1793). The boy adapted himself 
to the revolutionary conditions, and com- 
posed patriotic works which were then in de- 
mand. His Chant populaire pour la Fete de 
la Raison for chorus and orch. was presented 
at the Temple of Reason (former cathedral) 
in Rouen on Nov. 30, 1793. His second 
opera, Rosalie et Myrza was produced in 
Rouen on Oct. 28, 1795. In August 1796 
he set out for Paris where he was befriended 
by the composer Louis Jadin, and was ac- 
cepted in the salon of the piano manufac- 
turer Erard; he met Cherubini and Mehul; 
with the tenor Garat he made a tour of 
Normandy, revisiting Rouen. The material 
success of this tour was so satisfactory that 
Boieldieu was able to pay off all his debts. 
In Paris he found a publisher who printed 
some of his songs (Le Menestrel, S'il est 
vrai que d'etre deux, etc.), and piano son- 
atas (a complete edition of these sonatas 
was republished by G. Favre in 2 albums, 
1944-1945). Boieldieu produced one opera 
after another at the Paris theaters: La 
famille suisse (Feb. 11, 1797); La dot de 
Suzette (Sept. 5, 1797); Zoraine et Zulnare 
(May 10, 1798). As a sign of his growing 
recognition, Boieldieu was appointed prof, 
of piano at the Paris Cons, in 1798. His 



opera Beniowski was produced (June 8, 
1800) with moderate success; but Le Calif e 
de Bagdad (Sept. 16, 1801) received tre- 
mendous acclaim, and became one of Boiel- 
dieu's most enduring operas. On March 19, 
1802, he married the dancer Clotilde Ma- 
fleurai, but her dissolute character made the 
marriage a failure. His opera Ma tante 
Aurore was produced on Jan. 13, 1803. In 
the meantime, Boieldieu received an invita- 
tion from Russia, and left in Oct., 1803 for 
St. Petersburg, his wife remaining in Paris. 
His contract guaranteed him a handsome 
salary of 4,000 rubles annually, his duties 
being to write operas for the Imperial thea- 
ters and supervise music at the court. The 
quality of his music written during his so- 
journ in Russia was not of the highest; the 
opera La jeune femme colere (St. Peters- 
burg, April 18, 1805) was the most suc- 
cessful. A vaudeville, Les Voitures versees 
(St. Petersburg, Dec. 4, 1806) was revised 
and produced in Paris (April 29, 1820) as 
a comic opera with considerable success. 
Other operas staged in St. Petersburg were 
Aline, reine de Golconde (1804); Un tour 
de soubrette: Abderkan (1805); Telemaque 
dans I' isle de Calypso (Dec. 28, 1806); La 
dame invisible (1803); music to Racine's 
Athalie (1808) and Rien de trop ou les 
deux paravents (Dec. 25, 1810). In 1811, 
Boieldieu asked the Russian government to 
release him from further employment (des- 
pite his raise in salary to 5,000 rubles) and 
returned to Paris. His first act was to peti- 
tion for a divorce, which was, however, re- 
jected by the authorities. His estranged wife 
died in 1826, and a few weeks later Boieldieu 
married the singer Jenny Phillis, whom he 
had known in Russia. Once in Paris, Boiel- 
dieu arranged a revival of Ma tante Aurore 
and the first Paris production of Rien de 
trop. He regained the favor of the public 
with Jean de Paris (April 4, 1812) which 
achieved instant popularity. His next operas 
were Le nouveau seigneur de village 
1813) ; La fete du village voisin (March 5, 
1816), and Le petit chaperon rouge (June 
30, 1818; highly successful). In 1817 he 
was appointed professor of composition at 
the Paris Conservatory; resigned in 1826. In 
1821 he was created Chevalier of the Legion 
of Honor. The culmination of his highly 
successful career was reached with the pro- 
duction of his great masterpiece La dame 
blanche (Dec. 10, 1825), which was hailed 
by the public and the press as the French 
answer and challenge to Rossini's rising 
fame in the operatic field. La dame blanche 
had 1000 performances in Paris alone from 
1825 to 1862, and nearly 1700 performances 

before 1914; it also had numerous pro- 
ductions all over the world. At the height 
of his success, Boieldieu developed the first 
signs of a lung disease; his health deterior- 
ated; a trip to Italy (1832) brought no im- 
provement. His pecuniary circumstances were 
affected. Although he was offered his old 
position at the Cons., he could not teach 
because of his loss of voice. In 1833 he re- 
ceived a grant of 6,000 francs from the 
government of Louis Philippe, and retired 
to his country house at Jarcy, where he 
died. During the last years of his life he 
became interested in painting; his pictures, 
showing his considerable talent as a land- 
scape artist, are preserved in the municipal 
museum at Rouen. Among his pupils were 
Fetis, Adam and Zimmerman. The histori- 
cal position of Boieldieu is of great import- 
ance; he was one of the creators of French 
comic opera; he possessed melodic inventive- 
ness and harmonic grace; in addition to 
facility in composition, he largely succeeded 
in attaining perfection of form and fine dra- 
matic balance. Adopting the best devices of 
Italian operatic art, he nevertheless culti- 
vated the French style which laid the foun- 
dation for the brilliant progress of French 
opera in the 19th century. Boieldieu wrote 
40 operas in all, of which 8 are lost; he 
also collaborated with Cherubini in La 
Prisonniere (1799); with Mehul, Kreutzer 
and others in Le Baiser et la quittance 
(1803); with Cherubini, Catel and Isouard 
in Bayard a. Mezieres; with Kreutzer in Les 
Bearnais, ou Henry IV en voyage (1814); 
with Mme. Gail, pupil of Fetis, in Angela, 
ou L' Atelier de Jean Cousin (1814); with 
Herold in Charles de France, ou Amour et 
gloire (1816); with Cherubini, Berton and 
others in Blanche de Provence, ou La Cour 
des Fees (1821); with Auber in Les trois 
Genres (1824); with Berton and others in 
La Marquise de Brinvilliers (1831). His 
natural son, Adrien-Louis- Victor (b. Paris, 
Nov. 3, 1815; d. there, July 9, 1883; his 
mother was Therese Regnault, a singer) 
was also a composer; he wrote 2 operas: 
Marguerite (which had been sketched out 
but left incomplete by his father) and 
L'Aleule. — Bibl.: G. Hequet, A. Boieldieu, 
sa vie et ses ceuvres (Paris, 1864) ; A. Pougin, 
Boieldieu, sa vie es ses ceuvres (Paris, 1875) ; 
E. Neukomm, Trois jours a Rouen, Souvenirs 
du centenaire de Boieldieu (Paris, 1875); 
H. de Thannberg, Le Centenaire de Boiel- 
dieu, anecdotes et souvenirs (Paris, 1875) ; 
E. Duval, Boieldieu, notes et fragments 
inedits (1883): P. L. Robert, Correspond- 
ance de Boieldieu, in 'Rivista Musicale 
Italiana' (XIX and XXII; also separately, 



Rouen, 1916) ; G. dc Saint-Foix, Les pre- 
miers pianistes parisiens: Boieldieu, in 'La 
Revue musicale' (Paris, Feb., 1926); G. 
Favre, La danseuse Clotilde Mafleurai, pre- 
miere femme d'Adrien Boieldieu, in 'La 
Revue musicale' (Jan., 1940); G. Favre, 
Boieldieu, sa vie, son ceuvre (part I, Paris, 
1944; part II, Paris, 1945; an exhaustive 
work on the subject). See also F. Clement 
and Larousse, Dictionnaire des operas (Paris, 
1906) ; L. Auge de Lassus, Boieldieu, in the 
series 'Les Musiciens celebres' (Paris, 1908; 
contains catalogue of works) ; and Alfred 
Loewenberg, Annals of Opera (Cambridge, 
1943; 2nd ed., 1955). 

Boisdeffre (bwah-def'fr), Charles-Henri- 
Rene de, French composer; b. Vesoul 
(Haute-Savoie), April 3, 1838; d. at his 
estate, Vezelise, Nov. 25, 1906. He studied 
with Ch. Wagner and Barbereau in Paris 
where he lived most of his life. He excelled 
in chamber music, for which he received 
the Prix Chartier in 1883. Many of his works 
have been published; among them, 3 piano 
sextets; 2 piano quintets; piano quartet; 3 
piano trios; 2 violin sonatas; clarinet sonata; 
several suites for violin and piano (Suite 
poetique, Suite romantique, Suite orientale, 
etc.); oratorios, a symphony, etc. His style 
reflects the facile school of French romantic 

Boise, Otis Bardwell, American organist; 
b. Oberlin, Ohio, Aug. 13, 1844; d. Balti- 
more, Dec. 2, 1912. He studied with Mo- 
scheles and Richter in Leipzig and with Kul- 
lak in Berlin. Returning to America in 1865, 
he occupied various posts as organist and 
teacher; eventually settled in Baltimore, 
where he taught at the Peabody Cons. 
Among his pupils were Ernest Hutcheson, 
Howard Brockway and Arthur Nevin. He 
publ. the textbooks Harmony Made Practi- 
cal (N. Y., 1900) and Music and its Mast- 
ers (N. Y., 1902). 

Boito (bo'e-toh), Arrigo, Italian poet and 
opera composer; b. Padua, Feb. 24, 1842; 
d. Milan, June 10, 1918. He studied at the 
Milan Cons, with Alberto Mazzucato and 
Ronchetti-Monteviti ; his two cantatas, writ- 
ten in collaboration with Faccio, II 4 Giugno 
(1860) and Le Sorelle d'ltalia (1862) were 
performed at the Cons., and attracted a 
great deal of favorable attention ; as a result, 
the Italian government granted the com- 
posers a gold medal and a stipend for foreign 
travel for two years. Boito spent most of 
his time in Paris, and also went to Poland 
to meet the family of his mother (who was 
Polish) ; he also visited Germany, Belgium, 

and England. He was strongly influenced by 
hearing new French and German music; 
upon his return to Milan he undertook the 
composition of his first and most significant 
large opera Mefistofele, which contains ele- 
ments of conventional Italian opera, but also 
dramatic ideas stemming from Beethoven 
and Wagner. It was performed for the first 
time at La Scala (March 5, 1868). A con- 
troversy followed when a part of the audi- 
ence objected to the unusual treatment of 
the subject and the music, and there were 
actual disorders at the conclusion of the per- 
forn lance. After the second production, the 
opera was taken off the boards, and Boito 
undertook a revision to effect a compromise. 
In this new version, the opera had a success- 
ful run in Italian cities; it was produced in 
Hamburg (1880); in London (in Italian) 
on July 6, 1880, and (in English) in Boston, 
on Nov. 16, 1880. It was retained in the 
repertory of the leading opera houses but 
its success never matched that of Gounod's 
Faust. Boito never completed his second 
opera Nerone, the composition of which took 
him more than half a century, from 1862 
until 1916. The orchestral score was revised 
by Toscanini, and performed by him at La 
Scala on May 2, 1924. There are sketches for 
an earlier opera Ero e Leandro, but not 
enough material to attempt a completion. 
Boito's gift as a poet is fully equal to that as a 
composer. He publ. a book of verses (Turin, 
1877) under the anagrammatic pen name of 
Tobia Gorrio; he wrote his own libretti for 
his operas and made admirable translations 
of Wagner's operas (Tristan und Isolde, 
Rienzi) ; wrote the libretti of Otello and 
Falstaff for Verdi (these libretti are regarded 
as his masterpieces) ; also for Gioconda by 
Ponchielli; Amleto by Faccio, etc. Boito also 
publ. novels. He held various honorary titles 
from the King of Italy; in 1892 he was 
appointed Inspector-General of Italian con- 
servatories; was made honorary Mus. Doc. 
by Cambridge Univ. and Oxford Univ.; in 
1912 he was made senator by the King of 
Italy. Bibl. : P. G. Molmenti, Impressioni 
letter arie (Milan, 1875) ; A. Boccardi, Ar- 
rigo Boito (Trieste, 1877) ; D. Mantovani, 
Letteratura contemporanea (Turin, 1893) ; 
R. Giani, II Nerone di A. Boito (Turin, 
1901) ; R. Barbiera, A. Boito, inverso Videale 
(Milan, 1905); M. Risolo, II primo Mefis- 
tofele di A. Boito (Naples, 1916) ; C. Tre- 
vor, Boito's Nero ('Mus. Times,' June, 
1916) ; A. Lualdi, A. Boito, un' anima ('Ri- 
vista Musicale Italiana,' 1919); A. Pom- 
peati, A. Boito (Florence, 1919) ; C. Ricci, 
A. Boito (Milan, 1919) ; F. Torrefranca, A. 
Boito ('La Critica Musicale,' Nov.-Dec, 
1919) ; F. Torrefranca, A. Boito in the 'Mus. 



Quarterly' (Oct., 1920) ; G. M. Gatti, Boito's 

Nero in the 'Mus. Quarterly' (Oct., 1924); 
V. Gui, II Nerone di Arrigo Boito (Milan, 
1924) ; A. Bonaventura, A. Boito; Mefisto- 
fele (Milan, 1924) ; G. Cesari, Note per una 
bibliografia delle opere di A. Boito, in 'Ras- 
segna di Coltura' (March, 1924); R. de 
Rensis, Franco Faccio e Boito, documento 
(Milan, 1934) ; F. Ballo, A. Boito (Turin, 
1938) ; R. de Rensis, A. Boito; aneddoti e 
bizzarrie poetiche e musicali (Rome, 1942) ; 
P. Nardi, Vita di Arrigo Boito (Verona, 
1942; 2nd ed., Milan, 1944; complete docu- 
mented biography) ; Massimiliano Vajro, 
Arrigo Boito (Brescia, 1955). Boito's letters 
were edited by R. de Rensis (Rome, 1932), 
who also edited Boito's articles on music 
(Milan, 1931). 

Bolck, Oskar, German composer; b. Ho- 
henstein, March 4, 1837; d. Bremen, May 2, 
1888. He studied at the Leipzig Cons, with 
Rietz and Moscheles; was active as theater 
conductor in various German towns and, as 
teacher, at Riga, where his opera Pierre und 
Robin was produced (1876). He wrote 2 
other operas, Gudrun and Der Schmied 
von Gretna Green, both of which remain 

Bologna, Jacopo da. See Jacopo. 

Bolsche, Franz, German music editor; b. 
Wegenstedt, near Magdeburg, Aug. 20, 1869; 
d. Bad Oeynhausen, Oct. 23, 1935. He 
studied with Bargiel and Spitta in Berlin; 
became teacher of theory at the Cologne 
Cons. (1896-1931). He was an editor for the 
'Denkmaler deutscher Tonkunst', and wrote 
the successful manual Vbungen und Aufga- 
ben zum Studium der Harmonielehre (Leip- 
zig, 1911; 18th ed., 1938). Also composed a 
symphony, 4 overtures (Tragodie der Men- 
schen, Judith, Hero und Leander, Othello), 

Bolzoni, Giovanni, Italian composer; b. 
Parma, May 14, 1841; d. Turin, Feb. 21, 
1919. He studied at the Parma Cons.; was 
active as conductor in Perugia; director of 
the Liceo Musicale and theater conductor 
in Turin (1887). He composed the operas 
II Matrirnonio civile (Parma, 1870), La 
Stella delle Alpi (Savona, 1876), Jella (Pia- 
cenza, 1881) ; etc. A melodious minuet from 
one of his string quartets became a peren- 
nial favorite in numerous arrangements. 

Bomtempo, Joao Domingos, Portuguese 
pianist; b. Lisbon, Dec. 28, 1775; d. there, 
Aug. 18, 1842. He studied in Paris; lived 
there and in London until 1815 when he 
returned to Lisbon. He founded a Philhar- 

monic Society in Lisbon; in 1833 became 
director of the Lisbon Cons. He wrote 6 
symphonies, 4 piano concertos, 14 piano 
sextets, a piano quintet, and several piano 
sonatas; also an opera Alessandro in Efesso. 
He publ. a piano method (London, 1816). 
Bibl. : M.A. de Lima Cruz, D. Bomtempo 
(Lisbon, 1937). 

Bona, Giovanni, cardinal; b. Mondovi, 
Oct. 12, 1609; d. Rome, Oct. 25, 1674. His 
tract De divina psalmodia . . . tractatus his- 
toricus, symbolicus, asceticus (Rome, 1653) 
contains valuable information on church 
music. A complete edition of his works was 
publ. in Rome in 1747. 

Bona (or Buona), Valerio, Italian com- 
poser; b. Brescia, c. 1560; date of death un- 
known, but he was still living in 1619. He 
was a Franciscan monk; maestro di cappella 
at the cathedrals of Vercelli (1591) and 
Mondovi, and at the Church of San Fran- 
cesco, Milan (1596); musician at St. Fran- 
cesco, Brescia (1611) and prefect at St. 
Fermo Maggiore, Verona (1614). He was a 
prolific composer in polyphonic style of 
sacred and secular vocal music (masses, 
litanies, lamentations, motets, madrigals, 
etc.), for much of which he used two 
choirs. Also a theorist, he publ. Regole del 
contrapunto, et compositione brevemente 
raccolte da diuersi auttori . . . (Casale, 
1595) ; Esempii delli passagi delle Conson- 
anze, et Dissonanze, . . . (Milan 1596); etc. 

Bonanni, Filippo, Italian writer on music; 
b. Rome, Jan. 16, 1638; d. there, March 
30, 1725. He was the author of the re- 
nowned manual Gabinetto armonico pieno 
d'instromenti sonori, indicati, spiegati e di 
nuovo corretti ed accresciuti (Rome, 1723, 
with 151 plates; 2nd ed. Rome, 1776). 

Bonaventura, Arnaldo, Italian musicolo- 
gist; b. Leghorn, July 28, 1862; d. Florence, 
Oct. 7, 1952. He studied law, violin and 
theory, but made musicology his career. He 
was prof, of history of music and librarian 
at the Royal Institute of Music until 1932; 
then became director of the Cons, and prof, 
of Music History and Esthetics. Writings: 
Manuale di storia della musica (Leghorn, 
1898; 10th ed., 1920) ; Elementi di Estetica 
musicale (Leghorn, 1905; 3rd ed. 1926 as 
Manuale di Estetica musicale) ; Dante e la 
musica (Leghorn, 1904) ; Storia degli strom- 
enti musicali (Leghorn, 1908; many other 
eds.) ; La vita musicale in Toscana (Flor- 
ence, 1910, in 'La Toscana al fine del 
Granducato' ) ; Niccolo Paganini (1911; 
3rd ed., 1925) ; Saggio storico sul teatro 
musicale italiano (Leghorn, 1913); Storia e 



letteratura del pianoforte (Leghorn, 1918); 
/ violinisti italiani moderni; Verdi (Paris, 
1923); Bernardo Pasquini (Rome, 1923); 
Giacomo Puccini (Leghorn, 1923) ; Manuale 
di cultura musicale (1924); 'Mefistofele' di 
Boito (Milan, 1924) ; Storia del violino, dei 
violinisti e della musica per violino (Milan, 
1925): L'opera italiana (1928); Domenico 
del Mela (1928); Luigi Boccherini (1931); 
Musicisti livornesi (1931); Rossini (1934); 
numerous essays in various journals. He was 
editor of works of J. Peri, B. Strozzi, Fres- 
cobaldi, da Firenze and others. 

Bonavia, Ferruccio, critic and composer; 
b. Trieste, Feb. 20, 1877; d. London, Feb. 
5, 1950. He studied music in Trieste and 
Milan ; went to England as a violinist 
(1898); became music critic of the 'Man- 
chester Guardian' and of the London 'Daily 
Telegraph'. His compositions include a one- 
act opera, violin concerto, string octet, string 
quartet, songs, etc. He wrote a monograph 
on Verdi (London, 1930; 2nd ed., 1947); 
miniature biographies of Mozart (1938) 
and Rossini (1941); also a fanciful book 
of imaginary conversations, Musicians in 
Elysium (1949). 

Bonawitz (or Bonewitz), Johann Heinrich, 

German pianist and composer; b. Durkheim- 
on-Rhine, Dec. 4, 1839; d. London, Aug. 
15, 1917. He studied at the Liege Cons, 
until 1852, when his parents took him to 
America; from 1872-73, conducted the 
Popular Symphony Concerts in New 
York, an enterprise that failed owing to 
lack of popular appreciation ; then produced 
2 operas in Philadelphia, The Bride of Mes- 
sina (1874) and Ostrolenka (1875). In 
1876, he returned to Europe and lived in 
Vienna and London. He composed 2 other 
operas, Irma (1885) and Napoleon; a Re- 
quiem; a Stabat Mater a cappella; orches- 
tral works; piano music: etc. He also edited 
'Historische Klaviermusik' (including selec- 
tions from Frescobaldi, Froberger, Couperin, 
Rameau, Marcello and others). 

Bonci (bon'-tche), Alessandro, Italian lyric 
tenor; b. Cesena (Romagna), Feb. 10, 1870; 
d. Viserba (near Rimini), Aug. 8, 1940. He 
studied with Carlo Pedrotti in Pesaro; made 
his debut in 1896 at the Teatro Regio in 
Parma as Fenton in Falstaff; then sang at 
La Scala, and at St. Petersburg, Vienna, 
Berlin, Lisbon, Madrid, London, etc; later 
made appearances in South America and 
Australia. In Dec, 1906, he made his New 
York debut at the new Manhattan Opera 
House, where he was engaged for three sea- 
sons; made his debut at the Metropolitan 

Opera as the Duke in Rigoletto (Nov. 22, 
1907); was on the staff for three seasons. 
Later he made guest appearances at many 
European opera houses, and after his retire- 
ment taught voice privately in Milan. His 
was a lyric tenor of great charm, and he was 
one of the few Italian artists to achieve 
distinction as a singer of German lieder. 

Bond, Carrie Jacobs, American composer 
of sentimental songs; b. Janesville, Wis., 
Aug. 11, 1862; d. Hollywood, Dec. 28, 
1946. From her childhood she was interested 
in music and painting, and improvised many 
songs to her own words. Because of the 
refusal of publishers to print her songs, she 
established her own printing press. Although 
deficient in musical training and technique, 
she succeeded in producing melodies with 
suitable accompaniment that became ex- 
tremely popular; her first song A Perfect 
Day sold an enormous number of copies. 
Other songs are: I Love You Truly, God 
Remembers When the World Forgets, Life's 
Garden, etc. She published an autobiography 
The Roads of Melody (1927); also The 
End of the Road (an album of her poems, 
with philosophical comments). 

Bondeville, Emmanuel de, French com- 
poser; b. Rouen, Oct. 29, 1898. He studied 
organ in Rouen, and composition in Paris 
with Jean Dere. He was music director of 
the Eiffel Tower Radio Station (1935-49) ; 
managing director of the Opera-Comique 
from 1949 to 1952; then joined the ad- 
ministration of the Grand Opera. His works 
include 2 operas, both produced at the 
Opera-Comique: L'Ecole des Maris (June 
19, 1935) and Madame Bovary (June 1, 
1951); a symph. triptych to poems from 
Rimbaud's Illuminations : Le Bal des pendus 
(Paris, Dec. 6, 1930), Ophelie (Paris, 
March 29, 1933; also many performances 
abroad) and Marine (Paris, March 11, 
1934) ; choral works and songs. 

Bonelli, Richard (real name Bunn), Amer- 
ican baritone; b. Port Byron, N. Y., Feb. 6, 
1894. He studied at Syracuse Univ., later 
with Jean de Reszke: made his operatic 
debut as Valentine in Faust at the Brooklyn 
Academy of Music, N. Y., April 21, 1915; 
then sang in Europe at the Monte Carlo 
Opera, at La Scala, in Paris (with Mary 
Garden) and on tours throughout Germany. 
He was a member of the Chicago Opera 
(1925-31) and of the Metropolitan Opera 
(debut as Germont in Traviata, Dec. 1, 
1932); retired in 1945. 

Bonis, Melanie (Mme. Albert Domange), 
French composer; b. Paris, Jan. 21, 1858; 



d. Sarcelles (Seine-et-Oise) March 18, 1937. 
She studied at the Paris Cons, with Cesar 
Franck and Guiraud; wrote 22 chamber 
music works (of which a Trio is still per- 
formed) ; 150 piano pieces; 27 choruses; also 
a Fantasy for piano and string orch. About 
200 of her works are published. 

Bonnet (bohn-na'), Joseph, eminent 
French organist; b. Bordeaux, March 17, 
1884; d. Ste. Luce-sur-Mer, Quebec, Aug. 2, 
1944. He studied with his father, organist at 
Ste. Eulalie ; his progress was so rapid that at 
fourteen he was appointed regular organist 
at St. Nicholas, and soon after at St. 
Michel; entered the class of Guilmant at the 
Paris Cons, and graduated with the first 
prize. In 1906 he won the post of organist 
at St. Eustache over many competitors. 
After extensive tours on the continent and 
in England, he became organist of the Cos- 
certs du Conservatoire as successor to Guil- 
mant (1911). He made his American debut 
in New York (Jan. 30, 1917), followed by 
successful tours of the United States. He 
was one of the outstanding organists of 
his time; was president of the Institut Gre- 
gorien. He wrote many pieces for his instru- 
ment, and edited for publication all the 
works played in his series of New York 
concerts as 'Historical Organ Recitals' (6 
vols.; G. Schirmer) ; also publ. an anthology 
of early French organ music (N. Y., 1942). 
— Cf. H. B. Gaul, Bonnet, Bossi, Karg-Elert. 
Three Aperqus, in the 'Mus. Quarterly' 
(July, 1918). 

Bononcini (bo-non-che'-ne), Antonio Ma- 
ria (not Marco Antonio as he is often list- 
ed), Italian opera composer, son of Giovan- 
ni Maria and brother of Giovanni; b. Mo- 
dena, June 18, 1677; d. there, July 8, 1726. 
He studied with his father; his first success 
came with the production of his opera II 
trionfo di Camilla, regina dei Volsci (Na- 
ples, Dec. 26, 1696). This opera was pro- 
duced in many other theaters in Italy, some- 
times under different titles, as Amore per 
amore, La fede in cimento, etc. It was pre- 
sented in London (March 31, 1706) with 
great acclaim. In 1702 Bononcini was in 
Berlin; from 1704-1711 he was in Vienna 
where he produced the operas Teraspo (Nov. 
15, 1704) ; Arminio (July 26, 1706) ; La con- 
quista delle Spagne di Scipione Africano (Oct. 
1, 1707) ; La presa di Tebe (Oct. 1, 1708) ; 
Tigrane, re d' Armenia (July 26, 1710). Re- 
turning to Italy, he produced the following op- 
eras in Milan: II tiranno eroe (Dec. 26, 1715) ; 
Sesostri, re di Egitto (Feb. 2, 1716) ; and 
Griselda (Dec. 26, 1718). In his native town 
of Modena, he directed his operas L'enigma 

disciolto (Oct. 15, 1716); Lucio Vero (Nov. 
5, 1716). Bononcini's last opera, Rosiclea in 
Dania, was staged in Naples (Oct. 1, 1721). 
He wrote 19 operas in all, and 3 oratorios. 
His most famous opera, II trionfo di Camilla, 
has often been erroneously attributed to his 
brother; several songs from it were published 
in London by Walsh. See L. F. Valdrighi, 
I Bononcini da Modena (Modena, 1882) ; 
for details of his operatic productions see 
Loewenberg's Annals of Opera (1943; 2nd 
ed., 1955). 

Bononcini, Giovanni (not Giovanni Bat- 
tista, despite the fact that this name ap- 
pears on some of his compositions), the 
most celebrated Italian composer of the 
Bononcini family; son of Giovanni Maria; 
b. Modena, July 18, 1670; d. Vienna, July 
9, 1747 (buried July 11). His first teacher 
was his father; also studied with G. P. Col- 
onna in Bologna, and took lessons from 
Giorgio in cello playing. In 1687 he was 
a cellist in the chapel of San Petronio, Bol- 
ogna; in the same year he became maestro 
di cappella at San Giovanni, in Monte. He 
published his first work Trattenimenti da 
camera for string trio in Bologna at the age 
of fifteen, followed in quick succession by a 
set of chamber concertos, 'sinfonie' for small 
ensembles, Masses, and instrumental duos 
(1685-91). In 1691 he went to Rome, where 
he produced his first opera Serse (Jan. 25, 
1694), and shortly afterwards, another 
opera Tullo Ostilio (Feb., 1694). In 1698 
he went to Vienna as court composer; 
there he brought out his operas La fede 
pubblica (Jan. 6, 1699) and Gli affetti piii 
grandi vinti dal piic giusto (July 26, 1701). 
He spent two years (1702-04) at the 
court of Queen Sophie Charlotte in Berlin; 
at her palace in Charlottenburg he pro- 
duced, in the summer of 1702, the opera 
Polifemo; here he also presented a new 
opera Gli amori di Cefalo e Procri (Oct. 16, 
1704). After the Queen's death (Feb. 1, 
1705), the opera company was disbanded, 
and Bononcini returned to Vienna, and 
staged the following operas: Endimione 
(July 10, 1706) ; Turno Aricino (July 26, 
1707); Mario fuggitivo (1708); Abdolon- 
imo (Feb. 3, 1709) and Muzio Scevola 
(July 10, 1710). In 1711 Bononcini re- 
turned to Italy with his brother (who was 
also in Vienna). In 1719 he was in Rome 
where he produced the opera Erminia. In 
1720 he received an invitation to join the 
Royal Academy of Music in London, of 
which Flandel was director, and the Italian 
Opera Company connected with it. A famous 
rivalry developed between the supporters of 
Handel, which included the King, and the 



group of noblemen (Marlborough, Queens- 
berry, Rutland, and Sunderland) who fa- 
vored Bononcini and other Italian com- 
posers. Indicative of the spirit of the time 
was the production at the King's Theater 
of the opera Muzio Scevola with the first 
act written by Amadei, the second by 
Bononcini (he may have used material from 
his earlier setting of the same subject), and 
the third by Handel (April 15, 1721). By 
general agreement Handel won the verdict 
of popular approval; this episode may have 
inspired the well known poem published at 
the time ("Some say, compar'd to Bononcini, 
That Mynheer Handel's but a ninny, etc." ) . 
Other operas brought out by Bononcini in 
London were: Astarto (Nov. 19, 1720); 
Crispo (Jan. 10, 1722); Farnace (Nov. 27, 
1723); Calpumia (April 18, 1724) and 
Astianatte (May 6, 1727). Bononcini soon 
suffered a series of setbacks, first with the 
death of his chief supporter, Marlborough 
(1722), and then with the revelation that 
a madrigal he had submitted to the Academy 
of Music was an arrangement of a work by 
Lotti, which put Bononcini's professional 
integrity in doubt. To this was added his 
strange association with one Count Ughi, 
a self-styled alchemist who claimed the in- 
vention of a philosopher's stone, and who 
induced Bononcini to invest his earnings in 
his scheme for making gold. After his Lon- 
don debacle, Bononcini went to Paris where 
he was engaged as a cellist at the court of 
Louis XV. He was referred to in 'Le Mer- 
cure de France' (Feb. 7, 1735) as the com- 
poser of 78 operas. In 1735 he was in Lis- 
bon; in 1737, in Vienna where he produced 
the oratorio Ezechia (April 4, 1737) and a 
Te Deum (1740). Reduced to poverty, he 
petitioned the young Empress Maria Theresa 
for a pension, which was granted in Oct. 
1742, giving him a monthly stipend of 50 
florins, which he received regularly until 
his death on July 9, 1747 at the age of 77. 
This date, and the circumstances of his last 
years in Vienna, were first made known in 
the valuable paper by Kurt Hueber, Gli 
ultimi anni di Giovanni Bononcini — 
Notizie e documenti inediti, publ. by the 
Academy of Sciences, Letters and Arts of 
Modena (Dec, 1954). Among Bononcini's 
works, other than operas, are 7 oratorios 
(including Ezechia; all on various biblical 
subjects) ; and instrumental works published 
in London by Walsh: several suites for 
harpsichord ; Cantate e Duetti, dedicated to 
George I (1721); Divertimenti for harpsi- 
chord (1722); Funeral Anthem for John, 
Duke of Marlborough (1722); 12 sonatas 
or chamber airs for 2 violins and a bass 
(1732), etc. For further details regarding 

Bononcini's operas see Loewenberg's Annals 
of Opera (1943; 2nd ed., 1955). 

Bononcini, Giovanni Maria, Italian com- 
poser; father of Giovanni and Antonio Ma- 
ria Bononcini; b. Montecorone (Modena), 
Sept. 23, 1642; d. Modena, Oct. 19, 1678. 
He studied with Colonna in Bologna; as a 
very young man, he entered the service of 
Duke Francesco II, and was maestro di cap- 
pclla at the churches of San Giovanni in 
Monte and San Petronio in Bologna. In 
1668 he became a member of the celebrated 
Accademia Filarmonica there; then he re- 
turned to Modena; in 1671 he was a violin- 
ist in the court orchestra there; in 1674 was 
maestro di cappella at the Cathedral of 
Monte (Modena). He had 8 children, of 
whom the only two who survived infancy 
were Giovanni and Antonio Maria (q.v. ). 
Bononcini published 1 1 sets of instrumental 
works: / primi frutti del giardino musicale 
(Venice, 1666); Varii fiori (Bologna, 
1669) ; Arte, correnti, sarabande, gighe e 
allemande (Bologna, 1671); Sinfonia, alle- 
mande, correnti e sarabande (Bologna, 
1671) ; Sonate (Venice, 1672) ; Ariette, cor- 
renti, gighe, allemande e sarabande (Bo- 
logna, 1673) ; Trattenimenti musicali (Bo- 
logna, 1675) ; Arie e correnti (Bologna, 
1678) ; also vocal works: Cantate da camara 
for solo voice and 2 violins (Bologna, 1677) ; 
Madrigali for 5 voices (Bologna, 1678) ; and 
a treatise Musico prattico (Bologna, 1673; 
reprinted in 1688; a German translation was 
publ. in Stuttgart, 1701). 

Bonporti, Francesco Antonio, Italian com- 
poser; b. Trento (baptized June 11), 1672; 
d. Padua, Dec. 19, 1749. He studied theol- 
ogy in Innsbruck and Rome; in 1695 re- 
turned to Trento; was ordained priest and 
served as a cleric at the Cathedral of Trento. 
He publ. 3 sets of 10 trio-sonatas each (Ven- 
ice, 1696, 1698 and 1703); 10 sonatas for 
violin and bass (Venice, 1707); 10 'concerti 
a 4' and 5 'concertini' for violin and bass; 
6 motets for soprano, violin and bass. He 
also wrote 2 sets of minuets (50 in each set) 
which are lost. Four of his 'Invenzioni' were 
mistaken for Bach's works and were included 
in the 'Bachgesellschaft' edition (XLV, part 
1, p. 172). Henry Eccles publ. the fourth 
of these pieces as his own, incorporating it in 
his violin sonata No. 11. Bibl. : G. Barblan, 
Un musicista trentino, F. A. Bonporti (Flor- 
ence, 1940) ; Ch. Bouvet, Un groupe de 
compositions musicales de Bonporti publiees 
sous le nom de Bach, in the bulletin of 
'Union Musicologique' (The Hague, 1921). 

Bontempi, Giovanni Andrea (real name 
Angelini), Italian composer and writer on 



music; b. Perugia, c. 1624; d. Castle of 
Bruso, Perugia, June 1, 1705. He was a 
choir boy at San Marco in Venice (1643); 
studied with Virgilio Mazzocchi; was maes- 
tro di cappella in Rome; then in Venice. 
He assumed the name Bontempi after his 
patron, Gesare Bontempi. In 1650 he en- 
tered the service of Johann Georg I of Sax- 
ony; in 1651 became head of the court 
chapel in Dresden; in 1680 he returned to 
Italy. His opera Paride (to his own libretto; 
Dresden, Nov. 3, 1662) was the first Italian 
opera produced in Dresden. Two later op- 
eras, both produced in Dresden, were Apollo 
e Dafne (in collaboration with Perandis; 
1672) and Giove e lo (also with Perandis; 
1673). He also composed an oratorio, Marti- 
rio di San Emiliano; published the treatises 
Nova quatuor vocibus componendi methodus 
. . . (Dresden, 1660) ; Tractus in quo de- 
monstrantur occultae convenientiae sonorum 
systematis participati (Bologna, 1690); 
Historia musica, nella quale si ha piena cog- 
nitione della teorica e della pratica antica 
della musica harmonica secondo la dottrina 
de' Greci . . . (Perugia, 1695). Cf. G. B. 
Rossi Scotti, Di Giovanni Andrea Bontempi 
di Perugia (1878). 

Bonvin (bohn-van), Ludwig, choral con- 
ductor and scholar; b. Siders, Switzerland, 
Feb. 17, 1850; d. Buffalo, Feb. 18, 1939. 
His musical training in early youth was ir- 
regular; as a musician he was chiefly self- 
taught; studied medicine in Vienna; entered 
the Jesuit novitiate in Holland (1874), 
where he became organist and choirmaster; 
continued his musical studies, especially of 
early sacred works. He settled in Buffalo, 
N. Y., as a choral and orchestral director at 
Canisius College (1887-1907); then devoted 
himself exclusively to music scholarship; 
promulgated a theory of mensural rhythm 
in Gregorian chant. He published much 
sacred music, including 8 Masses; also a 
symphony; Christmas Night's Dream for 
string orch. ; many pieces for organ, piano, 
violin, and voice; his works exceed 125 
opus numbers. Writings: Gregorian Accom- 
paniment in 'Musica sacra' (1931 and 
1932) ; Musical Accents in Gregorian Chant 
(1932); On Syrian Liturgical Chant in the 
'Mus. Quarterly' (Oct., 1918); The 'Mea- 
sure' in Gregorian Music in the 'Mus. Quar- 
terly' (Jan., 1929); etc. Cf. F. E. Bunse, 
Ludwig Bonvin, in 'Musica sacra' (Jan., 

Boom, Jan (Johannes) van, Dutch pianist 
and composer; b. Utrecht, Oct. 15, 1807; d. 
Stockholm, March 19, 1872. He began his 
career as a concert pianist at the age of 18; 

after a tour in Scandinavia, he settled in 
Stockholm, where he taught at the Royal 
Academy (1849-65). He composed piano 
pieces of the salon type. 

Boosey & Hawkes, British music publish- 
ers. Thomas Boosey was a London book- 
seller and a continental traveller since 1792. 
He was often asked to handle music, and in 
1816 founded a music publishing house on 
Holies Street. On the continent he met emi- 
nent musicians of the time; he visited Vi- 
enna and negotiated about publication with 
Beethoven (who mentions Boosey's name in 
one of his letters to the Royal Philh. Society 
in London). Boosey's main stock consisted 
of Italian and French operas; he owned 
copyrights of Bellini, Donizetti and Verdi 
(until 1854); publ. inexpensive English edi- 
tions of standard European works. In the 
1820's he put his son, Thomas, in charge of 
musical publications. In 1846 the firm of 
Boosey & Sons began publishing band mu- 
sic; in 1855 (in conjunction with the flutist 
R. S. Pratten) the manufacture of improved 
flutes was begun; in 1868 the firm acquired 
Henry Distin's factory for musical instru- 
ments, and supplied band instruments for 
the British and Colonial armies. It was this 
development that eventually brought about 
the merger of Boosey and Hawkes. William 
Henry Hawkes was a trumpeter-in-ordinary 
to Queen Victoria. He established in 1865 a 
workshop of band instruments and an edi- 
tion of concert music for orchestra and be- 
came a strong competitor of Boosey & Sons 
from 1885 on. Economic pressure forced the 
amalgamation of the two firms in 1930, com- 
bining valuable editions covering a whole 
century of music. A branch of Boosey & 
Sons had been established in New York 
(1892), discontinued in 1900 and re-estab- 
lished in 1906; after the merger, Boosey 
& Hawkes opened offices in New York, Chi- 
cago, and Los Angeles. In Canada, the busi- 
ness was inaugurated in 1913; the Editions 
Hawkes started a Paris branch in 1922; 
further affiliates were established in Aus- 
tralia (1933), India (1937), Argentine 
(1945), South Africa (1946), and Germany 
(1950). After World War II the factories 
for the manufacture of band instruments in 
London were greatly expanded; quantity 
production of wind instruments, harmonicas 
and drums enabled the firm to extend the 
market to all parts of the world. For a few 
years after World War II Boosey & Hawkes 
leased Covent Garden. In 1927 the firm 
acquired the American rights of Enoch & 
Sons; in 1943 the catalogue of Adolph 
Fiirstner, containing all the operas of Rich- 
ard Strauss, was bought for certain territories. 



In 1947, the Kousscvitzky catalogue (Edi- 
tion Russe dc Musiquc and Edition Gutheil) 
was purchased, including the major output 
of Stravinsky, Prokofiev and Rachmaninoff. 
Other acquisitions include the copyrights of 
publications of Winthrop Rogers and Rudall 

Boott, Francis, American composer; b. Bos- 
ton, Mass., June 24, 1813; d. there, March 
2, 1904. He was educated at Harvard 
(grad., 1831) ; lived for a time in Florence, 
Italy, where he studied music; returned to 
the U. S. in 1874, settling in Cambridge, 
Mass. He bequeathed to Harvard Univ. the 
sum of $10,000, the interest to form an an- 
nual prize for the best 4-part vocal compo- 
sition written by a Harvard man. He was 
a prolific composer of secular and sacred 
songs, anthems, and chorales, many of which 
were included in the service book of King's 
Chapel, Boston. His songs Here's a health 
to King Charles, When Sylvia sings, and 
Lethe were once very popular. 

Bopp, Wilhelm, German conductor and 
pedagogue; b. Mannheim, Nov. 4, 1863; d. 
Baden-Baden, June 11, 1931. He studied 
at the Leipzig Cons.; also took courses in 
conducting with Emil Paur at Mannheim; 
was teacher at the Mannheim Cons.; in 
1907 moved to Vienna, where he became 
director of the Conservatorium der Musik- 

Borch, Gaston Louis Christopher, com- 
poser and conductor; b. Guines, France, 
March 8, 1871; d. Stockholm, Sweden, Feb. 
14, 1926. He studied in Paris with Massenet 
(comp.) and Delsart (cello); then with 
Svendsen in Copenhagen; conducted vari- 
ous organizations in Norway (1896-99); 
came to the U. S. in 1899 as cellist with 
the Thomas Orch. in Chicago; then played 
in the Pittsburgh Orch. (1903-06); con- 
ducted various orchestras in Switzerland, 
France, Belgium, Holland, and Germany. Pie 
composed 3 symph. poems: Genevieve de 
Paris, Quo Vadis, and Frithjof; made pop- 
ular arrangements of standard classics for 
piano, violin, and cello. His one-act opera, 
Silvio (written as a sequel to Cavalleria 
Rusticana) was produced in Oslo, 1897. He 
published a Practical Manual of Instrumen- 
tation (Boston, 1918). 

Borchard (bohr-shahr'), Adolphe, French 
pianist and composer; b. Le Havre, June 
30, 1882. He studied at the Paris Cons, 
with Diemer and Lenepveu, where he won 
prizes for piano (1903) and composition 
(1905; 1907); toured extensively as a pi- 

anist, making his American d6but in 1910; 
later settled in Paris as director of various 
musical activities sponsored by the French 
government. He composed Es Kual Herria 
(The Basque Country) for piano and orch. 
(Paris, 1922); En Marge de Shakespeare 
for orch. (1923); L'Elan for orch. (1923); 
Sept estampes amoureuses for orch. (1927); 
numerous songs. 

Borchers, Gustav, German vocal teacher; 
b. at Woltwiesche (Brunswick), Aug. 18, 
1865; d. Leipzig, Jan. 19, 1913. He studied 
at the Leipzig Cons. (1887-89); then con- 
ducted various choral societies; in 1898 he 
founded a seminary for singing teachers, 
which later employed the methods of Jaques- 
Dalcroze ('rhythmical gymnastics') and Eitz 
( 'Tonwort' ) ; Borchers published a mono- 
graph on the 'Tonwort' theory (1908). 

Borck, Edmund von, talented German 
composer; b. Breslau, Feb. 22, 1906; killed 
in action near Nettuno, Italy, Feb. 16, 
1944. He studied composition in Breslau 
(1920-26), and music history at the Univ. 
of Berlin; held several positions as opera 
conductor in Berlin and Frankfurt; then 
taught theory and composition in Berlin, 
until he was drafted into the Army in 1940. 
His progress as a composer was rapid; his 
early works indicated an original creative 
ability, and his death in combat was a great 
loss to German music. His style of composi- 
tion is neo-classical, with strong contra- 
puntal structure; the rather austere and ret- 
icent mode of expression assumes in Borck's 
music a colorful aspect through a variety 
of melodic and rhythmic devices, often in 
a rhapsodically romantic vein. Works: con- 
certo for alto saxophone and orch. (1932); 
violin sonata (1932); Orchesterstucke 
(1933); Landliche Kantate (1934); con- 
certo for orch. (1936); sextet for flute and 
strings (1936); Kleine Suite for unaccom- 
panied flute (1938); 2 Fantasiestucke for 
orch. (1940); piano concerto (1941); Or- 
phika, 'an Apollonian transformation' for 
orch. (1941); an opera Napoleon (Gera, 
1942). Bibl.: K. Laux, Edmund von Borck 
in Musik und Musiker der Gegenwart (Es- 
sen, 1949) ; S. Borris, Beitrage zu einer Mu- 
sikkunde (Berlin, 1948); K. H. Worner, 
Musik der Gegenwart (Mainz, 1949). 

Borde, de la. See Laborde. 

Bordes (bohrd), Charles, French choral 
conductor; b. Roche-Corbon, near Vouvray- 
sur-Loire, May 12, 1863; d. Toulon, Nov. 
8, 1909. He studied piano with Marmontel; 
organ and composition with Cesar Franck 
(1887-90). In 1890 he became maitre de 



chapelle at St.-Gervais in Paris; in 1892 he 
established the 'Association des chanteurs 
de St.-Gervais' and presented with his 
church choir a series of regular concerts of 
French and Italian Renaissance music. In 
1894, in association with Guilmant and d' 
Indy, he organized the Schola Cantorum, 
originally for the purpose of training sing- 
ers in the Palestrina style; at the same time 
he founded the 'Tribune de St.-Gervais' as 
the official organ of the Schola Cantorum; 
the first issue appeared in Jan., 1895. In 
1898 Bordes made a tour of France with 
his choir. In 1899 he founded a Schola 
Cantorum in Avignon; in 1905 he organ- 
ized the 'Schola de Montpellier.' His influ- 
ence on musical culture in France, particu- 
larly in the field of old choral music, was 
considerable; in his numerous articles in 
French newspapers and magazines, and par- 
ticularly in 'La Grande Encyclopedic,' he 
disclosed profound scholarship. Bordes also 
took interest in folk music; in 1889 he was 
commissioned by the French government to 
make a study of Basque folksongs; he pub- 
lished 100 of these in 'Archives de la tra- 
dition basque.' Compositions: Suite basque 
for flute and string quartet (1888); Danses 
bearnaises (1888); Rapsodie basque for 
piano and orch. (1890); Divertissement for 
trumpet and orch. (1902); an opera Les 
trois vagues (unfinished; MS in the library 
of the Paris Opera) ; numerous arrange- 
ments of Basque songs. He edited several 
anthologies of old French music, published 
by the Schola Cantorum. Bibl. : O. Sere, 
Charles Bordes in Musiciens frangais d'au- 
jourd'hui (Paris, 1921) ; articles in the Aug. 
1924 issue of 'La Revue musicale' (Paul 
Dukas, Charles Bordes; G. Samazeuilh, Un 
Drame basque de Charles Bordes; also a 
catalogue of works) ; F. P. Albert, Charles 
Bordes a Maguelonne (Paris, 1926) ; Rene 
de Castera, La fondation de la Schola Can- 
torum in 'La Schola cantorum en 1925.' See 
also Charles Bordes, In memoriam (Paris, 
Schola Cantorum, 1909). 

Bordes-Pene, Leontine Marie, French 
pianist; b. Lorient, Nov. 25, 1858; d. Rouen, 
Jan. 24, 1924. She graduated with the first 
prize at the Paris Cons, in 1872; dedicated 
her concert career to propagandizing 
French music; she was the sister-in-law of 
Charles Bordes, and a friend of Cesar 
Franck, Vincent d'Indy, etc. She suffered 
a paralytic stroke in 1890, and lived the 
rest of her life in Rouen. See G. Samazeuilh, 
Madame Bordes-Pene in 'La Revue musicale' 

Bordier (bohr-d'ya'), Jules, French com- 

poser; b. Angers, Aug. 23, 1846; d. Paris, 
Jan. 29, 1896. He founded the concerts of 
the 'Association Artistique d'Angers' in 
1875; went to Paris (1894) as partner in 
the music publishing house of Baudoux & 
Cie. He composed a Danse macabre for vio- 
lin; the operas Nadia (Brussels, 1887) and 
Le Fiance de la Mer (Rouen, 1895); 

Bordogni, Giovanni Marco, distinguished 
Italian tenor and singing teacher; b. Gaz- 
zaniga, near Bergamo, Jan. 23, 1789; d. Paris, 
July 31, 1856. He was a pupil of Simone 
Mayr; made his debut at La Scala, Milan, 
in 1813. From 1819-33 he was engaged at 
the Theatre des Italiens, Paris; later de- 
voted himself to teaching. From 1820 (with 
occasional interruptions) he was prof, at the 
Paris. Cons. His 36 vocalises, in 2 suites, 
have run through many editions; he also 
published several other sets. 

Bordoni, Faustina. See Hasse, Faustina. 

Borel-Clerc (real name, Clerc), Charles, 
French composer of popular music; b. Pau, 
Sept. 22, 1879. He studied music at first in 
Toulouse; at the age of 17 he went to Paris, 
where he studied the oboe at the Paris Cons, 
with Gillet, and composition with Lenepveu; 
then played oboe in various Paris orchestras. 
He wrote numerous operettas, music revues, 
and a great number of songs; his greatest 
success came with La Matchiche (1903), a 
song that became world-famous. His other 
celebrated songs are C'est jeune et ga n'sait 
pas; Madelon de la Victoire (1918; a sequel 
to the war song Madelon by Camille 
Robert) ; many chansonnettes for Maurice 
Chevalier and other artists. 

Borgatti, Giuseppe, Italian tenor; b. 
Cento, March 19, 1871; d. Reno, Lago 
Maggiore, Oct. 18, 1950. He studied with 
Alessandro Busi in Bologna. He was en- 
gaged at La Scala in Milan and was par- 
ticularly successful in Wagnerian roles. At 
the end of his career he became blind, but 
continued teaching activities. 

Borgatti, Renata, Italian pianist, daughter 
of the tenor Giuseppe Borgatti; b. Bologna, 
March 2, 1894. She studied in Bologna and 
Munich; has appeared as soloist with ma- 
jor orchestras in Europe; has given pro- 
grams of complete works of Debussy; also 
played all of Bach's Well-tempered Clavi- 
chord over the B.B.C. network in London. 
After World War II she taught in Switzer- 
land and Italy. 



Borge, Victor (real name, Borge Roscn- 
bauin), Danish pianist; b. Copenhagen, Jan. 
3, 1909. He studied with his father, Bern- 
hard Rosenbaum (1847-1932); then with 
V. Schioler. He developed a type of humor- 
ous piano concerts sui generis and appeared 
in Danish musical revues. In 1940, he settled 
in the U.S. and became extremely successful 
in his specialty on the radio and in tele- 
vision; in the autumn of 1953 he opened a 
series of daily recitals on Broadway, billed 
as "comedy in music," which ran for two 
and a half seasons, unprecedented in New 
York theatrical annals for a one-man show. 
In 1956 he gave similar exhibitions in the 
largest auditoriums in other U. S. cities. 

Borghi, Adelaide, Italian mezzo-soprano; 
b. Bologna, Aug. 9, 1829; d. there, Sept. 
28, 1901. Acting on the advice of Pasta, 
she trained herself for the stage ; made her 
debut at Urbino (1846) in Mercadante's 
// Guiramento; toured through Italy and to 
Vienna and Paris (1854-6); sang with the 
Grand Opera in Paris (1856-9); appeared 
in London with great success (1860); then 
returned to Italy. 

Borgioli, Dino, Italian stage-tenor, b. Flor- 
ence, Feb. 15, 1891. He made his debut at 
the Teatro dal Verme, Milan, in 1918; then 
sang leading parts in various Italian opera 
houses, at Covent Garden Opera, London, 
and in Spain; in 1924 he joined Mme. 
Melba on her farewell tour of Australia; 
was then a member of La Scaia, Milan, for 
several years; appeared in the U. S. from 
1928-30. Later he settled in London as a 
vocal teacher. 

Borgstrom, Hjalmar, Norwegian critic and 
composer; b. Oslo, March 23, 1864; d. 
there, July 5, 1925. He studied with Ursin, 
Svendsen and Lindeman; also at Leipzig, 
Berlin, Paris and London. In 1901 he re- 
turned to Oslo; was music critic of the 'Af- 
tenposten' from 1913. He wrote 2 operas, 
Thora fra Rimol and Fiskeren; 2 symphon- 
ies; symphonic poems Hamlet, Jesus in Geth- 
semane, John Gabriel Borkman, Tanken; Re- 
formation Cantata, violin and piano con- 
certos, chamber music, piano pieces, songs. 

Bori, Lucrezia (real name, Lucrecia Borja 
y Gonzalez de Riancho), lyric soprano, b. 
Valencia, Dec. 24, 1887. She studied with 
Melchior Vidal; made her debut in Rome 
on Oct. 31, 1908, as Micaela; then sang in 
Milan, Naples, and in 1910 in Paris as Ma- 
non Lescaut, with the Metropolitan Opera 
Co., then on a European tour. In 1911 she 
sang at La Scala; in 1912, filled the first 

of numerous engagements with the Ravinia 
Opera Co., Chicago; made her debut at 
the Metropolitan Opera House in New 
York as Manon Lescaut on Nov. 11, 1912, 
and sang there until the end of the season 
1914-15. Her first outstanding success was 
as Fiora in the American premiere of Monte- 
mczzi's L'Amore dei Tre Re (Jan. 2, 1914). 
After a period of retirement, occasioned by 
a vocal affliction, she reappeared in 1919 at 
Monte Carlo as Mimi, returning to the 
Metropolitan in 1921 in the same role. 
Thereafter she appeared in New York 
with increasing success and popularity 
until the end of the 1935-36 season, 
when she retired permanently from opera. 
One of the greatest artistic triumphs of her 
career was her poetic delineation of the 
heroine of Debussy's Pelleas et Melisande, 
which was given at the Metropolitan in 
1925 (with Edward Johnson as Pelleas). 
She created the role of the Duchess of 
Towers in Deems Taylor's Peter Ibbetson 
(1931), and appeared in the American pre- 
mieres of Wolf-Ferrari's L'Amore medico 
(1914); Leoni's L'Oracolo (1915), etc. 
Besides her artistic contributions, she took 
an active part in raising funds to guarantee 
the continuance of the Metropolitan Opera 
after the financial collapse of 1929; in 1935, 
appointed member of the Board of Directors 
of the Metropolitan Opera Association. 

Bofkovec, Pavel, Czech composer; b. 
Prague, June 10, 1894. He studied compo- 
sition with J. Kricka and J. B. Foerster, and 
later with J. Suk at the Prague Cons. (1925- 
27). In 1946 he became prof, at the new 
Academy of Musical Art in Prague. Among 
his works are the operas The Satyr (1937; 
Prague, Oct. 8, 1942) and Tom Thumb 
(1945-47); a pantomime, The Rat-Catcher 
(1939); a symphony (1926); a romantic 
tone poem Twilight (1920) and the modern- 
istic symphonic allegro entitled Start (Liege 
Festival of the International Society for 
Contemporary Music, Sept. 6, 1930); Sin- 
fonietta for chamber orch. (1944); 2 piano 
concertos, a violin concerto, a cello concerto, 
a_ nonet, 4 string quartets, violin sonata, 
piano pieces, songs, etc. 

Borland, John Ernest, English organist and 
writer on music; b. London, March 6, 1866; 
d. there, May 15, 1937. He was educated 
at Queen's College, Oxford, and at the 
Royal College of Music, London, and sub- 
sequently held positions as organist and mu- 
sic director at numerous churches. He was 
editor of 'Musical News' (1895-1902) and 
musical advisor for the London County 
Council (1908-27); also prepared the music 



for the coronations of Edward VII, George 
V and George VI. His writings include 
The Instruments of the Orchestra and Mu- 
sical Foundations. 

Bornschein, Franz Carl, American com- 
poser; b. Baltimore, Feb. 10, 1879; d. there, 
June 8, 1948. He studied at the Peabody 
Cons, in Baltimore (1895-1902), and be- 
came teacher of violin and conductor of the 
student orchestra there in 1906. In subse- 
quent years he was music critic of the 
Baltimore 'Evening Sun' (1910-13) and was 
active as choral conductor; also served as 
editor for several American publishing 
houses. His works include The Phantom 
Canoe, Indian suite for orch. (Baltimore, 
Nov. 24, 1916); Onowa, a cantata (1916); 
The Sea God's Daughter, symph. poem 
(Chicago, Feb. 10, 1924); Old Louisiana, 
symph. poem (1930); The Willow Plate, 
operetta (1932) ; Leif Ericson, symph. poem 
(Baltimore, Feb. 23, 1936); Southern 
Nights, symph. poem (Washington, March 
1, 1936) ; Moon over Taos for flute, per- 
cussion, and string orch. (1939); some 
chamber music and vocal compositions. 

Borodin (boh-roh-den'), Alexander Porfir- 
ievitch, celebrated Russian composer; b. St. 
Petersburg, Nov. 11, 1833; d. there, Feb. 
27, 1887. He was the illegitimate son of a 
Georgian prince, Ghedeanov; his mother was 
the wife of an army doctor. In accordance 
with customary procedure in such cases, the 
child was registered as the lawful son of one 
of Ghedeanov's serfs, Porfiry Borodin; hence, 
the patronymic, Alexander Porfirievitch. He 
was given an excellent education; learned 
several foreign languages, and was taught to 
play the flute. He played four-hand ar- 
rangements of Haydn's and Beethoven's 
symphonies with his musical friend M. 
Shtchiglev. At the age of 14 he tried his 
hand at composition; wrote a piece for flute 
and piano and a string trio on themes from 
Robert le Diable. In 1850 he became a 
student of the Academy of Medicine in St. 
Petersburg, and developed a great interest 
in chemistry; he graduated in 1856 with 
honors, and joined the staff as assistant 
prof.; in 1858 received his doctorate in 
chemistry; contributed several important sci- 
entific papers to the bulletin of the Russian 
Academy of Sciences ; traveled abroad on a 
scientific mission (1859-62). Although main- 
ly preoccupied with his scientific pursuits, 
Borodin continued to compose. In 1863 he 
married Catherine Protopopova, who was an 
accomplished pianist; she remained his faith- 
ful companion and musical partner; together 
they attended concerts and operas in Russia 

and abroad; his letters to her from Germany 
(1877), describing his visit to Liszt in Wei- 
mar, are of great interest. Of a decisive 
influence on Borodin's progress as composer 
was his meeting with Balakirev in 1862; 
later he formed friendships with the critic 
Stassov, who named Borodin as one of the 
'mighty Five' (actually, Stassov used the 
expression 'mighty heap'), with Mussorgsky, 
and other musicians of the Russian National 
School. He adopted a style of composition 
in conformity with their new ideas; he par- 
ticularly excelled in a type of Russian or- 
ientalism which exercised a great attraction 
on Russian musicians at the time. He never 
became a consummate craftsman, like 
Rimsky-Korsakov ; although quite proficient 
in counterpoint, he avoided purely contra- 
puntal writing; his feeling for rhythm and 
orchestral color was extraordinary; and his 
evocation of exotic scenes in his orchestral 
works and in his opera Prince Igor was su- 
perb. Composition was a very slow process 
for Borodin; several of his works remained 
incomplete, and were edited after his death 
by Rimsky-Korsakov and Glazunov. Works: 
Prince Igor, opera in 4 acts (begun in 
1869, on the subject of the famous Russian 
medieval chronicle Tale of Igor's Campaign; 
completed posthumously by Rimsky-Korsakov 
and Glazunov; 1st perf. St. Petersburg, Nov. 
4, 1890; London, June 8, 1914, in Russian; 
New York, Dec. 30, 1915, in Italian); an 
opera-farce Bogatyry {The Valiant Knights, 
anonymously produced in Moscow on Oct. 
29, 1867; rediscovered in 1932, and pro- 
duced in Moscow, Nov. 12, 1936, with a 
new libretto by Demian Biedny, to serve 
propaganda purposes in an anti-religious 
campaign, but two days later banned by 
the Soviet government for its mockery of 
Russian nationalism) ; sketches for the 4th 
act of an opera Mlada, each act of which 
was to be written by a different composer 
(never produced). Orchestral works : Symph. 
No. 1 in E (1862-67; St. Petersburg, Jan. 
16, 1869) ; Symph. No. 2 in B minor (1869- 
76; St. Petersburg, March 10, 1877);' 
Symph. No. 3 in A minor (1885-86; un- 
finished; two movements orchestrated by 
Glazunov) ; symph. sketch In the Steppes of 
Central Asia (1880); Polovtzian Dances 
from Prince Igor (perf. as an orchestral 
piece, St. Petersburg, March 11, 1879). 
Chamber music: String quartet No. 1 in A 
(1877-79); String quartet No. 2 in D 
(1881-87); Serenata alia Spagnola, 3rd 
movement of a quartet on the name B-la-f, 
by Borodin, Rimsky-Korsakov, Liadov, and 
Glazunov (1886); Scherzo for string quar- 
tet, in the collective set Les Vendredis. A 
string trio (dated 1860) and a piano quin- 



tct were discovered in 1915. For piano: 
Polka, Requiem, Marche funebre, and Ma- 
zurka (posthumous) in the scries of para- 
phrases on the theme of the Chopsticks 
Waltz (includes variations by Borodin, other 
members of the Russian school, and Liszt; 
1880) ; Petite Suite comprising 7 pieces 
(Au convent, Intermezzo, Deux mazurkas, 
Reverie, Serenade, Nocturne; 1885). Vocal 
works: Serenade de 4 galants a une dame 
for a cappella male quartet (comical; no 
date) ; and the songs Sleeping Princess 
(1867), The Princess of the Sea, The Song 
of the Dark Forest, The False Note, My 
Songs are full of venom (1867-68), The Sea 
(1870), From my tears (1873), For the 
shores of your distant country (1881), Con- 
ceit (1884), Arabian Melody (1885), and 
The Wondrous Garden (1885). Bibl.: V. 
Stassov, A. Borodin (St. Petersburg, 1882; 
French transl. by A. Habets, in 2 vols., Paris, 
1893); Rosa Newmarch, Borodin and Liszt 
(London, 1895); E. Braudo, Borodin (Mos- 
cow, 1922); W. Kahl, Die russischen Nova- 
toren und Borodin in 'Die Musik' (1923); 
G. Abraham, Borodin, the Composer and 
His Music (London, 1927); 2 vols, of 
Borodin's letters, edited by S. Dianin (Mos- 
cow, 1928, 1936) ; G. Abraham, Prince Igor: 
An Experiment in Lyrical Opera in the 
'Mus. Quarterly' (Jan., 1931); M. Rinaldi, 
Borodin, in 'Musica d'oggi' (1933); G. 
Khubov, Borodin (Moscow, 1933); N. 
Rimsky-Korsakov, Memoirs of My Musical 
Life (3rd to 5th eds., with preface and 
notes by A. Rimsky-Korsakov; Moscow, 
1932-35) ; Y. Kremlev, Borodin (Leningrad, 
1934) ; G. Abraham, Studies in Russian 
Music (London, 1935) ; M. D. Calvocoressi 
and G. Abraham, Masters of Russian Music 
(London and N. Y., 1936); D. Brook, Six 
Great Russian Composers (London, 1946) ; 
M. Ilyin and E. Segal, Borodin (Moscow, 
1953); S. Dianin, Borodin (Moscow, 1955). 

Borovsky, Alexander, Russian-American 
pianist; b. Mitau, March 18, 1889. He first 
studied with his mother (a pupil of Safonov) , 
then with A. Essipova at the St. Petersburg 
Cons., winning the Rubinstein Prize in 1912. 
He taught master classes at the Moscow 
Cons, from 1915-20; then went to Turkey, 
Germany, France and England and gave a 
number of piano recitals; was soloist with 
virtually all major European orchestras; he 
also made several successful tours in South 
America. In 1941 he settled in the U. S. 
and became prof, of Boston Univ. (1956). 
Borovsky is distinguished by his objective 
intrepretation of classical and romantic 
works; his playing of Bach is notable for 
its architectural quality. 

--»J4 en, i%% y 185 

Borowski, Felix, composer and critic, b. 
Burton, England, March 10, 1872; d. Chica- 
go, Sept. 6, 1956. He studied violin with his 
father, a Polish emigre; took lessons with 
various teachers in London, and at the 
Cologne Cons.; then taught in Aberdeen, 
Scotland. His early Russian Sonata was 
praised by Grieg; this provided impetus to 
his progress as a composer. In 1897 he ac- 
cepted a teaching engagement at the Chi- 
cago Musical College; was its president from 
1916-25. Subsequently he became active in 
musical journalism; in 1942 was appointed 
music editor of the 'Chicago Sun' ; also 
served as program annotator for the Chicago 
Symph. Orch., beginning in 1908. For 5 
years he taught musicology at Northwestern 
Univ. (1937-42). Among his many musical 
works, the violin piece entitled Adoration 
became widely popular. Other works: Bou- 
dour, ballet-pantomime (Chicago, Nov. 25, 
1919) ; Pierrot in Arcady, ballet-pantomime 
(1920); A Century of the Dance, ballet 
(Chicago, 1934) ; Fernando del Nonsensico, 
satiric opera (1935); piano concerto (Chi- 
cago, 1914) ; Allegro de Concert for organ 
and orch. (Chicago, 1915) ; Elegie symphon- 
ique (Chicago, 1917); Peintures for orch. 
(Chicago, Jan. 25, 1918) ; Le Printemps 
passionne, symph. poem (Chicago North 
Shore Festival, Evanston, 111., 1920) ; Youth, 
fantasy-overture (Chicago North Shore 
Festival, Evanston, 111., May 30, 1923); 
Ecce Homo, symph. poem (New York, 
Jan. 2, 1924) ; Semiramis, symph. poem 
(Chicago, Nov. 13, 1925); Overture to 
a Pantomime for chamber orch. (Chicago, 
1925) ; Rhapsody for organ and chamber 
orch. (Chicago, 1926); 3 symphonies (I, 
Chicago, 1933; II, Los Angeles, 1936; III, 
Chicago, 1939); The Little Match Girl 
(after Andersen), for narrator and orch. 
(1943); Requiem for a Child (1944); The 
Mirror, symph. poem (Chicago Symph. 
Orch., Jan. 5, 1956) ; 3 string quartets; 
many pieces for violin, organ, and piano; 
songs. Borowski revised G. P. Upton's The 
Standard Operas in 1928, and The Standard 
Concert Guide in 1930; in 1936 the two 
works were publ. in a single volume en- 
titled The Standard Opera and Concert 

Borras de Palau, Juan, Catalan writer 
on music; b. Barcelona, Sept. 24, 1868; 
d. there, Jan. 29, 1953. He was a 
lawyer by profession; published numerous 
songs, some of which became popular; was 
for more than 50 years music critic of the 
'Correo Catalan.' 

Borresen, Hakon, Danish composer; b. 
Copenhagen, June 2, 1876. He studied with 


Svendsen; was awarded the Ancker scholar- 
ship for competition in 1901. He was presi- 
dent of the Danish Composers Society from 
1924-49. Borresen's compositions include the 
operas Den Kongelige Gaest (Copenhagen, 
Nov. 15, 1919) and Kaddara (Copenhagen, 
March 16, 1921); a ballet Tycho Brakes 
Drom {Tycho Brake's Dream, Copenhagen, 
March 1, 1924); 3 symphonies; a violin 
concerto; chamber music; piano works; 

Borris, Siegfried, German composer; b. 
Berlin, Nov. 4, 1906. He studied composi- 
tion with Hindemith; musicology with 
Schering; in 1945 was appointed instructor 
at the Musikhochschule in Berlin. He has 
composed the radio operas Hans im Gliick 
(1947) and Hirotas und Gerlinde (1948); 
also orchestral suites, a wind quintet, a 
string quartet, and many piano pieces; pub- 
lished the book Einfiihrung in die moderne 
Musik (Halle, 1950). He is married to the 
Dutch singer Condoo Kerdyk. 

Bortkiewicz (bohrt-kye'-vech), Sergei Ed- 
uardovitch, Russian pianist and composer; 
b. Kharkov, Feb. 28, 1877; d. Vienna, Oct. 
25, 1952. He was a pupil of Liadov at the 
St. Petersburg Cons. (1896-9); later studied 
with Jadassohn in Leipzig. He made his 
debut as a pianist in Munich, in 1902, and 
subsequently made concert tours of Ger- 
many, Australia, Hungary, France, and Rus- 
sia. From 1904-14, he lived in Berlin, and 
taught at the Klindworth-Scharwenka Cons. ; 
then went back to Russia; was in Vienna 
from 1920-29; in Berlin from 1929-34; and 
again in Vienna after 1934. His compositions 
include an opera, Acrobats; 2 symphonies; 
Austrian Suite and Yugoslav Suite for orch. ; 
4 piano concertos ; violin concerto ; cello con- 
certo: piano pieces; songs. He was the au- 
thor of the book Die seltsame Liebe Peter 
Tschaikowskys und der Nadezhda von Meek 

Bortniansky, Dimitri Stepanovitch, Rus- 
sian composer; b. Glukhov, Ukraine, 1751; 
d. St. Petersburg, Oct. 7, 1825. He was a 
choirboy in the court chapel, where he at- 
tracted the attention of Galuppi, 'who was 
at the time conductor there; was sent to 
Italy where he studied with Galuppi and 
with other Italian masters in Venice, Bo- 
logna, Rome, and Naples (1769-79). In 
Italy Bortniansky produced his operas Cre- 
onte (Venice, 1776) and Quinto Fabio 
(Modena, 1779). In 1779 he returned to 
St. Petersburg and became director of vocal 
music at the court chapel (1796); as a 
conductor of the chapel choir he intro- 

duced radical reforms for improvement of 
singing standards; composed for his choir a 
number of sacred works of high quality, 
among them a Mass according to the Greek 
Orthodox ritual; 35 sacred concerti in 4 
parts; 10 psalms in 8 parts; 10 concerti for 
double choir, etc. He also continued to 
compose for the stage; produced the comic 
operas in French, Le Faucon (Gatchina, 
Oct. 22, 1786) and Le Fils rival (Pavlovsk, 
Oct. 22, 1787). His sacred choral works are 
published in 10 vols., edited by Tchaikovsky. 
Bibl. : N. Findeisen, History of Russian Mu- 
sic (1929; vol. 2, pp. 260-76). 

Borwick, Leonard, English pianist; b. 
Walthamstow, Feb. 26, 1868; d. Le Mans, 
France, Sept. 15, 1925. He studied with 
Clara Schumann in Frankfurt; made his 
debut there (1889); then in London (May 
8, 1889); made a concert tour in America 
and Australia (1911); also played in Eu- 
rope. His programs included classics and 
moderns; in the last years of his career he 
played much music of Debussy and Ravel; 
made a transcription for piano of Debussy's 
L'apres-midi d'un faune. See H. Plunket 
Greene, L. Borwick in 'Music & Letters' 

Bos, Coenraad Valentyn, Dutch pianist 
and noted accompanist; b. Leiden, Dec. 7, 
1875; d. Chappaqua, N. Y., Aug. 5, 1955. 
He was a pupil of Julius Rontgen at the 
Amsterdam Cons. (1892-95); later studied 
in Berlin. With two other countrymen, Jan 
van Veen (violin) and Jan van Lier (cello), 
he formed a trio in Berlin which enjoyed 
an enviable reputation during its active per- 
od (1896-1910). His masterly accompani- 
ments on a tour with Ludwig Wiillner at- 
tracted more than ordinary attention, and 
made him one of the most celebrated ac- 
companists both in Europe and the U. S., 
where he eventually settled. He was the ac- 
companist of Julia Culp, Frieda Hempel, 
Helen Traubel, Fritz Kreisler, Ernestine 
Schumann-Heink, Pablo Casals, Elena Ger- 
hard, Jacques Thibaud, Geraldine Farrar, 
and many others. He taught at the Juilliard 
School of Music from 1934-52; published 
(in collaboration with Ashley Pettis) a book 
The Well-Tempered Accompanist (1949). 

Boschot (boh-shoh'), Adolphe, French 
author and critic; b. Fontenay-sous-Bois, 
near Paris, May 4, 1871; d. Paris, June 
1, 1955. He was music critic of 'Echo de 
Paris' from 1910; of 'Revue Bleue' from 
1919; founded, with Theodore de Wyzewa, 
the Paris Mozart Society; was elected to the 
Institut de France in 1926, succeeding Wi- 



dor as permanent secretary of the Academie 
drs Beaux-Arts. His greatest work is an 
exhaustive biography of Berlioz in 3 vol- 
umes: La Jeunesse d'un romantique, Hector 
Berlioz, 1 803-31 (Paris, 1906); Un Roman- 
tique sous Louis-Philippe, Hector Berlioz, 
1831-42 (Paris, 1908); and Crepuscule d'un 
romantique, Hector Berlioz, 1842-69 (Paris, 
1913). For this work Boschot received a 
prize of the Academie. Other books are: Le 
Faust de Berlioz (1910; new ed. 1945); 
Cornet d'art (1911); Une vie romantique, 
Hector Berlioz (an abridgement of his 3 vol. 
work, 1919; 27th ed., 1951; also in Eng- 
lish) ; Chez les musiciens (3 vols., 1922-26) ; 
Entretiens sur la beaute (1927) ; La lumiere 
de Mozart (1928); Le mystere musical 
(1929) ; La musique et la vie (2 vols., 1931- 
33); Theophile Gautier (1933); Mozart 
(1935); La vie et les ceuvres d' Alfred Bru- 
neau (1937); Musiciens-Poetes (1937); 
Maitres d'hier et de jadis (1944); Portraits 
de Musiciens (3 vols., 1946-50); Souvenirs 
d'un autre siecle (1947). Boschot translated 
into French the libretti of several of Moz- 
art's operas. He was also prominent as a poet; 
publ. the collections Poemes dialogues 
(1901) and Chez nos poetes (1925). 

Boscovich, Alexander Uriah, Israeli com- 
poser; b. Klausenburg, Transylvania, Aug. 
16, 1907. He studied in Paris with Paul 
Dukas. In 1928 he settled in Palestine at the 
Israel Cons, in Tel-Aviv. He has written 
an orchestral suite Chansons Populaires 
Juives (Haifa, March 15, 1938) ; violin 
concerto (1942); oboe concerto (1943; re- 
vised 1951) ; Semitic Suite for orch. (1948) 
and piano pieces. 

Bosendorfer. Firm of piano makers at 
Vienna, specializing in concert grands; it was 
established by Ignaz Bosendorfer (b. Vienna, 
July 28, 1796; d. there, April 14, 1859) in 
1828; later managed by his son Ludwig 
(b. Vienna, April 10, 1835; d. there, May 
9, 1919). The firm, retaining its original 
name, was subsequently taken over by G. 
Hutterstrasser. The Bosendorfer Saal (open- 
ed by Hans von Biilow in 1872, and used 
until 1913) was one of the finest chamber 
music concert halls in Europe. 

Bosmans, Henrietta, Dutch pianist and 
composer; b. Amsterdam, Dec. 5, 1895; d. 
there, July 2, 1952. She studied piano with 
her mother at the Amsterdam Cons. ; com- 
position with Willem Pijper; gave frequent 
recitals throughout Europe and on the ra- 
dio. Her own music was mainly influenced 
by Ravel and Stravinsky. Works: violin son- 
ata (1918); cello sonata (1919); piano 

trio (1921); 2 cello concertos (1922; 1924); 
Poem for cello and orch. (1929) ; piano con- 
certo (1929); Concertstuck for violin and 
orch. (1934); chamber works; songs; also 
cadenzas for Mozart's violin concertos. 

Bosquet, Emile, Belgian pianist; b. Brus- 
sels, Dec. 8, 1878. He studied with Tinel 
and Busoni; taught at the Cons, of Antwerp 
(1906-19) and in Brussels (from 1919); 
also made European tours. He published La 
Musique de clavier (Brussels, 1953). 

Bosse, Gustave, music book publisher; b. 
Vienenburg (Harz), Feb. 6, 1884; d. Re- 
gensburg, Aug. 27, 1943. He founded his 
firm in 1912 at Regensburg; was the pub- 
lisher of the 'Zeitschrift fiir Musik' (since 
1929) and 'Deutsche Musikbiicherei' (a col- 
lection of music books). 

Bossi, (Marco) Enrico, Italian composer, 
b. Salo, Brescia, April 25, 1861; d. at sea 
(en route from America to Europe), Feb. 
20, 1925. Son and pupil of the organist 
Pietro Bossi, of Morbegno (1834-1896), he 
studied (1871-73) at the Liceo Rossini in 
Bologna, and at Milan (1873-81) under 
Sangali (piano), Fumagalli (organ), Cam- 
panari (violin), Boniforti (counterpoint), 
and Ponchielli (composition). He subse- 
quently was maestro di cappella and organist 
at Como Cathedral (1881-89); then, until 
1896, prof, of organ and harmony in the 
Royal Cons. San Pietro at Naples; prof, of 
advanced composition and organ at the 
Liceo Benedetto Marcello, Venice (1896- 
1902) ; and director of the Liceo Musicale 
at Bologna (1902-12). After a brief period 
of retirement from teaching he was director 
of the Music School of the St. Cecilia Acad- 
emy, Rome (1916-23); also conductor of 
the Benedetto Marcello Society Concerts in 
Venice. He was a member of the permanent 
government commission for musical art, and 
of many academies (Berlin, Stockholm, Am- 
sterdam, Venice, Bologna) ; toured Europe, 
England and the U. S. as a pianist and or- 
ganist. Works: operas Paquita (Milan, 
1881), II Veggente (Milan, 1890; rewritten 
and produced as 77 Viandante, Mannheim, 
1896), and L'Angelo della notte; Intermezzi 
Goldoniani for string orch.; Concertstuck for 
organ and orch.; Inno di Gloria, for chorus 
and organ; Tota pulchra, for chorus and 
organ; Missa pro Sponso et Sponsa (Rome, 
1896) ; II Cieco, for solo, chorus and orch. 
(1897) ; Canticum Canticorum, biblical can- 
tata; II Paradiso Perduto, for chorus and 
orch. (Augsburg, 1903); Surrexit pastor, 
motet; Giovanna d'Arco, mystery play (Co- 
logne, 1913) ; Primavera classica, for 5-part 



chorus a cappella; Salve Regina, for 2 voices 
and organ; etc. For organ: Inno Trionfale; 
Res sever a magnum gaudium; 2 sonatas; 
Marche heroique; Etude symphonique; Pez- 
zo da concerto; and other pieces; Santa 
Caterina di Siena, for violin, string quartet, 
harp, celesta and organ; string trio; piano 
trio, etc. He also wrote Metodo di Studio 
per I'organo moderno (in collaboration with 
G. Tebaldini; Milan, 1893). Cf. H. B. Gaul, 
Bonnet, Bossi, Karg-Elert, Three Aperqus, 
in the 'Mus. Quarterly' (July, 1918); E. 
Dagnino, M. E. Bossi, Cenni biografici 
(Rome, 1925) ; L. Orsini, Fascicolo com- 
memorativo (Milan, 1926); G. C. Paribeni, 
L. Orsini and E. Bontempelli, Marco En- 
rico Bossi: il compositore, Vorganista, 
I'uomo (Milan, 1934) ; F. Mompellio, M. E. 
Bossi (Milan, 1952; contains a complete 
list of works) . 

Bossi, Renzo, Italian conductor and com- 
poser; son of Enrico Bossi; b. Como, April 
9, 1883. He studied in Venice and in Leip- 
zig; took a course in conducting with Nik- 
isch; conducted at various cities in Italy; in 
1916 was appointed instructor at the Verdi 
Cons, in Milan. Works: operas, Passa la 
ronda (Milan, March 3, 1919) ; Volpino il 
c alder aio (Milan, Nov. 13, 1925) ; Rossa 
Rossa (1940); ballet II trillo del diavolo 
( 1 948 ) ; a symphony in 5 movements ; violin 
concerto; many minor pieces for various 
instruments. His biographical data and a 
complete list of works are appended to 
F. Mompellio's monograph on his father 
(Milan, 1952). See also S. Pintacuda, Renzo 
Bossi (Milan, 1955). 

Bote & Bock, German music publishing 
firm established in Berlin in 1838 by Eduard 
Bote (retired 1847) and Gustav Bock (b. 
1813; d. 1863); the directorship was as- 
sumed after Gustav Bock's death by his 
brother Eduard Bock (d. 1871), followed 
by his son Hugo Bock (b. Berlin, July 25, 
1848; d. there, March 12, 1932) who hand- 
led the affairs of the firm for over sixty 
years. He acquired for the firm a great 
number of operas and operettas, and also 
a number of instrumental works by cele- 
brated 19th-century composers. In 1904 
Hugo Bock purchased the catalogue of 
Lauterbach & Kuhn of Leipzig, including 
the works of Max Reger (from op. 66 on). 
His successor was his son Gustav Bock (b. 
Berlin, July 17, 1882) who headed the 
firm until 1938, and again from 1947. The 
headquarters of the firm remained in Ber- 
lin; in 1948 a branch was formed in Wies- 
baden. Apart from its musical publications, 
the firm publ. the 'Neue Berliner Musik- 

zeitung' (1847-96). A centennial volume 
was issued in 1938 as 'Musikverlag Bote & 
Bock, Berlin, 1838-1938.' 

Botstiber, Hugo, b. Vienna, April 21, 
1875; d. Shrewsbury, England, Jan. 15, 
1941. He was a pupil of R. Fuchs, Zemlin- 
sky, H. Rietsch and Guido Adler; in 1896, 
assistant librarian of the Vienna Cons.; 
1900, secretary of the 'Konzertverein' there; 
and in 1905 secretary of the 'Akademie fur 
Musik'; was (until 1938) general secretary 
of the Vienna 'Konzerthaus-Gesellschaft' ; 
Knight of the Order of Franz Josef. He 
went to England in 1939. He edited the 
'Musikbuch aus Osterreich' (1904-11); also 
organ compositions by Pachelbel, piano 
works of the Vienna masters, and waltzes 
of Johann Strauss for the 'Denkmaler der 
Tonkunst in Osterreich'; author of Joseph 
Haydn und das Verlagshaus Artaria (with 
Franz Artaria; Vienna, 1911); Geschichte 
der Ouverture (Leipzig, 1913); Beethoven 
im Alltag (Vienna, 1927); completed Pohl's 
biography of Haydn (vol. Ill, 1927); publ. 
a new edition of Kretzschmar's Fuhrer durch 
den Konzertsaal (1932). Of special interest 
to American musicians is his article Mu- 
sicalia in der New York Public Library in 
the bulletin of the Societe Internationale de 
Musique (Oct., 1903) calling international 
attention for the first time to the music 
collection of the New York Public Library. 

Bott, Jean Joseph, German violinist and 
conductor; b. Kassel, March 9, 1826; d. 
New York, April 28, 1895. He studied with 
his father, the court musician A. Bott, and 
later with M. Hauptmann and L. Spohr; 
was court conductor at Meiningen (1852- 
57) and Hanover (1865); retired in 1878; 
settled in New York in 1885. He wrote 2 
operas, a symphony, overtures, violin con- 
certos, piano music, etc. 

Botta, Luca, dramatic tenor; b. Amalfi, 
Italy, April 16, 1882; d. New York, Sept. 
29, 1917. He was a pupil of G. Vergine; 
made his operatic debut as Turiddu in 
Cavalleria Rustic ana (Naples, 1911); then 
sang in Malta, Turin, Mantua, Verona, 
Barcelona, Buenos Aires, and Milan; came 
to the U. S. in 1912 and sang with the 
Pacific Coast Opera Company in San Fran- 
cisco; made his Metropolitan Opera House 
debut as Rodolfo in La Boheme (New York, 
Nov. 21, 1914). 

Bottee de Toulmon, Auguste, French 
writer on music; b. Paris, May 15, 1797; 
d. there, March 22, 1850. A lawyer by pro- 
fession, he turned his attention to music, 



becoming a good amateur cellist; was the 
librarian of the Paris Cons, from 1831-48. 
Writings: L'Art musical depuis I' ere chre- 
tienne jusqu'd nos jours (Paris, 1836); De 
la chanson en France au moyen-dge ('L'An- 
nuaire historique,' 1836); Notice biograph- 
ique sur les travaux de Guido d'Arezzo 
('Memoires de la Societ6 des Antiquaires de 
France,' 1837) ; Des instruments de musique 
en usage au moyen-dge ('L'Annuaire his- 
torique,' 1838) ; Observations sur les moyens 
de restaurer la musique religieuse dans les 
eglises de Paris (Paris, 1841); Notice des 
manuscrits autographes de Cherubini (Paris, 

Bottesini, Giovanni, Italian double-bass 
virtuoso, conductor and composer; b. Crema, 
Dec. 22, 1821; d. Parma, July 7, 1889. He 
studied double-bass with Rossi at the Milan 
Cons. (1835-39); theory with Basili and 
Vaccai. He made his debut at a concert in 
his native town in 1840; in 1846 he went 
to Havana as a member of the orchestra 
there; he visited the U. S. in 1847; then 
was in England (1848) as a cello player in 
chamber music, producing a profound im- 
pression on the London music lovers. In 
1853 he was again in America, where he 
conducted the New Orleans Opera; in 1856 
was conductor at the Theatre des Italiens in 
Paris; then toured in Russia and Scandin- 
avia (1866-68). In 1871 he was invited by 
Verdi to conduct the world premiere of Aida 
in Cairo; in his last year of life he was ap- 
pointed director of the Parma Cons. Botte- 
sini was the first real virtuoso on the double- 
bass, and became a legendary paragon for 
the few artists who essayed this instrument 
after him; thus Koussevitzky was often de- 
scribed as the Russian Bottesini. Operas: 
Cristoforo Colombo (Havana, 1847) ; L'As- 
sedio di Firenze (Paris, 1856) ; II Diavolo 
della notte (Milan, 1858) ; Marion Delorme 
(Palermo, 1862); Vinciguerra (Paris, 
1870); AU Babd (London, Jan. 18, 1871); 
Ero e Leandro (Turin, Jan. 11, 1879); and 
La Regina di Nepal (Turin, 1880) ; the 
oratorio The Garden of Olivet (Norwich 
Festival, 1887) ; symphonies, overtures, quar- 
tets; effective pieces for double-bass (Carne- 
vale di Venezia, Tarantella, etc.). He pub- 
lished an excellent Metodo completo per 
contrabasso, in 2 parts, treating the double- 
bass as an orchestral and as a solo instru- 
ment (an English adaptation of this method 
by F. Clayton was publ. in London, 1870). 
Bibl.: L. Escudier, Mes souvenirs: les virtu- 
oses (Paris, 1868); C. Lisei, G. Bottesini 
(Milan, 1886) ; F. Warnecke, Der Kontra- 
bass (Hamburg, 1909);- A. Carniti, In 
memoria di G. Bottesini (Crema, 1922). 

Bottrigari, Ercole, Italian music theorist; 
b. Bologna (baptized Aug. 24), 1531, d. 
San Alberto, near Bologna, Sept. 30, 1612. 
He was an illegitimate son of the nobleman 
Giovanni Battista Bottrigari; studied mathe- 
matics and music in the house of his father; 
learned to sing and play several instruments; 
his house teacher was Bartolomco Spontone. 
In 1551 he married a rich lady. In his resi- 
dence he met many celebrated poets of the 
day, including Tasso. Having acquired pro- 
found learning in several scientific and artis- 
tic disciplines, he devoted much of his ener- 
gies to theoretical musical subjects; pub- 
lished numerous papers, many of them of a 
polemical nature. Writings on music: II 
Patricio ovvero de' tetracordi armonici di 
Aristosseno (Bologna, 1593) ; 77 Desiderio 
ovvero de' concerti di vari stromenti musi- 
cali (Venice, 1594, without Bottrigari' s 
name, but under the pseudonym Alemanno 
Benelli, anagram of the name of his friend, 
Annibale Melone; 2nd ed. with Bottrigari's 
name, Bologna, 1599; modern reprint of this 
edition, in 1924, with introduction and an- 
notations by Kathi Meyer; 3rd ed., Milan, 
1601, under the name of Melone) ; II Mel- 
one, discorso armonico (Ferrara, 1602 ) . He 
left translations of Boetius and other writers 
in MS, preserved in the library of the Liceo 
Musicale in Bologna. Bibl.: Notizie biogra- 
fiche intorno agli studii ed alia vita del 
Cavaliere Bottrigari (Bologna, 1842); G. 
Gaspari, Dei Musicisti Bolognesi al XVI 
secolo in 'Atti e Memorie . . .' (Bologna, 

Boucher (boo-sha'), Alexandre-Jean, fam- 
ous French violinist; b. Paris, April 11, 1778; 
d. there, Dec. 29, 1861. A brilliant violin 
virtuoso, he styled himself TAlexandre des 
violons.' Boucher began his career at the 
age of 6, playing with the Concerts Spir- 
ituels in Paris; was soloist in the court of 
Charles IV of Spain (1787-1805); traveled 
extensively on the continent and in England. 
He wrote 2 violin concertos. Cf. Boucher, 
son temps, etc. in 'Etudes d'histoire, etc.' 
by G. Vallat (1890). 

Boughton, Rutland, English composer; b. 
Aylesbury, Jan. 23, 1878. He studied atd.L 
the Royal College of Music in London with 
Stanford and Walford Davies; without ob- 
taining his diploma, he engaged in profes- 
sional activity; was for a time a member 
of the orchestra at Haymarket Theatre, Lon- 
don; taught at Midland Institute, Birming- 
ham (1904-11); also conducted a choral 
society there. He became a firm believer in 
the universality of arts on Wagnerian lines ; 
formed a partnership with the poet Reginald 



Buckley; their book of essays, The Music 
Drama of the Future, expounding the neo- 
Wagnerian idea, was published in 1908. To 
carry out these plans, he organized stage 
festivals at Glastonbury, helped by his wife 
Christina Walshe. Boughton's opera, The 
Immortal Hour, was performed there on 
Aug. 26, 1914; his choral music drama, 
The Birth of Arthur, had a performance in 
1915; these productions were staged with 
piano instead of an orchestra. After an in- 
terruption during World War I, Boughton 
tried to revive the Glastonbury festivals, 
but was unsuccessful. In 1927 he settled in 
the country in Gloucestershire. He continued 
to compose, however, and produced a num- 
ber of stage works, as well as instrumental 
pieces, few of which have been performed. 
His ideas of universal art have in the mean- 
time been transformed into concepts of 
socialist realism, with an emphasis on the 
paramount importance of folk music as 
against formal constructions. Works for the 
stage: The Birth of Arthur (1909); The 
Immortal Hour (1913); Snow White 
(1914); The Round Table (1916); The 
Moon Maiden, choral ballet for girls 
(1919); Alkestis, music drama (1922; Glas- 
tonbury, Aug. 26, 1922; Covent Garden, 
London, Jan. 11, 1924); The Queen of 
Cornwall, music drama after Thomas Hardy 
(Glastonbury, Aug. 21, 1924); May Day, 
ballet (1926); The Ever Young, music 
drama (1928); The Lily Maid, opera 
(1934); Galahad, music drama (1944); 
Avalon, music drama (1946). Orchestral 
works: The Skeleton in Armour, symph. 
poem with chorus (1898); The Invincible 
Armada, symph. poem (1901); A Summer 
Night (1902); Oliver Cromwell, symph. 
(1904) ; Love and Spring (1906) ; Midnight 
(1907); Song of Liberty for chorus and 
orch. (1911); Bethlehem, choral drama 
(1915; his most successful work); Pioneers, 
after Walt Whitman, for tenor, chorus and 
orch. (1925); Deirdre, symph. (1927); 
Symphony in B minor (1937) ; trumpet con- 
certo (1943). Chamber music: violin sonata 
(1921) ; quartet for oboe and strings (1930) ; 
string trio (1944); piano trio (1948); 
cello sonata (1948) ; numerous choral works. 
He published several pamphlets and essays: 
The Death and Resurrection of the Music 
Festival (1913); The Glastonbury Festival 
Movement (1922); Bach, the Master 
(1930) ; Parsifal: a. Study (1920) ; The Na- 
ture of Music (1930) ; The Reality of Music 
(1934). Bibl.: The Self-Advertisement of 
Rutland Boughton (anonymous pamphlet 
without date, c. 1909); H. Antcliffe, A 
British School of Music Drama: The Work 
of Rutland Boughton in the 'Mus. Quarterly' 

(Jan, 1918). 

Bouhy (boo-e'), Jacques- Joseph- Andre, 

celebrated baritone; b. Pepinster, Belgium, 
June 18, 1848; d. Paris, Jan. 29, 1929. He 
studied at the Liege Cons. ; then at the Paris 
Cons.; made his debut as Mephistopheles in 
Faust at the Paris Grand Opera (1871); 
sang Escamillo in the first performance of 
Carmen (March 3, 1875); appeared at 
Covent Garden, London (April 22, 1882); 
in 1885 he went to New York as director of 
the N. Y. Cons, (until 1889) ; he was again 
in New York from 1904-7; then returned to 
Paris and settled there as a successful sing- 
ing teacher. 

Boulanger (boo-lahn-zha), Lili (full name 
Marie-Juliette), talented composer, sister of 
Nadia; b. Paris, Aug. 21, 1893; d. Mezy, 
near Paris, March 15, 1918. She studied at 
the Paris Cons, with Vidal and Caussade; 
in 1913, she won the Grand Prix de Rome 
with her cantata Faust et Helene (first 
woman to gain this distinction). Her early 
death at the age of 24 was a great loss to 
French music. Other choral works with 
orch.: Soir sur la plaine; Hymne au Soleil; 
La Tempete; Les Sirenes; Sous Bois; La 
Source; Pour les funerailles d'un soldat; 
Trois Psaumes; Vieille priere bouddhique. 
For orch.: symph. poems D'un soir triste 
and D'un matin de printemps ; incidental 
music to Maeterlinck's La princesse Maleine. 
Songs: Pie Jesu, for voice, strings, harp and 
organ; etc. Also a string quartet, violin 
pieces, flute pieces, etc. Cf. C. Mauclair, 
La vie et I'ceuvre de Lili Boulanger, in the 
'Revue musicale' (Aug. 1921); P. Lan- 
dormy, Lili Boulanger, in the 'Mus. Quart- 
erly' (Oct, 1930). 

Boulanger, Nadia, famous teacher; sister 
of Lili; b. Paris, Sept. 16, 1887; studied 
with Faure (comp.) and Widor (organ) at 
the Paris Cons.; won 2nd Prix de Rome 
(1908) ; then became a lecturer at the Paris 
Cons.; taught harmony at the American 
Conservatory at Fontainebleau ; in 1935 was 
appointed teacher of comp. at the Ecole 
Normale de Musique as successor to Paul 
Dukas. At the same time she formed a large 
group of private students; soon her fame as 
a teacher of composition spread through the 
musical world, and talented young musicians 
of many nations came to Paris to take 
courses with her; many of them have be- 
come celebrated composers in their own 
right : Igor Markevitch, Jean Francaix, Len- 
nox Berkeley; among Americans, Aaron 
Copland, Roy Harris, Walter Piston and 
others. Nadia Boulanger has made frequent 
trips to the U. S.; she was guest conductor 



with the Boston Symph. Orch. (1938) and 
of the N. Y. Philh. (Feb. 11, 1939); in 
1939 she gave courses at We^V-sley College, 
at Radcliffe College, and also at the Juil- 
liard School of Music, N. Y. She has par- 
ticularly distinguished herself in conducting 
large choral works (Faure's Requiem, etc.); 
has also appeared as an organist. As direc- 
tor of music for the principality of Monaco, 
she selected and conducted the pngram 
performed at the wedding ceremony of 
Prince Rainier and the American actress 
Grace Kelly (April, 1956). 

Boulez (boo-lez'), Pierre, French com- 
poser of the advanced school; b. Montbrison, 
March 26, 1925. He studied with Messiaen 
at the Paris Cons., graduating in 1945 with 
a prize; later took lessons with Rene Leib- 
owitz (1946). In 1948 he became a theater 
conductor in Paris; visited the U. S. with 
the French ballet in 1952. Boulez has de- 
veloped an extremely complex idiom of 
composition, derived mainly from dodeca- 
phonic principles, in which utmost freedom 
of rhythm and great variety in dynamics are 
combined with precision in design. He has 
written Le visage nuptial, for 2 solo voices, 
chorus and orch. (1946-50); Symphonie 
concertante for piano and orch. (1950); 
Polyphonie X for 17 instruments (first perf. 
at the Donaueschingen Music Festival, Oct. 
6, 1951); flute sonata (1946); 2 piano 
sonatas (1946 and 1948), and a string quar- 
tet (1949). Owing to the extreme nature of 
his modernistic idiom, performances of 
Boulez's works have often led to disturb- 
ances in the audience. 

Boulnois, Joseph, French composer; b. 
Paris, Jan. 28, 1884; killed in battle at 
Chalaines, Oct. 20, 1918. He studied piano 
and composition at the Paris Cons.; later 
became church organist, and from 1909 was 
choir leader at the Opera-Comique. He 
wrote an opera L'Anneau d'Isis, a Sym- 
phonie funebre, a cello sonata, and various 
pieces for organ, piano and voice. His works 
remain mostly in MS. There has been a 
revival of interest in his music, which has 
resulted in some performances of his songs 
and choruses. 

Boult, Sir Adrian Cedric, eminent English 
conductor; b. Chester, April 8, 1889. He 
studied at the Westminster School and at 
Christ Church, Oxford; received the degree 
of D. Mus. from Oxford Univ.; then went 
to Leipzig, where he studied conducting 
with Nikisch (1912-13); also took a course 
with Max Reger. He held a subsidiary posi- 
tion at Covent Garden in 1914; made his 

debut as orchestral conductor with the 
Royal Philh. Society (1918); gave 4 con- 
certs with the London Symph. Orch., in 
which he included The Planets by Hoist 
and London Symphony by Vaughan Wil- 
liams. In 1919 he became instructor in con- 
ducting at the Royal College of Music. In 
1923 he conducted the Birmingham Festival 
Choral Society; in 1924 was engaged as con- 
ductor of the City of Birmingham Orch.; 
in 1930 obtained the post of mus. dir. and 
conductor of the B.B.C. Symph. Orch. Un- 
der his direction this orchestra became one 
of the finest ensembles in England; in 1950 
the age limit necessitated his retirement from 
the B.B.C; the same year he was appointed 
cor.-iuctor of the London Philharmonic 
Orch. While the center of his activities is 
London, Boult has conducted concerts with 
the major orchestras in Europe and Amer- 
ica; he was guest- conductor of the Boston 
Symph. and N. Y. Philh. in 1938-39. He 
was knighted in 1937. As conductor, Boult 
is objective in his emphasis upon primary 
musical values; he is equally proficient in 
the classical, romantic and modern reper- 
tories; he has given numerous performances 
of works by British composers. He is the 
author of A Handbook on the Technique 
of Conducting (Oxford, 1921). Bibl.: Don- 
ald Brook, International Gallery of Con- 
ductors (Bristol, 1951; pp. 52-60). 

Bourgault-Ducoudray ( boor-goh' dii-coo- 
dra'), Louis-Albert, French composer; b. 
Nantes, Feb. 2, 1840; d. Paris, July 4, 1910. 
At the age of 18 he composed his first opera, 
U Atelier de Prague (Nantes, 1859); was a 
pupil of Ambroise Thomas at the Paris 
Cons., taking the Grand Prix de Rome in 
1862 with a cantata, Louise de Mezieres. 
He founded an amateur choral society in 
Paris (1868); spent some time in research 
in Greece, after which he publ. Souvenirs 
d'une mission musicale en Grece, 30 Melo- 
dies popularies de Grece et d'Orient, and 
Etudes sur la musique ecclesiastique grecque 
(1877). He was appointed prof, of music 
history at the Paris Cons, in 1878. Works: 4 
operas: Thamara (Paris Opera, Dec. 28, 
1891); Michel Colomb and Bretagne (not 
performed), Myrdhin (posth., Nantes, 
March 28, 1912); for orch.: Le Carnaval 
d'Athenes (from his Danses grecques, orig- 
inally for piano 4 hands) ; Rapsodie Cam- 
bodgienne; vocal works: Frangois d'Am- 
boise, cantata (1866) ; Stabat mater (1868) ; 
La conjuration des fleurs; Symphonie reli- 
gieuse, etc.; piano pieces; numerous songs, 
including 30 Melodies populaires de la 
Basse-Bretagne, with French translations 
(1885). Bibl.: M. Emmanuel, Eloge funebre 



de Louis-Albert Bourgault-Ducoudray (Paris, 
1911; with complete catalogue of works). 

Bourgeois (boor-zhwah) , Loys (Louis), b. 
Paris, c. 1510; d. there, c. 1561; a follower 
of Calvin, with whom he lived (1545-57) in 
Geneva; then returned to Paris; was still 
living in 1561. He is renowned for having 
composed, or adapted, almost all the melo- 
dies the Calvinists sang to Marot's and 
Beze's French versions of the Psalms. Clement 
Marot, poet in the service of Francis I as 
'valet de chambre,' translated (1533-39) 30 
psalms in metrical form, which found great 
favor with the court, who sang them to 
light melodies. However, the Sorbonne soon 
condemned them, and, in 1542, Marot bad 
to flee to Geneva. The first edition of Cal- 
vin's Genevan Psalter, containing Marot's 
30 psalms, his versifications of the Pater- 
noster and Credo, 5 psalms of Calvin, and 
his versions of the Song of Simeon and De- 
calogue, was publ. at Geneva in 1542. 17 
of the melodies, all but 3 of which were 
more or less altered, were adapted by Bour- 
geois from the earlier Strasbourg Psalter 
of Calvin (1539) ; 22 new ones were added. 
After arriving at Geneva, Marot added 19 
other psalms and the Song of Simeon; these, 
together with the 30 previously publ., com- 
pose the so-called 'Cinquante Pseaumes,' 
which, with Marot's Decalogue, Ave and 
Graces (all with music), were added in the 
1543 edition of the Psalter. By 1549, 17 of 
the melodies previously used were more or 
less altered by Bourgeois, and 8 others re- 
placed; in 1551 he modified 4 and substi- 
tuted 12 new tunes. Thus, several of the 
melodies are of later date than the psalms. 
On Marot's death, in 1544, Theodore de 
Beze undertook completing the Psalter. In 
1551 he added 34 psalms, in 1554 6 more, 
and in 1562 the remaining 60. Bourgeois 
composed, or adapted, the tunes to all ex- 
cept the last 40, they being set, supposedly, 
by Pierre Dubuisson, a singer. In 1557 
Bourgeois left Geneva and severed his im- 
mediate contact with the work there, al- 
though he still continued his activity on the 
psalter. Claude Goudimel publ. harmonized 
editions of the Genevan Psalter after 1562, 
thereby creating the erroneous belief that he 
was the author of the melodies themselves. 
Bourgeois himself harmonized, and publ. in 
1547, 2 sets of psalms in 4-6 parts, intended 
only for private use. His treatise, Le droict 
chemin de musique, etc. (Geneva, 1550), 
proposed a reform in the nomenclature of 
the tones to fit the solmisation-syllables, 
which was generally adopted in France (see 
Fetis, 'Biographie des Musiciens' vol. II, p. 
42 ) . Bibl. : Douen, Clement Marot et le 

Psaultier Huguenot (2 vols.; Paris, 1878- 
79) ; G. A. Crawford, Clement Marot and 
the Huguenct Psalter, in the 'Mus. Times' 
(June-Nov., 1881); G. R. Woodward, The 
Genevan Psalter of 1562, in the 'Proceedings 
of the Mas. Assoc.', session 44 (London, 
1918); Sir Richard R. Terry, Calvin's First 
Psalter, :b., session 57 (lecture; ib., 1930) ; 
id., Ca'ivin's First Psalter (book; London, 
1932; contains a facsimile and transcription 
into modern notation of the 1539 Strasbourg 
Psalter) ; W. S. Pratt, The Music of the 
French Psalter of 1562 (N. Y., 1939) ; P. A. 
Gaillard, L. Bourgeois: sa vie, son ceuvre 
comme pedagogue et compositeur (Lausanne, , 

Bourguignon (boor-ge-nyon'), Francis de, 
Belgian composer; b. Brussels, May 28, 1890. 
He studied at the Brussels Cons, with Dubois 
and Tinel (comp.) and Arthur de Greef 
(piano), graduating with first prize at 18. 
He was in the Belgian Army and was 
wounded in 1915; was evacuated to Eng- 
land; then made a tour with Melba in 
Australia. He continued to travel as pianist 
on concert tours in Canada, South America, 
Asia and Africa, having circled the world 
six times. In 1925 he returned to Brussels, 
where he made additional studies in compo- 
sition with Paul Gilson. In 1926 he became 
a member of a group of Belgian musicians 
who called themselves "Synthetistes," whose 
aim was to promote modern music. From 
then on he dedicated himself to composition 
and teaching. Among his works is a chamber; 
opera Le mauvais Pari (1937); ballet La 
Mart d'Orphee (1928); a symphony 
(1924); symph. poem Le Jazz vainqueur 
(1929); symph. poem Oiseaux de Nuit 
(Paris, June 28, 1937); symph. suite Puz- 
zle (1938); symph. suite Juventus (1941);; 
concerto grosso (1944); violin concerto 
(1947); piano concerto (1949); Recitatif 
et Ronde for trumpet and orch. (1951);' 
piano trio; string trio; 2 string quartets ;■. 
oboe quintet; choral works, songs and sev- 
eral piano suites (3 petites fantaisies poly- 
tonales; En Floride; Berceuse inutile, etc.).: 

Bousquet (boos-ka'), Georges, French 
conductor and music critic; b. Perpignan, 
March 12, 1818; d. St. Cloud, near Paris, 
June 15, 1854. He studied at the Paris 
Cons.; won the Prix de Rome (1838); con- 
ducted at the Opera (1847) and at the 
Theatre Italien (1849-51); wrote musicj 
criticism for 'Le Commerce', Tlllustration', 
and the 'Gazette musicale'. He composed 3 
operas, which were performed in Paris 
I' Hot esse de Lyon (Paris Cons., 1844) ; Le 
Mousquetaire (Opera-Comique, 1844); 



Tabarin (Theatre-Lyrique, 1852); also a 
cantata; church music; chamber music. 

Boutmy, Josse, Belgian organist and 
composer; b. Ghent, Feb. 1, 1697; d. Brus- 
sels, Nov. 27, 1779. He was a member of a 
musical family and received his training 
from his father, a church organist. In 1721 
he went to Brussels where he became a 
teacher of the clavecin; also was organist 
at the Royal Chapel (from 1744). He pub- 
lished two books of clavecin pieces (Brussels, 
1738; 1750); partial reprints are in volume 
V of 'Monumenta Musicae Belgicae' (Ant- 
werp, 1943), edited by Suzanne Clercx, with 
a biographical essay in Flemish and French. 

Bouvet (boo-va.'), Charles, French musi- 
cologist; b. Paris, Jan. 3, 1858; d. there 
May 22, 1935. He studied at the Paris 
Cons.; in 1903 founded a Bach Society; in 
1919 was appointed archivist at the Paris 
Opera; was general secretary of the French 
Musicological Society (1920-27). Writings: 
Les Couperin (Paris, 1919); L'Opera 
(1924); Massenet (1929). He was the edi- 
tor of works of Bonporti and Couperin; pre- 
pared for publication several collections of 
old French music. 

Bouzignac ( boo-ze-fiak' ) , Guillaume, French 
composer of early seventeenth century; bio- 
graphical data are lacking but several spec- 
imens of his music are extant. It is known 
that he was choir boy at Narbonne; in 1609 
was the 'maitre des enfants' at the Grenoble 
Cathedral. His creative period comprises the 
years 1610-40; he wrote a number of effect- 
ive ^ motets in the popular French style, 
distinguished by dramatic expression, as well 
as religious works. H. Quittard publ. several 
af these pieces in his paper Un musicien 
oublie _ du XVIP siecle in the 'Bulletin de 
la Societe Internationale de Musique' (Paris, 

Bovery (boh-vre'), Jules (real name An- 
:oine-Nicolas- Joseph Bovy), Belgian violinist 
md conductor; b. Liege, Oct. 21, 1808; d. 
Paris, July 17, 1868. He was employed in 
:heater orchestras in France and Holland; 
eventually settled in Paris. He was the au- 
:hor of several operettas and semi-popular 
nstrumental pieces in the salon style. 

1 Bovy, Charles-S